ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Max Tegmark - Scientist, author
Max Tegmark is driven by curiosity, both about how our universe works and about how we can use the science and technology we discover to help humanity flourish rather than flounder.

Why you should listen

Max Tegmark is an MIT professor who loves thinking about life's big questions. He's written two popular books, Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality and the recently published Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligenceas well as more than 200 nerdy technical papers on topics from cosmology to AI.

He writes: "In my spare time, I'm president of the Future of Life Institute, which aims to ensure that we develop not only technology but also the wisdom required to use it beneficially."

More profile about the speaker
Max Tegmark | Speaker | TED.com
TED2018

Max Tegmark: How to get empowered, not overpowered, by AI

Filmed:
1,105,659 views

Many artificial intelligence researchers expect AI to outsmart humans at all tasks and jobs within decades, enabling a future where we're restricted only by the laws of physics, not the limits of our intelligence. MIT physicist and AI researcher Max Tegmark separates the real opportunities and threats from the myths, describing the concrete steps we should take today to ensure that AI ends up being the best -- rather than worst -- thing to ever happen to humanity.
- Scientist, author
Max Tegmark is driven by curiosity, both about how our universe works and about how we can use the science and technology we discover to help humanity flourish rather than flounder. Full bio

Double-click the English transcript below to play the video.

00:12
After 13.8 billion years
of cosmic history,
0
760
4416
00:17
our universe has woken up
1
5200
2096
00:19
and become aware of itself.
2
7320
1520
00:21
From a small blue planet,
3
9480
1936
00:23
tiny, conscious parts of our universe
have begun gazing out into the cosmos
4
11440
4136
00:27
with telescopes,
5
15600
1376
00:29
discovering something humbling.
6
17000
1480
00:31
We've discovered that our universe
is vastly grander
7
19320
2896
00:34
than our ancestors imagined
8
22240
1336
00:35
and that life seems to be an almost
imperceptibly small perturbation
9
23600
4256
00:39
on an otherwise dead universe.
10
27880
1720
00:42
But we've also discovered
something inspiring,
11
30320
3016
00:45
which is that the technology
we're developing has the potential
12
33360
2976
00:48
to help life flourish like never before,
13
36360
2856
00:51
not just for centuries
but for billions of years,
14
39240
3096
00:54
and not just on earth but throughout
much of this amazing cosmos.
15
42360
4120
00:59
I think of the earliest life as "Life 1.0"
16
47680
3336
01:03
because it was really dumb,
17
51040
1376
01:04
like bacteria, unable to learn
anything during its lifetime.
18
52440
4296
01:08
I think of us humans as "Life 2.0"
because we can learn,
19
56760
3376
01:12
which we in nerdy, geek speak,
20
60160
1496
01:13
might think of as installing
new software into our brains,
21
61680
3216
01:16
like languages and job skills.
22
64920
2120
01:19
"Life 3.0," which can design not only
its software but also its hardware
23
67680
4296
01:24
of course doesn't exist yet.
24
72000
1656
01:25
But perhaps our technology
has already made us "Life 2.1,"
25
73680
3776
01:29
with our artificial knees,
pacemakers and cochlear implants.
26
77480
4336
01:33
So let's take a closer look
at our relationship with technology, OK?
27
81840
3880
01:38
As an example,
28
86800
1216
01:40
the Apollo 11 moon mission
was both successful and inspiring,
29
88040
5296
01:45
showing that when we humans
use technology wisely,
30
93360
3016
01:48
we can accomplish things
that our ancestors could only dream of.
31
96400
3936
01:52
But there's an even more inspiring journey
32
100360
2976
01:55
propelled by something
more powerful than rocket engines,
33
103360
2680
01:59
where the passengers
aren't just three astronauts
34
107200
2336
02:01
but all of humanity.
35
109560
1776
02:03
Let's talk about our collective
journey into the future
36
111360
2936
02:06
with artificial intelligence.
37
114320
2000
02:08
My friend Jaan Tallinn likes to point out
that just as with rocketry,
38
116960
4536
02:13
it's not enough to make
our technology powerful.
39
121520
3160
02:17
We also have to figure out,
if we're going to be really ambitious,
40
125560
3175
02:20
how to steer it
41
128759
1416
02:22
and where we want to go with it.
42
130199
1681
02:24
So let's talk about all three
for artificial intelligence:
43
132880
2840
02:28
the power, the steering
and the destination.
44
136440
3056
02:31
Let's start with the power.
45
139520
1286
02:33
I define intelligence very inclusively --
46
141600
3096
02:36
simply as our ability
to accomplish complex goals,
47
144720
4336
02:41
because I want to include both
biological and artificial intelligence.
48
149080
3816
02:44
And I want to avoid
the silly carbon-chauvinism idea
49
152920
4016
02:48
that you can only be smart
if you're made of meat.
50
156960
2360
02:52
It's really amazing how the power
of AI has grown recently.
51
160880
4176
02:57
Just think about it.
52
165080
1256
02:58
Not long ago, robots couldn't walk.
53
166360
3200
03:03
Now, they can do backflips.
54
171040
1720
03:06
Not long ago,
55
174080
1816
03:07
we didn't have self-driving cars.
56
175920
1760
03:10
Now, we have self-flying rockets.
57
178920
2480
03:15
Not long ago,
58
183960
1416
03:17
AI couldn't do face recognition.
59
185400
2616
03:20
Now, AI can generate fake faces
60
188040
2976
03:23
and simulate your face
saying stuff that you never said.
61
191040
4160
03:28
Not long ago,
62
196400
1576
03:30
AI couldn't beat us at the game of Go.
63
198000
1880
03:32
Then, Google DeepMind's AlphaZero AI
took 3,000 years of human Go games
64
200400
5096
03:37
and Go wisdom,
65
205520
1256
03:38
ignored it all and became the world's best
player by just playing against itself.
66
206800
4976
03:43
And the most impressive feat here
wasn't that it crushed human gamers,
67
211800
3696
03:47
but that it crushed human AI researchers
68
215520
2576
03:50
who had spent decades
handcrafting game-playing software.
69
218120
3680
03:54
And AlphaZero crushed human AI researchers
not just in Go but even at chess,
70
222200
4656
03:58
which we have been working on since 1950.
71
226880
2480
04:02
So all this amazing recent progress in AI
really begs the question:
72
230000
4240
04:07
How far will it go?
73
235280
1560
04:09
I like to think about this question
74
237800
1696
04:11
in terms of this abstract
landscape of tasks,
75
239520
2976
04:14
where the elevation represents
how hard it is for AI to do each task
76
242520
3456
04:18
at human level,
77
246000
1216
04:19
and the sea level represents
what AI can do today.
78
247240
2760
04:23
The sea level is rising
as AI improves,
79
251120
2056
04:25
so there's a kind of global warming
going on here in the task landscape.
80
253200
3440
04:30
And the obvious takeaway
is to avoid careers at the waterfront --
81
258040
3335
04:33
(Laughter)
82
261399
1257
04:34
which will soon be
automated and disrupted.
83
262680
2856
04:37
But there's a much
bigger question as well.
84
265560
2976
04:40
How high will the water end up rising?
85
268560
1810
04:43
Will it eventually rise
to flood everything,
86
271440
3200
04:47
matching human intelligence at all tasks.
87
275840
2496
04:50
This is the definition
of artificial general intelligence --
88
278360
3736
04:54
AGI,
89
282120
1296
04:55
which has been the holy grail
of AI research since its inception.
90
283440
3080
04:59
By this definition, people who say,
91
287000
1776
05:00
"Ah, there will always be jobs
that humans can do better than machines,"
92
288800
3416
05:04
are simply saying
that we'll never get AGI.
93
292240
2920
05:07
Sure, we might still choose
to have some human jobs
94
295680
3576
05:11
or to give humans income
and purpose with our jobs,
95
299280
3096
05:14
but AGI will in any case
transform life as we know it
96
302400
3736
05:18
with humans no longer being
the most intelligent.
97
306160
2736
05:20
Now, if the water level does reach AGI,
98
308920
3696
05:24
then further AI progress will be driven
mainly not by humans but by AI,
99
312640
5296
05:29
which means that there's a possibility
100
317960
1856
05:31
that further AI progress
could be way faster
101
319840
2336
05:34
than the typical human research
and development timescale of years,
102
322200
3376
05:37
raising the controversial possibility
of an intelligence explosion
103
325600
4016
05:41
where recursively self-improving AI
104
329640
2296
05:43
rapidly leaves human
intelligence far behind,
105
331960
3416
05:47
creating what's known
as superintelligence.
106
335400
2440
05:51
Alright, reality check:
107
339800
2280
05:55
Are we going to get AGI any time soon?
108
343120
2440
05:58
Some famous AI researchers,
like Rodney Brooks,
109
346360
2696
06:01
think it won't happen
for hundreds of years.
110
349080
2496
06:03
But others, like Google DeepMind
founder Demis Hassabis,
111
351600
3896
06:07
are more optimistic
112
355520
1256
06:08
and are working to try to make
it happen much sooner.
113
356800
2576
06:11
And recent surveys have shown
that most AI researchers
114
359400
3296
06:14
actually share Demis's optimism,
115
362720
2856
06:17
expecting that we will
get AGI within decades,
116
365600
3080
06:21
so within the lifetime of many of us,
117
369640
2256
06:23
which begs the question -- and then what?
118
371920
1960
06:27
What do we want the role of humans to be
119
375040
2216
06:29
if machines can do everything better
and cheaper than us?
120
377280
2680
06:35
The way I see it, we face a choice.
121
383000
2000
06:38
One option is to be complacent.
122
386000
1576
06:39
We can say, "Oh, let's just build machines
that can do everything we can do
123
387600
3776
06:43
and not worry about the consequences.
124
391400
1816
06:45
Come on, if we build technology
that makes all humans obsolete,
125
393240
3256
06:48
what could possibly go wrong?"
126
396520
2096
06:50
(Laughter)
127
398640
1656
06:52
But I think that would be
embarrassingly lame.
128
400320
2760
06:56
I think we should be more ambitious --
in the spirit of TED.
129
404080
3496
06:59
Let's envision a truly inspiring
high-tech future
130
407600
3496
07:03
and try to steer towards it.
131
411120
1400
07:05
This brings us to the second part
of our rocket metaphor: the steering.
132
413720
3536
07:09
We're making AI more powerful,
133
417280
1896
07:11
but how can we steer towards a future
134
419200
3816
07:15
where AI helps humanity flourish
rather than flounder?
135
423040
3080
07:18
To help with this,
136
426760
1256
07:20
I cofounded the Future of Life Institute.
137
428040
1976
07:22
It's a small nonprofit promoting
beneficial technology use,
138
430040
2776
07:24
and our goal is simply
for the future of life to exist
139
432840
2736
07:27
and to be as inspiring as possible.
140
435600
2056
07:29
You know, I love technology.
141
437680
3176
07:32
Technology is why today
is better than the Stone Age.
142
440880
2920
07:36
And I'm optimistic that we can create
a really inspiring high-tech future ...
143
444600
4080
07:41
if -- and this is a big if --
144
449680
1456
07:43
if we win the wisdom race --
145
451160
2456
07:45
the race between the growing
power of our technology
146
453640
2856
07:48
and the growing wisdom
with which we manage it.
147
456520
2200
07:51
But this is going to require
a change of strategy
148
459240
2296
07:53
because our old strategy
has been learning from mistakes.
149
461560
3040
07:57
We invented fire,
150
465280
1536
07:58
screwed up a bunch of times --
151
466840
1536
08:00
invented the fire extinguisher.
152
468400
1816
08:02
(Laughter)
153
470240
1336
08:03
We invented the car,
screwed up a bunch of times --
154
471600
2416
08:06
invented the traffic light,
the seat belt and the airbag,
155
474040
2667
08:08
but with more powerful technology
like nuclear weapons and AGI,
156
476731
3845
08:12
learning from mistakes
is a lousy strategy,
157
480600
3376
08:16
don't you think?
158
484000
1216
08:17
(Laughter)
159
485240
1016
08:18
It's much better to be proactive
rather than reactive;
160
486280
2576
08:20
plan ahead and get things
right the first time
161
488880
2296
08:23
because that might be
the only time we'll get.
162
491200
2496
08:25
But it is funny because
sometimes people tell me,
163
493720
2336
08:28
"Max, shhh, don't talk like that.
164
496080
2736
08:30
That's Luddite scaremongering."
165
498840
1720
08:34
But it's not scaremongering.
166
502040
1536
08:35
It's what we at MIT
call safety engineering.
167
503600
2880
08:39
Think about it:
168
507200
1216
08:40
before NASA launched
the Apollo 11 mission,
169
508440
2216
08:42
they systematically thought through
everything that could go wrong
170
510680
3136
08:45
when you put people
on top of explosive fuel tanks
171
513840
2376
08:48
and launch them somewhere
where no one could help them.
172
516240
2616
08:50
And there was a lot that could go wrong.
173
518880
1936
08:52
Was that scaremongering?
174
520840
1480
08:55
No.
175
523159
1217
08:56
That's was precisely
the safety engineering
176
524400
2016
08:58
that ensured the success of the mission,
177
526440
1936
09:00
and that is precisely the strategy
I think we should take with AGI.
178
528400
4176
09:04
Think through what can go wrong
to make sure it goes right.
179
532600
4056
09:08
So in this spirit,
we've organized conferences,
180
536680
2536
09:11
bringing together leading
AI researchers and other thinkers
181
539240
2816
09:14
to discuss how to grow this wisdom
we need to keep AI beneficial.
182
542080
3736
09:17
Our last conference
was in Asilomar, California last year
183
545840
3296
09:21
and produced this list of 23 principles
184
549160
3056
09:24
which have since been signed
by over 1,000 AI researchers
185
552240
2896
09:27
and key industry leaders,
186
555160
1296
09:28
and I want to tell you
about three of these principles.
187
556480
3176
09:31
One is that we should avoid an arms race
and lethal autonomous weapons.
188
559680
4960
09:37
The idea here is that any science
can be used for new ways of helping people
189
565480
3616
09:41
or new ways of harming people.
190
569120
1536
09:42
For example, biology and chemistry
are much more likely to be used
191
570680
3936
09:46
for new medicines or new cures
than for new ways of killing people,
192
574640
4856
09:51
because biologists
and chemists pushed hard --
193
579520
2176
09:53
and successfully --
194
581720
1256
09:55
for bans on biological
and chemical weapons.
195
583000
2176
09:57
And in the same spirit,
196
585200
1256
09:58
most AI researchers want to stigmatize
and ban lethal autonomous weapons.
197
586480
4440
10:03
Another Asilomar AI principle
198
591600
1816
10:05
is that we should mitigate
AI-fueled income inequality.
199
593440
3696
10:09
I think that if we can grow
the economic pie dramatically with AI
200
597160
4456
10:13
and we still can't figure out
how to divide this pie
201
601640
2456
10:16
so that everyone is better off,
202
604120
1576
10:17
then shame on us.
203
605720
1256
10:19
(Applause)
204
607000
4096
10:23
Alright, now raise your hand
if your computer has ever crashed.
205
611120
3600
10:27
(Laughter)
206
615480
1256
10:28
Wow, that's a lot of hands.
207
616760
1656
10:30
Well, then you'll appreciate
this principle
208
618440
2176
10:32
that we should invest much more
in AI safety research,
209
620640
3136
10:35
because as we put AI in charge
of even more decisions and infrastructure,
210
623800
3656
10:39
we need to figure out how to transform
today's buggy and hackable computers
211
627480
3616
10:43
into robust AI systems
that we can really trust,
212
631120
2416
10:45
because otherwise,
213
633560
1216
10:46
all this awesome new technology
can malfunction and harm us,
214
634800
2816
10:49
or get hacked and be turned against us.
215
637640
1976
10:51
And this AI safety work
has to include work on AI value alignment,
216
639640
5696
10:57
because the real threat
from AGI isn't malice,
217
645360
2816
11:00
like in silly Hollywood movies,
218
648200
1656
11:01
but competence --
219
649880
1736
11:03
AGI accomplishing goals
that just aren't aligned with ours.
220
651640
3416
11:07
For example, when we humans drove
the West African black rhino extinct,
221
655080
4736
11:11
we didn't do it because we were a bunch
of evil rhinoceros haters, did we?
222
659840
3896
11:15
We did it because
we were smarter than them
223
663760
2056
11:17
and our goals weren't aligned with theirs.
224
665840
2576
11:20
But AGI is by definition smarter than us,
225
668440
2656
11:23
so to make sure that we don't put
ourselves in the position of those rhinos
226
671120
3576
11:26
if we create AGI,
227
674720
1976
11:28
we need to figure out how
to make machines understand our goals,
228
676720
4176
11:32
adopt our goals and retain our goals.
229
680920
3160
11:37
And whose goals should these be, anyway?
230
685320
2856
11:40
Which goals should they be?
231
688200
1896
11:42
This brings us to the third part
of our rocket metaphor: the destination.
232
690120
3560
11:47
We're making AI more powerful,
233
695160
1856
11:49
trying to figure out how to steer it,
234
697040
1816
11:50
but where do we want to go with it?
235
698880
1680
11:53
This is the elephant in the room
that almost nobody talks about --
236
701760
3656
11:57
not even here at TED --
237
705440
1856
11:59
because we're so fixated
on short-term AI challenges.
238
707320
4080
12:04
Look, our species is trying to build AGI,
239
712080
4656
12:08
motivated by curiosity and economics,
240
716760
3496
12:12
but what sort of future society
are we hoping for if we succeed?
241
720280
3680
12:16
We did an opinion poll on this recently,
242
724680
1936
12:18
and I was struck to see
243
726640
1216
12:19
that most people actually
want us to build superintelligence:
244
727880
2896
12:22
AI that's vastly smarter
than us in all ways.
245
730800
3160
12:27
What there was the greatest agreement on
was that we should be ambitious
246
735120
3416
12:30
and help life spread into the cosmos,
247
738560
2016
12:32
but there was much less agreement
about who or what should be in charge.
248
740600
4496
12:37
And I was actually quite amused
249
745120
1736
12:38
to see that there's some some people
who want it to be just machines.
250
746880
3456
12:42
(Laughter)
251
750360
1696
12:44
And there was total disagreement
about what the role of humans should be,
252
752080
3856
12:47
even at the most basic level,
253
755960
1976
12:49
so let's take a closer look
at possible futures
254
757960
2816
12:52
that we might choose
to steer toward, alright?
255
760800
2736
12:55
So don't get be wrong here.
256
763560
1336
12:56
I'm not talking about space travel,
257
764920
2056
12:59
merely about humanity's
metaphorical journey into the future.
258
767000
3200
13:02
So one option that some
of my AI colleagues like
259
770920
3496
13:06
is to build superintelligence
and keep it under human control,
260
774440
3616
13:10
like an enslaved god,
261
778080
1736
13:11
disconnected from the internet
262
779840
1576
13:13
and used to create unimaginable
technology and wealth
263
781440
3256
13:16
for whoever controls it.
264
784720
1240
13:18
But Lord Acton warned us
265
786800
1456
13:20
that power corrupts,
and absolute power corrupts absolutely,
266
788280
3616
13:23
so you might worry that maybe
we humans just aren't smart enough,
267
791920
4056
13:28
or wise enough rather,
268
796000
1536
13:29
to handle this much power.
269
797560
1240
13:31
Also, aside from any
moral qualms you might have
270
799640
2536
13:34
about enslaving superior minds,
271
802200
2296
13:36
you might worry that maybe
the superintelligence could outsmart us,
272
804520
3976
13:40
break out and take over.
273
808520
2240
13:43
But I also have colleagues
who are fine with AI taking over
274
811560
3416
13:47
and even causing human extinction,
275
815000
2296
13:49
as long as we feel the the AIs
are our worthy descendants,
276
817320
3576
13:52
like our children.
277
820920
1736
13:54
But how would we know that the AIs
have adopted our best values
278
822680
5616
14:00
and aren't just unconscious zombies
tricking us into anthropomorphizing them?
279
828320
4376
14:04
Also, shouldn't those people
who don't want human extinction
280
832720
2856
14:07
have a say in the matter, too?
281
835600
1440
14:10
Now, if you didn't like either
of those two high-tech options,
282
838200
3376
14:13
it's important to remember
that low-tech is suicide
283
841600
3176
14:16
from a cosmic perspective,
284
844800
1256
14:18
because if we don't go far
beyond today's technology,
285
846080
2496
14:20
the question isn't whether humanity
is going to go extinct,
286
848600
2816
14:23
merely whether
we're going to get taken out
287
851440
2016
14:25
by the next killer asteroid, supervolcano
288
853480
2136
14:27
or some other problem
that better technology could have solved.
289
855640
3096
14:30
So, how about having
our cake and eating it ...
290
858760
3576
14:34
with AGI that's not enslaved
291
862360
1840
14:37
but treats us well because its values
are aligned with ours?
292
865120
3176
14:40
This is the gist of what Eliezer Yudkowsky
has called "friendly AI,"
293
868320
4176
14:44
and if we can do this,
it could be awesome.
294
872520
2680
14:47
It could not only eliminate negative
experiences like disease, poverty,
295
875840
4816
14:52
crime and other suffering,
296
880680
1456
14:54
but it could also give us
the freedom to choose
297
882160
2816
14:57
from a fantastic new diversity
of positive experiences --
298
885000
4056
15:01
basically making us
the masters of our own destiny.
299
889080
3160
15:06
So in summary,
300
894280
1376
15:07
our situation with technology
is complicated,
301
895680
3096
15:10
but the big picture is rather simple.
302
898800
2416
15:13
Most AI researchers
expect AGI within decades,
303
901240
3456
15:16
and if we just bumble
into this unprepared,
304
904720
3136
15:19
it will probably be
the biggest mistake in human history --
305
907880
3336
15:23
let's face it.
306
911240
1416
15:24
It could enable brutal,
global dictatorship
307
912680
2576
15:27
with unprecedented inequality,
surveillance and suffering,
308
915280
3536
15:30
and maybe even human extinction.
309
918840
1976
15:32
But if we steer carefully,
310
920840
2320
15:36
we could end up in a fantastic future
where everybody's better off:
311
924040
3896
15:39
the poor are richer, the rich are richer,
312
927960
2376
15:42
everybody is healthy
and free to live out their dreams.
313
930360
3960
15:47
Now, hang on.
314
935000
1536
15:48
Do you folks want the future
that's politically right or left?
315
936560
4576
15:53
Do you want the pious society
with strict moral rules,
316
941160
2856
15:56
or do you an hedonistic free-for-all,
317
944040
1816
15:57
more like Burning Man 24/7?
318
945880
2216
16:00
Do you want beautiful beaches,
forests and lakes,
319
948120
2416
16:02
or would you prefer to rearrange
some of those atoms with the computers,
320
950560
3416
16:06
enabling virtual experiences?
321
954000
1715
16:07
With friendly AI, we could simply
build all of these societies
322
955739
3157
16:10
and give people the freedom
to choose which one they want to live in
323
958920
3216
16:14
because we would no longer
be limited by our intelligence,
324
962160
3096
16:17
merely by the laws of physics.
325
965280
1456
16:18
So the resources and space
for this would be astronomical --
326
966760
4616
16:23
literally.
327
971400
1320
16:25
So here's our choice.
328
973320
1200
16:27
We can either be complacent
about our future,
329
975880
2320
16:31
taking as an article of blind faith
330
979440
2656
16:34
that any new technology
is guaranteed to be beneficial,
331
982120
4016
16:38
and just repeat that to ourselves
as a mantra over and over and over again
332
986160
4136
16:42
as we drift like a rudderless ship
towards our own obsolescence.
333
990320
3680
16:46
Or we can be ambitious --
334
994920
1880
16:49
thinking hard about how
to steer our technology
335
997840
2456
16:52
and where we want to go with it
336
1000320
1936
16:54
to create the age of amazement.
337
1002280
1760
16:57
We're all here to celebrate
the age of amazement,
338
1005000
2856
16:59
and I feel that its essence should lie
in becoming not overpowered
339
1007880
4440
17:05
but empowered by our technology.
340
1013240
2616
17:07
Thank you.
341
1015880
1376
17:09
(Applause)
342
1017280
3080

▲Back to top

ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Max Tegmark - Scientist, author
Max Tegmark is driven by curiosity, both about how our universe works and about how we can use the science and technology we discover to help humanity flourish rather than flounder.

Why you should listen

Max Tegmark is an MIT professor who loves thinking about life's big questions. He's written two popular books, Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality and the recently published Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligenceas well as more than 200 nerdy technical papers on topics from cosmology to AI.

He writes: "In my spare time, I'm president of the Future of Life Institute, which aims to ensure that we develop not only technology but also the wisdom required to use it beneficially."

More profile about the speaker
Max Tegmark | Speaker | TED.com