Daniel Streicker: What vaccinating vampire bats can teach us about pandemics
Daniel Streicker investigates how everyday killer pathogens can provide insight into future outbreaks of infectious disease. Full bio
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to tell you today,
about an outbreak of mysterious illness
rainforest of Peru.
from this illness,
people was a virus,
never before seen by science.
of an ancient killer,
was that as they slept,
that lives exclusively on a diet of blood:
that jump from bats into people,
in the last couple of decades.
and spread globally.
was eventually traced back to bats,
undetected, for centuries.
showing up in West Africa,
to the science at the time,
to be in West Africa.
and most widespread Ebola outbreak
where we can't really expect them,
after the next viral emergency
after they've already started.
about what we can do about it.
Ebola to happen,
outwits our vaccines,
want to anticipate --
that is a good thing --
it's a little bit of a problem.
happens just once or twice,
to find any patterns.
or where the next pandemic might strike.
we may have is to study some viruses
animals into people,
to cause pandemics.
those everyday killer viruses
from one species to the next,
between species more rarely
virus in this case.
and you don't get treated early,
a problem of the past either.
50 to 60,000 people every year.
仍能杀死 5 - 6 万人。
Ebola outbreak --
that died in that outbreak
with rabies every single year.
from a virus like Ebola
a person gets rabies,
by a rabid animal,
but so rare for most viruses,
happening by the thousands.
is almost like the fruit fly
and study to find patterns
about that outbreak of rabies
from bats into other animals
be able to anticipate it ...
of my high school Spanish class,
and flew off to Peru,
of this project were really tough.
to rid Latin America of rabies,
supply of mudslides and flat tires,
all stopping me.
might actually have some real impact
at a village and ask around.
by a bat lately?"
is an everyday occurrence,
was go to the right house,
to fly in and feed on human blood.
on his head or blood stains on his sheets,
or physical headache
all night long, though,
how I might actually solve this problem,
that there were two burning questions.
that people are bitten all the time,
aren't happening all the time --
maybe even every decade,
when and where the next outbreak would be,
people ahead of time,
is really just a Band-Aid.
and we have to do it,
how many people we vaccinate,
amount of rabies up there in the bats.
hasn't changed at all.
cut the virus off at its source?
of rabies in the bats themselves,
to one based on prevention.
we needed to understand
in its natural host --
for any infectious disease,
species like bats,
was looking at some historical data.
happened in the past?
that rabies was a virus
for a year, maybe two,
to infect somewhere else,
of the rabies transmission challenge.
with a virus on the move,
where it was going.
more of a Google Maps-style prediction,
the destination of the virus?
to take to get there?
to the genomes of rabies.
has a tiny little genome,
really, really quickly.
has moved from one point to the next,
a couple of new mutations.
is kind of connect the dots
where the virus has been in the past
you get rabies viruses.
from the viruses in those cow brains,
传播 10-20 英里的病毒。
between 10 and 20 miles each year.
the speed limit of the virus,
of where is it going in the first place.
a little bit more like a bat,
how far to fly and how often to fly.
all that far with this
that we first tried putting on bats.
the information we needed.
to the mating patterns of bats.
of the bat genome,
groups of bats were mating with each other
the trail laid out by the bat genomes.
as being a little bit surprising --
straight over the Peruvian Andes,
to the Pacific coast,
about 22,000 feet,
for a vampire to fly.
that was not quite too tall
to be mating with each other.
spreading through those valleys,
models had predicated it would be.
kind of an important thing
on the western slopes of the Andes,
of South America,
in real time, a historical first invasion
thing we can do is tell people:
vaccinate your animals;
if we could use that new information
from arriving altogether.
"Don't fly today,"
from hitching a ride along with the bat.
that we have learned
all around the world,
is the only thing that stops rabies.
and cats all the time,
about vaccinating bats.
already have edible rabies vaccines
can actually spread from bat to bat.
of grooming each other
millions of bats one by one
doesn't mean we know how to use it.
list of questions.
do we need to be vaccinating?
do we need to be vaccinating?
that are really fundamental
of vaccination campaign,
that we can't answer in the laboratory.
a slightly more colorful approach.
but fake vaccines.
bats when they bump into each other,
how well a real vaccine might spread
phases of this work,
are incredibly encouraging.
the vaccines that we already have,
the size of rabies outbreaks.
has to be on the move,
the size of an outbreak,
onto the next colony.
in the chain of transmission.
one step closer to extinction.
of a world in the not-too-distant future
about getting rid of rabies altogether,
encouraging and exciting.
solution to this problem,
have left me pretty optimistic about it.
to forecast outbreaks
viruses at their source
to jump into people.
one step ahead.
that we can do that
that we already have now,
might use a flight simulator,
ABOUT THE SPEAKERDaniel Streicker - Animal-borne disease researcher
Daniel Streicker investigates how everyday killer pathogens can provide insight into future outbreaks of infectious disease.
Why you should listen
Daniel Streicker uses ecology and evolution to reveal, anticipate and prevent infectious disease transmission between species. His research uses a range of approaches including longitudinal field studies in wild bats, phylodynamics, machine learning, metagenomicsand epidemiological modeling. In Peru, Streicker uses bat and virus genetics to connect bats' movements with the spread of rabies virus. With this technique, he and his team are able to forecast outbreaks before they begin, providing valuable lead times for governments to take preventative actions, such as vaccinating humans and livestock ahead of outbreaks.
Streicker is a Wellcome Trust senior research fellow and head of the Streicker Group at the University of Glasgow Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine and the MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research.
Daniel Streicker | Speaker | TED.com