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TEDGlobal 2013

Molly Stevens: A new way to grow bone

茉莉.史蒂文斯(Molly Stevens): 讓骨骼重生的新方法

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要如何才能讓骨骼大量重生呢?一般的骨骼再生--把骨骼從病人的髖部取出並移植到其它部位的受損骨骼--是有條件限制的,也會在術後數年內讓病人疼痛不堪。茉莉.史蒂文斯介紹了幹細胞的一種新應用,它駕馭了骨骼先天的再生能力使其大量再生--而且不會痛。

- Biomaterials researcher
Molly Stevens studies and creates new biomaterials that could be used to detect disease and repair bones and human tissue. Full bio

As humans人類, it's in our nature性質
身為人,想要增進健康以及
00:12
to want to improve提高 our health健康
and minimize最小化 our suffering痛苦.
減少痛苦是我們的天性。
00:14
Whatever隨你 life throws at us,
不論我們在生命中得到了什麼,
00:17
whether是否 it's cancer癌症, diabetes糖尿病, heart disease疾病,
不管是癌症、糖尿病、心臟病,
00:19
or even broken破碎 bones骨頭, we want to try and get better.
或甚至是骨折,我們都想要試著好起來。
00:21
Now I'm head of a biomaterials生物材料 lab實驗室,
我現在是一間
生物材料實驗室的主持人,
00:24
and I'm really fascinated入迷 by the way that humans人類
我對於人類自古以來,
00:27
have used materials物料 in really creative創作的 ways方法
在體內所使用的材料方面的創意
00:30
in the body身體 over time.
感到相當驚訝。
00:32
Take, for example, this beautiful美麗 blue藍色 nacre珍珠母 shell貝殼.
例如這個珍珠貝漂亮的殼,
00:35
This was actually其實 used by the Mayans瑪雅人
它曾經被馬雅人
00:38
as an artificial人造 tooth replacement替代.
用來當做人工的牙齒替代品。
00:40
We're not quite相當 sure why they did it.
我們並不清楚他們為什麼這麼做,
00:44
It's hard. It's durable耐用.
它很硬,也很耐用,
00:45
But it also had other very nice不錯 properties性能.
但是它也有其它很棒的特性。
00:48
In fact事實, when they put it into the jawbone顎骨,
事實上,當它們被放到頜骨裡面,
00:52
it could integrate整合 into the jaw,
可能會和骨頭合而為一。
00:54
and we know now with very sophisticated複雜的
先進的影像技術顯示,
00:57
imaging成像 technologies技術
兩者相融的一部分原因
00:59
that part部分 of that integration積分 comes from the fact事實
來自於這種材料的
01:01
that this material材料 is designed設計
特殊之處。
01:03
in a very specific具體 way, has a beautiful美麗 chemistry化學,
不論在結構上
01:05
has a beautiful美麗 architecture建築.
或是化學上都是如此。
01:08
And I think in many許多 ways方法 we can sort分類 of think
我認為在某些程度上,
01:10
of the use of the blue藍色 nacre珍珠母 shell貝殼 and the Mayans瑪雅人
用了藍珍珠貝的馬雅人
01:12
as the first real真實 application應用
是藍牙技術的
01:15
of the bluetooth藍牙 technology技術.
先驅。
01:16
(Laughter笑聲)
(笑聲)
01:19
But if we move移動 on and think throughout始終 history歷史
如果我們觀察歷史上
01:20
how people have used different不同
materials物料 in the body身體,
人類是如何將不同的材料運用在身體上,
01:25
very often經常 it's been physicians醫師
就會發現這些傑作常常
01:28
that have been quite相當 creative創作的.
來自富有創意的醫師。
01:29
They've他們已經 taken採取 things off the shelf.
他們時常創新。
01:31
One of my favorite喜愛 examples例子
我最喜歡的一個例子
01:33
is that of Sir先生 Harold哈羅德 Ridley雷德利,
是關於 Harold Ridley 爵士。
01:35
who was a famous著名 ophthalmologist眼科醫生,
他是一位有名的眼科醫師,
01:38
or at least最小 became成為 a famous著名 ophthalmologist眼科醫生.
或至少成為了一位有名的眼科醫師。
01:40
And during World世界 War戰爭 IIII, what he would see
二次大戰期間,
01:42
would be pilots飛行員 coming未來 back from their missions任務,
他見到從任務結束后歸來的飛行員。
01:44
and he noticed注意到 that within their eyes眼睛
他注意到這些飛行員的眼睛裡
01:47
they had shards碎片 of small bits of material材料
卡了碎片,或是
01:49
lodged提交 within the eye,
其它的小東西。
01:52
but the very interesting有趣 thing about it
但是有趣的是
01:53
was that material材料, actually其實, wasn't causing造成
這些東西並沒有
01:55
any inflammatory發炎的 response響應.
引起任何的發炎反應。
01:57
So he looked看著 into this, and he figured想通 out
因此他仔細的調查了這件事,
01:59
that actually其實 that material材料 was little shards碎片 of plastic塑料
他發現這些塑膠碎片
02:02
that were coming未來 from the canopy華蓋 of the Spitfires噴火.
其實是來自噴火式戰機的座艙蓋。
02:04
And this led him to propose提出 that material材料
這讓他提出使用這種物質
02:07
as a new material材料 for intraocular lenses鏡頭.
來製作新型人工水晶體。
02:10
It's called PMMAPMMA, and it's now used
這種物質叫做 PMMA,它現在每年
02:12
in millions百萬 of people every一切 year
幫助數百萬人
02:14
and helps幫助 in preventing防止 cataracts白內障.
免於罹患白內障。
02:16
And that example, I think, is a really nice不錯 one,
我認為這個例子非常非常棒,
02:19
because it helps幫助 remind提醒 us that in the early days,
因為它提醒了我們,
02:21
people often經常 chose選擇 materials物料
從前的人們總是根據生物惰性
02:24
because they were bioinert生物惰性.
來選擇材料,
02:26
Their very purpose目的 was to
perform演出 a mechanical機械 function功能.
它們的唯一目的
就是進行機械的功能;
02:28
You'd put them in the body身體
你會把它們放進身體裡,
02:31
and you wouldn't不會 get an adverse不利的 response響應.
而且不希望身體產生不良反應。
02:33
And what I want to show顯示 you is that
我想要展示給你們看的是
02:35
in regenerative再生 medicine醫學,
在再生醫學中,
02:36
we've我們已經 really shifted away from that idea理念
我們並非一如往常地
02:38
of taking服用 a bioinert生物惰性 material材料.
選擇生物惰性材料。
02:40
We're actually其實 actively積極地 looking for materials物料
事實上我們積極地尋找
02:41
that will be bioactive生物活性, that will interact相互作用 with the body身體,
會和身體產生反應的生物活性材料,
02:44
and that furthermore此外 we can put in the body身體,
而且當我們把它們放到身體裡。
02:47
they'll他們會 have their function功能,
它們會執行功能,
02:49
and then they'll他們會 dissolve溶解 away over time.
然後會隨著時間被分解掉,
02:51
If we look at this schematic概要,
當我們仔細思考這個概念,
02:55
this is showing展示 you what we think of
這是在告訴你們,
02:57
as the typical典型 tissue-engineering組織工程 approach途徑.
我們心目中典型的生物工程技術。
02:59
We have cells細胞 there, typically一般 from the patient患者.
我們有些細胞基本上是來自病人,
03:01
We can put those onto a material材料,
我們能夠把這些細胞放到材料上,
03:04
and we can make that material材料
very complex複雜 if we want to,
如果想要的話,我們也
可以把這些材料做得很複雜,
03:05
and we can then grow增長 that up in the lab實驗室
然後我們在實驗室裡培養這些細胞,
03:08
or we can put it straight直行 back into the patient患者.
或者直接放回病患體內。
03:10
And this is an approach途徑 that's
used all over the world世界,
這項技術在全世界被使用,
03:13
including包含 in our lab實驗室.
包括我們的實驗室。
03:15
But one of the things that's really important重要
但是最重要的一件事情是:
03:19
when we're thinking思維 about stem cells細胞
當我們講到幹細胞時,
03:21
is that obviously明顯 stem cells細胞
can be many許多 different不同 things,
顯然它們能夠做到很多事,
03:23
and they want to be many許多 different不同 things,
它們也想做很多事,
03:26
and so we want to make sure that the environment環境
所以要確保我們讓它們生長的環境
03:28
we put them into has enough足夠 information信息
擁有足夠的訊息。
03:29
so that they can become成為 the right sort分類
使幹細胞特化成為
03:32
of specialist專家 tissue組織.
正確的組織。
03:34
And if we think about the different不同 types類型 of tissues組織
人們在世界各地的實驗室裡尋找
03:36
that people are looking at regenerating再生
各式各樣
03:40
all over the world世界, in all the
different不同 labs實驗室 in the world世界,
擁有再生能力的組織,
03:42
there's pretty漂亮 much every一切 tissue組織 you can think of.
你所能想的到的各種組織都有,
03:44
And actually其實, the structure結構體 of those tissues組織
而且事實上這些組織之間
03:47
is quite相當 different不同, and it's going to really depend依靠
有很大的差異,
03:48
on whether是否 your patient患者 has any underlying底層 disease疾病,
也基於病人是否擁有相關疾病,
03:51
other conditions條件, in terms條款 of how
或是其它的條件來決定。
03:53
you're going to regenerate再生 your tissue組織,
要如何讓組織再生,
03:56
and you're going to need to think about the materials物料
也要謹慎選擇材料
03:58
you're going to use really carefully小心,
和使用材料;
04:00
their biochemistry生物化學, their mechanics機械學,
要考慮到這些材料的生化、機械
04:02
and many許多 other properties性能 as well.
以及其它的特性。
04:04
Our tissues組織 all have very
different不同 abilities能力 to regenerate再生,
我們所有的組織再生的能力迥異,
04:08
and here we see poor較差的 Prometheus普羅米修斯,
就像是可憐的普羅米修斯,
04:11
who made製作 a rather tricky狡猾 career事業 choice選擇
因為他一個狡猾的生涯決定
04:13
and was punished處罰 by the Greek希臘語 gods.
而被希臘諸神所懲罰。
04:16
He was tied to a rock, and an eagle would come
他被綁在一塊石頭上,每天都會有一隻老鷹
04:19
every一切 day to eat his liver.
來啄食他的肝臟。
04:21
But of course課程 his liver would regenerate再生 every一切 day,
當然他的肝臟每天都會長回來,
04:23
and so day after day he was punished處罰
所以諸神的懲罰日復一日
04:25
for eternity永恆 by the gods.
直到永遠。
04:27
And liver will regenerate再生 in this very nice不錯 way,
肝臟有很強的再生能力,
04:33
but actually其實 if we think of other tissues組織,
但是其它的組織就不一樣了,
04:37
like cartilage軟骨, for example,
以軟骨來說,
04:39
even the simplest簡單 nick缺口 and you're going to find it
即使是一個小缺損
04:40
really difficult to regenerate再生 your cartilage軟骨.
也很難長回來。
04:42
So it's going to be very different不同 from tissue組織 to tissue組織.
所以組織之間有很大的差異。
04:45
Now, bone is somewhere某處 in between之間,
好,骨骼介於兩者之間,
04:48
and this is one of the tissues組織
that we work on a lot in our lab實驗室.
也是我們實驗室努力研究的對象。
04:51
And bone is actually其實 quite相當 good at repairing修復.
其實骨骼也很善於修補。
04:54
It has to be. We've我們已經 probably大概 all had fractures骨折
它必須如此。我們可能
04:56
at some point or other.
都曾經經歷過骨折,
04:58
And one of the ways方法 that you can think
有一種你可能想像得到的
04:59
about repairing修復 your fracture斷裂
修補骨折的方法,
05:02
is this procedure程序 here, called
an iliac crest波峰 harvest收成.
叫做髂嵴修補法。
05:03
And what the surgeon外科醫生 might威力 do
外科醫師會做的
05:06
is take some bone from your iliac crest波峰,
是取出髂嵴的部分骨骼,
05:08
which哪一個 is just here,
就像這樣,
05:11
and then transplant移植 that
somewhere某處 else其他 in the body身體.
然後移植到身體的其它部位。
05:12
And it actually其實 works作品 really well,
這真的相當有效,
05:15
because it's your own擁有 bone,
因為它是你自己的骨頭,
05:16
and it's well vascularized血管,
同時也具有完整的血管系統,
05:18
which哪一個 means手段 it's got a really good blood血液 supply供應.
也就是說它能得到充足的血液供應。
05:19
But the problem問題 is, there's
only so much you can take,
但是問題在於
你能取出的骨骼很有限,
05:22
and also when you do that operation手術,
而且在你進行手術之後兩年內,
05:24
your patients耐心 might威力 actually其實 have significant重大 pain疼痛
手術部位可能
05:27
in that defect缺陷 site現場 even two
years年份 after the operation手術.
會讓病人感到相當痛苦。
05:30
So what we were thinking思維 is,
所以我們在思考的是,
05:33
there's a tremendous巨大 need
for bone repair修理, of course課程,
當然,骨骼的修復是很重要的,
05:35
but this iliac crest-type波峰型 approach途徑
但是這種髂嵴修補法
05:38
really has a lot of limitations限制 to it,
有很多限制,
05:41
and could we perhaps也許 recreate重建
我們能夠想出一種方法
05:43
the generation of bone within the body身體
讓骨頭在身體裡面再生
05:45
on demand需求 and then be able能夠 to transplant移植 it
並且能夠移植它
05:47
without these very, very painful痛苦 aftereffects後遺症
同時避免像是髂嵴修補法產生的
05:51
that you would have with the iliac crest波峰 harvest收成?
劇烈疼痛等後遺症嗎?
05:56
And so this is what we did, and the way we did it
我們做到了,我們用的方法又回到
典型的組織工程法
05:59
was by coming未來 back to this typical典型 tissue-engineering組織工程 approach途徑
我們做到了,我們用的方法
又回到典型的組織工程法,
06:02
but actually其實 thinking思維 about it rather differently不同.
但是卻有不同的思路。
06:05
And we simplified it a lot,
我們也把它簡化了很多,
06:08
so we got rid擺脫 of a lot of these steps腳步.
所以可以省略很多步驟。
06:10
We got rid擺脫 of the need to
harvest收成 cells細胞 from the patient患者,
我們省略了從病人體內取出細胞的步驟,
06:12
we got rid擺脫 of the need to put
in really fancy幻想 chemistries化學品,
省略了把細胞放進
令人眼花繚亂的化學物質
06:14
and we got rid擺脫 of the need
也省略了
06:17
to culture文化 these scaffolds支架 in the lab實驗室.
在實驗室裡培養這些組織的架構。
06:19
And what we really focused重點 on
我們著重在於
06:21
was our material材料 system系統 and making製造 it quite相當 simple簡單,
簡化材料系統,
06:24
but because we used it in a really clever聰明 way,
這樣的巧思,
06:27
we were able能夠 to generate生成 enormous巨大 amounts of bone
讓我們能夠通過這種方法
06:30
using運用 this approach途徑.
作出大量的骨骼。
06:32
So we were using運用 the body身體
我們把身體
06:34
as really the catalyst催化劑 to help us
當做催化劑,
06:36
to make lots of new bone.
幫我們做出很多的新骨骼。
06:38
And it's an approach途徑 that we call
我們把這樣的方法
06:40
the in vivo體內 bioreactor生物反應器, and we were able能夠 to make
叫做體內生物反應器,利用這樣的方法
06:42
enormous巨大 amounts of bone using運用 this approach途徑.
我們能作出大量的骨骼。
06:45
And I'll talk you through通過 this.
我現在詳細說明給你們聽。
06:47
So what we do is,
我們是這樣做的,
06:49
in humans人類, we all have a layer of stem cells細胞
在人類的長骨外面
06:51
on the outside of our long bones骨頭.
有一層幹細胞。
06:53
That layer is called the periosteum骨膜.
叫做骨膜。
06:55
And that layer is actually其實 normally一般
這層細胞通常會
非常非常緊密的和
06:57
very, very tightly緊緊 bound to the underlying底層 bone,
下面的骨頭結合,
06:59
and it's got stem cells細胞 in it.
幹細胞就位在其中
07:02
Those stem cells細胞 are really important重要
這些幹細胞
07:03
in the embryo when it develops發展,
對胚胎發育很重要,
07:05
and they also sort分類 of wake喚醒 up if you have a fracture斷裂
而它們在你骨折的時候就像被喚醒了一樣
07:07
to help you with repairing修復 the bone.
幫助你修補骨頭。
07:09
So we take that periosteum骨膜 layer
我們發展出了一種注射法,
07:12
and we developed發達 a way to inject注入 underneath it
在鼓膜底下
07:14
a liquid液體 that then, within 30 seconds,
注射一種液體,
07:17
would turn into quite相當 a rigid死板 gel凝膠
30 秒之內液體就會硬化成膠狀
07:20
and can actually其實 lift電梯 the
periosteum骨膜 away from the bone.
會把骨膜剝離骨骼
07:21
So it creates創建, in essence本質, an artificial人造 cavity空穴
實際上,它在骨頭
跟帶有很多幹細胞的這層膜之間
07:25
that is right next下一個 to both the bone
製造了一個人工腔室,
07:28
but also this really rich豐富 layer of stem cells細胞.
但同時含有豐富的幹細胞。
07:32
And we go in through通過 a pinhole針孔 incision切口
然後我們會從一個
針孔般的切口進入,
07:36
so that no other cells細胞 from the body身體 can get in,
所以身體的其它細胞不會跑進去,
07:37
and what happens發生 is that that
artificial人造 in vivo體內 bioreactor生物反應器 cavity空穴
這個人工體內生物反應器
07:40
can then lead to the proliferation增殖 of these stem cells細胞,
能夠讓這些幹細胞增殖,
07:45
and they can form形成 lots of new tissue組織,
然後它們就可以變成很多新組織,
07:48
and then over time, you can harvest收成 that tissue組織
一段時間過後你就能收集這些細胞
07:50
and use it elsewhere別處 in the body身體.
並用在身體的其他部位。
07:52
This is a histology組織學 slide滑動
這是我們做這件事當時的
07:55
of what we see when we do that,
組織切片,
07:57
and essentially實質上 what we see
我們所看到的基本上
07:59
is very large amounts of bone.
就是很多的骨骼。
08:02
So in this picture圖片, you can see the middle中間 of the leg,
在這張圖片裡面,你能看到腿的中段,
08:03
so the bone marrow骨髓,
這是骨髓,
08:06
then you can see the original原版的 bone,
然後你可以看到原來的骨頭,
08:07
and you can see where that original原版的 bone finishes飾面,
原本的骨頭到這裡為止,
08:09
and just to the left of that is the new bone
左邊的是在這個
08:12
that's grown長大的 within that bioreactor生物反應器 cavity空穴,
是在生物反應器裡面長出的新骨頭
08:15
and you can actually其實 make it even larger.
你也可以讓它長得更大
08:17
And that demarcation劃界 that you can see
在原來的和新的骨頭之間
08:19
between之間 the original原版的 bone and the new bone
的界線
08:22
acts行為 as a very slight輕微 point of weakness弱點,
有著非常微小的脆弱點,
08:24
so actually其實 now the surgeon外科醫生 can come along沿,
外科醫師現在就可以過來
08:26
can harvest收成 away that new bone,
將新的骨骼取走,
08:28
and the periosteum骨膜 can grow增長 back,
然後骨膜會長回去,
08:30
so you're left with the leg
你的腿
08:32
in the same相同 sort分類 of state
在這樣的情況下
08:34
as if you hadn't有沒有 operated操作 on it in the first place地點.
就像沒做過任何事一樣。
08:36
So it's very, very low in terms條款 of after-pain後疼痛
所以和髂嵴修補法相比之下,
08:38
compared相比 to an iliac crest波峰 harvest收成.
術後幾乎可以說是完全沒有疼痛感。
08:42
And you can grow增長 different不同 amounts of bone
你可以借由調整注射膠的量來
08:45
depending根據 on how much gel凝膠 you put in there,
製造出不同量的骨頭,
08:48
so it really is an on demand需求 sort分類 of procedure程序.
所以這個技術確實可以量身訂做。
08:50
Now, at the time that we did this,
好,我們做這個計劃時
08:53
this received收到 a lot of attention注意 in the press,
這項技術受到了媒體的大量關注,
08:55
because it was a really nice不錯 way
因為這是
08:58
of generating發電 new bone,
製造新骨骼很棒的方法,
09:01
and we got many許多, many許多 contacts往來
也有很多人跟我們聯絡,
09:02
from different不同 people that
were interested有興趣 in using運用 this.
他們對這種方法非常有興趣。
09:04
And I'm just going to tell you,
我要讓你們知道的是,
09:07
sometimes有時 those contacts往來 are very strange奇怪,
有時候這些和我們聯絡的人很奇怪,
09:09
slightly unexpected意外,
甚至有點出乎意料,
09:12
and the very most interesting有趣,
我所遇過的
09:13
let me put it that way, contact聯繫 that I had,
最有趣的的聯絡人
09:16
was actually其實 from a team球隊 of American美國 footballers足球運動員
是美式足球隊員。
09:19
that all wanted to have double-thickness雙厚度 skulls頭骨
他們想要有
09:22
made製作 on their head.
兩倍厚的頭骨。
09:25
And so you do get these kinds of contacts往來,
就是這樣的一些人
09:30
and of course課程, being存在 British英國的
當然囉,身為一個英國人
09:32
and also growing生長 up in France法國,
並且在法國長大,
09:35
I tend趨向 to be very blunt,
我必須試著很客氣
09:37
and so I had to explain說明 to them very nicely很好
向他們解釋
09:39
that in their particular特定 case案件,
這裡實在是沒有太多東西需要被保護,
09:41
there probably大概 wasn't that much in there
因為
09:42
to protect保護 in the first place地點.
首先沒有足夠的材料去保護他們。
09:44
(Laughter笑聲)
(笑聲)
09:47
(Applause掌聲)
(掌聲)
09:49
So this was our approach途徑,
這就是我們所用的方法,
09:50
and it was simple簡單 materials物料,
材料非常簡單,
09:52
but we thought about it carefully小心.
但是我們深思熟慮。
09:54
And actually其實 we know that those cells細胞
我們也確實知道這些
在身體裡、在胚胎裡的細胞
09:56
in the body身體, in the embryo, as they develop發展
當它們發育之後
09:57
can form形成 a different不同 kind of tissue組織, cartilage軟骨,
能變成不同的組織,像是軟骨,
09:59
and so we developed發達 a gel凝膠 that was slightly different不同
因此我們法展出了一種膠,
10:03
in nature性質 and slightly different不同 chemistry化學,
這種膠和自然存在的不太一樣,
化學性質也不甚相同,
10:05
put it in there, and we were able能夠 to get
注射進去之後,
10:08
100 percent百分 cartilage軟骨 instead代替.
我們反而會得到百分之百的軟骨。
10:10
And this approach途徑 works作品 really well, I think,
我認為這項技術
10:12
for pre-planned預先計劃 procedures程序,
對於有事先規劃的療程非常實用,
10:14
but it's something you do have to pre-plan預案.
但是你必須要事先規劃好。
10:16
So for other kinds of operations操作,
因此,對於其他手術來說
10:19
there's definitely無疑 a need for other
有架構的方法
10:22
scaffold-based支架為主 approaches方法.
是絕對必須的。
10:23
And when you think about designing設計
當你想要設計
10:26
those other scaffolds支架, actually其實,
其他的架構時,實際上,
10:28
you need a really multi-disciplinary多學科 team球隊.
你需要有一個全方位的團隊。
10:30
And so our team球隊 has chemists化學家,
所以我們的團隊有化學家
10:32
it has cell細胞 biologists生物學家, surgeons外科醫生, physicists物理學家 even,
細胞生物學家、外科醫師,甚至是物理學家
10:34
and those people all come together一起
這些人聚在一起,
10:37
and we think really hard about
designing設計 the materials物料.
絞盡腦汁才設計出這些材料。
10:39
But we want to make them have enough足夠 information信息
我們希望讓他們獲得充足的資訊,
10:42
that we can get the cells細胞 to do what we want,
讓細胞做到我們期望的,
10:45
but not be so complex複雜 as to make it difficult
但是不能過於複雜而難以
10:47
to get to clinic診所.
應用在臨床上。
10:49
And so one of the things we think about a lot
因此我們想到了
10:51
is really trying to understand理解
要了解人
10:54
the structure結構體 of the tissues組織 in the body身體.
人體內組織的結構,
10:55
And so if we think of bone,
當我們想到骨骼
10:58
obviously明顯 my own擁有 favorite喜愛 tissue組織,
顯然是我最喜歡的組織,
11:00
we zoom放大 in, we can see,
放大來看,
11:02
even if you don't know anything
about bone structure結構體,
既使你對它一無所知,
11:04
it's beautifully精美 organized有組織的,
really beautifully精美 organized有組織的.
也會看到它是有組織的,非常有組織。
11:06
We've我們已經 lots of blood血液 vessels船隻 in there.
裡面有非常多的血管,
11:08
And if we zoom放大 in again, we see that the cells細胞
如果再放大來看,會看到細胞是被
11:10
are actually其實 surrounded包圍 by a 3D matrix矩陣
奈米等級的纖維形成的 3D 結構包圍,
11:12
of nano-scale納米級 fibers纖維, and they give a lot
這些纖維會
11:15
of information信息 to the cells細胞.
提供細胞很多訊息。
11:17
And if we zoom放大 in again,
再放大,在骨頭的例子中
11:20
actually其實 in the case案件 of bone, the matrix矩陣
包圍細胞的胞外物質,
11:21
around the cells細胞 is beautifully精美 organized有組織的
形成了非常有組織
11:23
at the nano納米 scale規模, and it's a hybrid混合動力 material材料
的奈米結構,
11:26
that's part部分 organic有機, part部分 inorganic無機.
同時也是兼具有機與無機的結構。
11:28
And that's led to a whole整個 field領域, really,
那是這個領域的根本,
11:31
that has looked看著 at developing發展 materials物料
也讓我們想到要發展
11:33
that have this hybrid混合動力 kind of structure結構體.
兼具有機與無機的材料。
11:35
And so I'm showing展示 here just two examples例子
我現在要講的兩個例子
11:38
where we've我們已經 made製作 some materials物料
that have that sort分類 of structure結構體,
是我們所製造出並具有相似結構的材料
11:41
and you can really tailor裁縫 it.
而且可以客製化。
11:44
You can see here a very squishy糊狀的 one
這個材料質地像糊
11:46
and now a material材料 that's also
this hybrid混合動力 sort分類 of material材料
但是與這種材料混合的另一種材料
11:48
but actually其實 has remarkable卓越 toughness韌性,
卻具有非同尋常的堅硬度,
11:52
and it's no longer brittle.
也不易碎。
11:54
And an inorganic無機 material材料
would normally一般 be really brittle,
一般無機材料是易碎的,
11:55
and you wouldn't不會 be able能夠 to have
也無法擁有
11:58
that sort分類 of strength強度 and toughness韌性 in it.
如此的力量與韌性。
11:59
One other thing I want to quickly很快 mention提到 is that
我想快速帶過另外一件事情,
12:01
many許多 of the scaffolds支架 we make
are porous多孔, and they have to be,
很多我們做出的架構是有孔的,
它們也必須如此,
12:04
because you want blood血液 vessels船隻 to grow增長 in there.
因為我們希望血管能在其中生長,
12:07
But the pores毛孔 are actually其實 oftentimes通常情況下
但是這些孔洞常常
12:09
much bigger than the cells細胞,
比細胞大上許多,
12:11
and so even though雖然 it's 3D,
所以即使它是 3D 的,
12:12
the cell細胞 might威力 see it more
as a slightly curved彎曲 surface表面,
在細胞看來也是個曲面,
12:14
and that's a little bit unnatural不自然.
這件事情不太自然。
12:17
And so one of the things you can think about doing
其中一個解決辦法就是,
12:19
is actually其實 making製造 scaffolds支架
with slightly different不同 dimensions尺寸
讓架構在度量上有點不同,
12:21
that might威力 be able能夠 to surround環繞 your cells細胞 in 3D
讓它能夠以 3D 的形式包住細胞
12:24
and give them a little bit more information信息.
然後給它們更多的訊息。
12:27
And there's a lot of work going
on in both of these areas.
在這些領域,許多研究正在進行
12:29
Now finally最後, I just want to talk a little bit about
最後,我想說說把這些東西在
12:33
applying應用 this sort分類 of thing to cardiovascular心血管 disease疾病,
心血管疾病上的應用,
12:37
because this is a really big clinical臨床 problem問題.
因為這些疾病在臨床上相當重要。
12:40
And one of the things that we know is that,
我們知道的一件事情是,很不幸的
12:43
unfortunately不幸, if you have a heart attack攻擊,
如果你有了心肌梗塞,
12:46
then that tissue組織 can start開始 to die,
那裡的組織就會開始壞死,
12:49
and your outcome結果 may可能 not be very good over time.
長期下來的後果不會太好。
12:52
And it would be really great, actually其實,
如果我們能
12:55
if we could stop that dead tissue組織
阻止組織壞死那就太棒了
12:57
either from dying垂死 or help it to regenerate再生.
不論是從阻止壞死或是幫助它再生。
12:59
And there's lots and lots of stem
cell細胞 trials試驗 going on worldwide全世界,
現在全世界進行著
非常多的幹細胞試驗,
13:03
and they use many許多 different不同 types類型 of cells細胞,
他們用了很多種不同的細胞,
13:06
but one common共同 theme主題 that seems似乎 to be coming未來 out
但是有一件事情常常發生,
13:08
is that actually其實, very often經常, those cells細胞 will die
那就是這些細胞在被植入
13:11
once一旦 you've implanted植入 them.
之後就會死亡。
13:14
And you can either put them into the heart
你可以把它們放進心臟
13:15
or into the blood血液 system系統,
或是血液系統裡頭,
13:17
but either way, we don't seem似乎 to be able能夠
但無論是哪種方法,我們似乎都不能
13:19
to get quite相當 the right number of cells細胞
讓細胞
13:22
getting得到 to the location位置 we want them to
到達我們希望它們去的部位,
13:24
and being存在 able能夠 to deliver交付 the sort分類 of beautiful美麗
然後進行美妙的
13:26
cell細胞 regeneration再生 that we would like to have
細胞再生,
13:30
to get good clinical臨床 outcomes結果.
得到良好的療效。
13:33
And so some of the things that we're thinking思維 of,
因此,我們以及在這個領域的很多人
13:36
and many許多 other people in the field領域 are thinking思維 of,
在思考的事情是,
13:38
are actually其實 developing發展 materials物料 for that.
發展出能夠做到這些事情的材料。
13:42
But there's a difference區別 here.
但是不同的是,
13:45
We still need chemistry化學, we still need mechanics機械學,
我們仍然需要化學、力學,
13:46
we still need really interesting有趣 topography地形,
需要很有趣的拓樸學,
13:48
and we still need really interesting有趣
ways方法 to surround環繞 the cells細胞.
也需要能夠研究
這些細胞的有趣方法。
13:51
But now, the cells細胞 also
目前,這些細胞
13:54
would probably大概 quite相當 like a material材料
比較像是
13:56
that's going to be able能夠 to be conductive導電,
能夠傳導的材料,
13:58
because the cells細胞 themselves他們自己 will respond響應 very well
因為這些細胞
會對訊號做出很好的回應,
14:00
and will actually其實 conduct進行 signals信號
between之間 themselves他們自己.
並在彼此之間傳遞這些訊號。
14:05
You can see them now
你可以看到這些細胞在材料上
14:08
beating跳動 synchronously同步 on these materials物料,
同步跳動,
14:10
and that's a very, very exciting扣人心弦 development發展
這真的是
14:12
that's going on.
令人相當興奮的進展。
14:15
So just to wrap up, I'd like to actually其實 say that
總而言之,我想說的是
14:17
being存在 able能夠 to work in this sort分類 of field領域,
能在這個領域工作,
14:22
all of us that work in this field領域
對在這個領域的所有人來說,
14:24
that's not only super-exciting超激 science科學,
這不只是令人超級興奮的科學,
14:26
but also has the potential潛在
也對病人
14:28
to impact碰撞 on patients耐心,
有潛在影響力,
14:30
however然而 big or small they are,
不論這些影響是大是小,
14:32
is really a great privilege特權.
都是很好的恩典。
14:35
And so for that, I'd like to thank all of you as well.
在此我也想要感謝你們所有人。
14:36
Thank you.
謝謝。
14:39
(Applause掌聲)
(掌聲)
14:41
Translated by Nan-Kun Wu
Reviewed by Ying Wang (王莹)

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About the speaker:

Molly Stevens - Biomaterials researcher
Molly Stevens studies and creates new biomaterials that could be used to detect disease and repair bones and human tissue.

Why you should listen

At Imperial College London, Molly Stevens heads a highly multidisciplinary research group that designs bioactive materials for regenerative medicine and biosensing. It's fundamental science with an eye to practical applications as healthcare products.

Among the products from her lab: an engineered bone, cardiac tissue suitable for use in transplants, and disease-sensing nanoparticle aggregates that change color in the presence of even tiny quantities of cancer-related enzymes, making early sensing possible. As Stevens told The Lancet: "It's right down at the nanoscience level. It's really exciting stuff, but it actually results in something very tangibly useful."

More profile about the speaker
Molly Stevens | Speaker | TED.com