ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Anjali Tripathi - Astrophysicist
Anjali Tripathi explores planets to uncover the processes that make and destroy them.

Why you should listen

Even though Anjali Tripathi worked on NASA's Mars rovers in high school, the California native never expected to become an astronomer. Unlike the earthquakes she researched early on, astronomy seemed unconnected from daily life. As she has since discovered, exploring distant planets has a lot to do with life itself -- including the fate of the air we breathe. Using some of the most powerful telescopes and supercomputers, Tripathi studies how seemingly permanent planets change over time. She has pioneered the characterization of planet-forming environments and developed computer simulations to trace the 3D structure of planet atmospheres that are shrinking due to evaporation.

A natural teacher, Tripathi makes complex science concepts relevant and easy to understand. She believes that everyone can understand science -- even rocket science. She has partnered with the Smithsonian, Teach for America and others to increase scientific literacy and spread enthusiasm for the subject. Her engaging and humorous talks feature real world connections and unusual props, including a fully functioning Mars Pathfinder rover or full-size solar car.

Tripathi earned degrees in physics and astronomy from M.I.T., the University of Cambridge and Harvard University. Recognized as a promising American leader with a commitment to public service, Tripathi is a 2016-17 White House Fellow.


More profile about the speaker
Anjali Tripathi | Speaker | TED.com
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Anjali Tripathi: Why Earth may someday look like Mars

Anjali Tripathi: Arsyet pse nje dite Toka do te ngjaje me Marsin.

Filmed:
1,095,238 views

Cdo minute, 200 kg hidrogjen dhe rreth 3,5 kg helium largohen nga atmosfera e Tokes ne hapesiren e jashtme. Astrofizikantja, Anjali Tripathi studion fenomenin e hollimit te atmosferes, dhe ne kete diskutim te bukur, ajo tregoi se si nje dite toka ( disa miliarde vite nga tani) planeti yne blu do te kthehet ne i kuq.
- Astrophysicist
Anjali Tripathi explores planets to uncover the processes that make and destroy them. Full bio

Double-click the English transcript below to play the video.

00:12
So when you look out
at the stars at night,
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Kur shikon yjet naten
ajo qe mund te shohesh
eshte e mrekullueshme.
00:15
it's amazing what you can see.
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00:17
It's beautiful.
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Eshte e bukur.
00:18
But what's more amazing
is what you can't see,
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Por, me mahnitese eshte ajo qe nuk shohim,
00:21
because what we know now
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sepse nga ato qe dime tani,
00:23
is that around every star
or almost every star,
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rreth yjeve ose pothuajse cdo ylli,
00:26
there's a planet,
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ndodhet nje planet,
00:27
or probably a few.
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ose ndoshta disa.
00:30
So what this picture isn't showing you
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Pra ajo qe kjo foto nuk po ju tregon
00:32
are all the planets that we know about
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jane te gjithe planetet qe ne dime
00:34
out there in space.
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qe jane ne hapesire.
00:36
But when we think about planets,
we tend to think of faraway things
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Mendojme rreth planeteve per gjera qe jane
00:39
that are very different from our own.
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shume te ndryshme nga ai i joni.
00:41
But here we are on a planet,
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Pra ja ku jemi ne nje planet,
00:43
and there are so many things
that are amazing about Earth
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dhe ka kaq shume fakte
qe jane mahnitese per Token
00:47
that we're searching far and wide
to find things that are like that.
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qe po i kerkojme gjere e gjate qe t'i gjejme.
00:51
And when we're searching,
we're finding amazing things.
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Dhe gjate kerkimeve,
po gjejme gjera mahnitese.
00:54
But I want to tell you
about an amazing thing here on Earth.
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Por, une dua t'ju flas
per nje fakt interesant ketu ne Toke.
00:59
And that is that every minute,
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Kjo eshte se cdo minute,
01:01
400 pounds of hydrogen
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200 kg hidrogjen,
01:04
and almost seven pounds of helium
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dhe pothuajse 3,5 kg helium
01:06
escape from Earth into space.
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largohen nga Toka per ne hapesire.
01:10
And this is gas that is going off
and never coming back.
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Ky eshte gaz qe largohet
dhe nuk kthehet me pas.
01:15
So hydrogen, helium and many other things
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Pra, hidrogjeni, heliumi
dhe disa gjera te tjera
01:18
make up what's known
as the Earth's atmosphere.
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perbejne ate qe quhet
atmosfera e Tokes.
01:21
The atmosphere is just these gases
that form a thin blue line
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Atmosfera jane thjeshte keto gazra,
qe formojne nje shtrese te holle blu
01:25
that's seen here from
the International Space Station,
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e shikuar ketu
nga Stacioni Nderkombetar Hapesinor
01:28
a photograph that some astronauts took.
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ku disa astronaute e fotografuan.
01:31
And this tenuous veneer around our planet
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Kjo mbulese e parendesishme ne
planetin tone
01:34
is what allows life to flourish.
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ben qe jeta te vazhdoje.
01:36
It protects our planet
from too many impacts,
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Ajo e mbron planetin tone
nga shume rreziqe,
01:39
from meteorites and the like.
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qe nga meteoritet dhe te tjera me rradhe.
01:41
And it's such an amazing phenomenon
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Eshte aq fenomen mahnites
01:45
that the fact that it's disappearing
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saqe fakti se po zhduket
01:48
should frighten you,
at least a little bit.
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duhet t'ju frikesoje juve, paksa.
01:52
So this process is something that I study
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Pra, ky proces eshte ajo qe une studioj
01:55
and it's called atmospheric escape.
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dhe quhet hollimi i atmosferes.
01:58
So atmospheric escape
is not specific to planet Earth.
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Hollimi i atmosferes
nuk eshte specifike vetem per Token.
02:03
It's part of what it means
to be a planet, if you ask me,
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Sipas meje, eshte dicka
qe u ndodh te gjitha planeteve
02:07
because planets, not just here on Earth
but throughout the universe,
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sepse planetet, jo vetem ketu ne Toke
por ne te gjithe universin,
02:11
can undergo atmospheric escape.
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i nenshtrohen hollimit te atmosferes.
02:14
And the way it happens actually tells us
about planets themselves.
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Menyra sesi ndodh kjo na tregon ne
rreth vete planeteve.
02:19
Because when you think
about the solar system,
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Sepse kur mendon,
rreth sistemit diellor,
02:22
you might think about this picture here.
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mund te mendosh si kjo fotoja ketu.
02:25
And you would say, well,
there are eight planets, maybe nine.
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Dhe mund te thuash, ne rregull,
ka 8 planete, ose ndoshta 9.
02:29
So for those of you
who are stressed by this picture,
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Keshtu qe per ata qe ,
jane shqetesuar nga kjo foto,
02:31
I will add somebody for you.
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po shtoj dicka per ju.
02:33
(Laughter)
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(Te qeshura)
02:34
Courtesy of New Horizons,
we're including Pluto.
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Fale dashamiresise se misionit te NASA,
New Horizons, po perfshijme Plutonin.
02:38
And the thing here is,
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Ceshtja ketu qendron se,
02:39
for the purposes of this talk
and atmospheric escape,
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per qellimin e ketij fjalimi dhe
hollimit te atmosferes,
02:42
Pluto is a planet in my mind,
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Plutoni eshte planet ne mendjen time,
02:44
in the same way that planets
around other stars that we can't see
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sic jane te gjitha planetet e tjera
rreth yjeve qe ne nuk mund t'i shohim,
02:48
are also planets.
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qe gjithashtu jane planete.
02:49
So fundamental characteristics of planets
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Karakteristike thelbesore e planeteve
02:52
include the fact that they are bodies
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eshte fakti se ata jane trupa
qe jane te lidhur se bashku nga graviteti.
02:55
that are bound together by gravity.
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02:57
So it's a lot of material
just stuck together
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Pra eshte gjithe ai material,
qe qendron i lidhur
03:00
with this attractive force.
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me kete force terheqese.
03:02
And these bodies are so big
and have so much gravity.
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Keta trupa jane kaq te medhenj
dhe kane shume gravitet.
03:05
That's why they're round.
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Ja pse ata jane te rrumbullaket.
03:06
So when you look at all of these,
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Pra, kur i shikon te gjithe ata,
03:08
including Pluto,
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perfshire edhe Plutonin,
03:09
they're round.
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ata jane te rrumbullaket.
Pra mund te shikosh qe graviteti
ka nje rol te rendesishem.
03:11
So you can see that gravity
is really at play here.
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03:13
But another fundamental
characteristic about planets
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Por nje tjeter karakterisetike thelbesore
per planetet
03:17
is what you don't see here,
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eshte ajo qe nuk shikohet ketu,
03:18
and that's the star, the Sun,
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dhe ky eshte ylli, Dielli,
03:21
that all of the planets
in the solar system are orbiting around.
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rreth te cilit rrotullohen gjithe planetet
e sistemit diellor.
03:25
And that's fundamentally driving
atmospheric escape.
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Kjo arsye po shton kryesisht
hollimin e atmosferes.
03:29
The reason that fundamentally stars
drive atmospheric escape from planets
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Arsyeja kryesore se pse yjet nxisin
hollimin e atmosferes nga planetet
03:35
is because stars offer planets
particles and light and heat
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eshte sepse yjet u ofrojne planeteve
grimca, drite dhe nxehtesi,
03:40
that can cause the atmospheres to go away.
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qe mund te shkaktoje
largimin e atmosferes.
03:43
So if you think of a hot-air balloon,
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Nese mendon per nje balone
me ajer te nxehte,
03:45
or you look at this picture
of lanterns in Thailand at a festival,
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ose shikoni kete foto me
fanare ne nje festival ne Tajlande,
03:49
you can see that hot air
can propel gasses upward.
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mund te vereni se ajri i nxehte
ve ne levizje gazrat perpjete.
03:53
And if you have enough energy and heating,
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Dhe nese ke mjaftueshem
energji dhe nxehtesi,
03:55
which our Sun does,
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te cilat Dielli i ka,
03:56
that gas, which is so light
and only bound by gravity,
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ky gaz, i cili eshte shume i lehte
dhe lidhet vetem nga graviteti,
04:00
it can escape into space.
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mund te largohet neper hapesire.
04:03
And so this is what's actually
causing atmospheric escape
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Ajo qe aktualisht po
shkakton hollimin e atmosferes
04:07
here on Earth and also on other planets --
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ne Toke por edhe ne planetet e tjera
gjithashtu--
04:10
that interplay
between heating from the star
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eshte nderveprimi
midis nxehtesise nga yjet
04:13
and overcoming the force
of gravity on the planet.
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dhe kapercimi i forces se gravitetit
ne planet.
04:17
So I've told you that it happens
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Iu thashe se kjo ndodh
04:18
at the rate of 400 pounds
a minute for hydrogen
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ne normen e 200 kg per min per hidrogjenin
04:22
and almost seven pounds for helium.
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dhe pothuajse 3,5 kg per min per heliumin.
04:25
But what does that look like?
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Por si duket kjo?
04:26
Well, even in the '80s,
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Ne vitet '80
04:28
we took pictures of the Earth
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ne kemi bere foto te Tokes
04:30
in the ultraviolet
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te rrezeve ultraviolet
04:31
using NASA's Dynamic Explorer spacecraft.
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duke perdorur sonden e NASA-s
"Dynamic Explorer"
04:34
So these two images of the Earth
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Pra, keto dy imazhe te Tokes
04:36
show you what that glow
of escaping hydrogen looks like,
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paraqesin se si digjet
hidrogjeni kur largohet,
04:40
shown in red.
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i treguar me te kuqe.
04:41
And you can also see other features
like oxygen and nitrogen
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Mund te shikoni karakteristika
te tjera si oksigjeni dhe nitrogjeni
04:45
in that white glimmer
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ne ate dritezen e bardhe
04:46
in the circle showing you the auroras
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rrethore qe na paraqesin aurorat
04:49
and also some wisps around the tropics.
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dhe gjithashtu disa fije
perreth tropikeve.
04:52
So these are pictures
that conclusively show us
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Pra, keto jane foto qe
perfundimisht na tregojne
04:55
that our atmosphere isn't just
tightly bound to us here on Earth
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qe atmosfera jone nuk eshte thjesht
e lidhur fort te planeti yne
04:58
but it's actually
reaching out far into space,
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por aktualisht
eshte duke u larguar ne hapesire,
05:02
and at an alarming rate, I might add.
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ne menyre alarmante, sipas meje.
05:05
But the Earth is not alone
in undergoing atmospheric escape.
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Por nuk eshte vetem Toka qe
po i nenshtrohet hollimit te atmosferes.
05:08
Mars, our nearest neighbor,
is much smaller than Earth,
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Marsi, fqinji yne me i afert
eshte shume me i vogel se Toka,
05:12
so it has much less gravity
with which to hold on to its atmosphere.
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keshtu qe ka shume me pak gravitet, me
te cilin te mbaje atmosferen e tij.
Pra, edhe pse Marsi ka nje atmosfere,
05:16
And so even though Mars has an atmosphere,
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shohim se shume me e holle se e Tokes.
05:18
we can see it's much thinner
than the Earth's.
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05:20
Just look at the surface.
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Vetem shikoni siperfaqen.
05:22
You see craters indicating
that it didn't have an atmosphere
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Dallohen kratere qe tregojne
se nuk ka patur nje atmosfere
05:25
that could stop those impacts.
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qe mund te ndalonte rreziqet.
05:27
Also, we see that it's the "red planet,"
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Gjithashtu, shikojme se
eshte "planeti i kuq"
05:30
and atmospheric escape plays a role
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dhe hollimi atmosferik luan nje rol
05:32
in Mars being red.
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qe Marsi te jete i kuq.
05:34
That's because we think
Mars used to have a wetter past,
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Ne mendojme se Marsi ka patur
nje te kaluar me lageshtire,
05:38
and when water had enough energy,
it broke up into hydrogen and oxygen,
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dhe kur uji kishte energji te mjaftueshme,
u nda ne hidrogjen dhe oksigjen,
05:42
and hydrogen being so light,
it escaped into space,
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mirepo duke qene i lehte
hidrogjeni u leshua per ne hapesire,
05:46
and the oxygen that was left
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dhe oksigjeni qe ngeli
05:48
oxidized or rusted the ground,
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u oksidua ose ndryshku dheun,
05:50
making that familiar
rusty red color that we see.
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qe u kthye ne kete ngjyren e kuqe
te ndryshkut qe shohim ne.
05:54
So it's fine to look at pictures of Mars
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Pranohet te shikosh fotot e Marsit
05:56
and say that atmospheric escape
probably happened,
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dhe te thuash se ndoshta
hollimi atmosferik ka ndodhur,
05:59
but NASA has a probe that's currently
at Mars called the MAVEN satellite,
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por NASA ka nje sonde qe ndodhet
ne Mars qe quhet sateliti MAVEN,
06:03
and its actual job
is to study atmospheric escape.
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ku puna e tij eshte
te studioje hollimin e atmosferes.
06:07
It's the Mars Atmosphere
and Volatile Evolution spacecraft.
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Eshte Atmosfera e Marsit dhe
sonda Volatile Evolution.
06:11
And results from it have already
shown pictures very similar
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Gjetjet atje kane treguar
foto qe jane shume te ngjashme
06:15
to what you've seen here on Earth.
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me ato qe keni pare ketu ne Toke.
E kemi ditur gjate qe
Marsi po e humbiste atmosferen,
06:17
We've long known that Mars
was losing its atmosphere,
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06:19
but we have some stunning pictures.
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por kemi disa foto shokuese.
06:21
Here, for example,
you can see in the red circle
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Per shembull, ketu,
mund te shikoni ne rrethin e kuq
06:24
is the size of Mars,
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madhesine e Marsit,
06:26
and in blue you can see the hydrogen
escaping away from the planet.
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dhe ne blu mund te shihni hidrogjenin
qe largohet nga planeti.
06:30
So it's reaching out more than 10 times
the size of the planet,
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Pra, po arrin 10 fishin e
madhesise se planetit,
06:34
far enough away that it's
no longer bound to that planet.
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larg nga kufiri i ketij planeti.
06:36
It's escaping off into space.
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Po leshohet neper hapesire.
06:38
And this helps us confirm ideas,
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Kjo na ndihmon te konfirmojme idete,
06:41
like why Mars is red,
from that lost hydrogen.
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si ajo pse Marsi nga humbja e hidrogjenit,
eshte i kuq.
06:44
But hydrogen isn't
the only gas that's lost.
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Por nuk eshte hidrogjeni
gazi i vetem qe po humb.
06:47
I mentioned helium on Earth
and some oxygen and nitrogen,
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Permenda heliumin ne Toke
dhe pak oksigjen dhe nitrogjen,
06:50
and from MAVEN we can also look
at the oxygen being lost from Mars.
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por nga MAVEN mund te verejme
oksigjenin qe po largohet nga Marsi.
06:54
And you can see
that because oxygen is heavier,
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Mund te shikoni se ngaqe
oksigjeni eshte me i rende,
06:56
it can't get as far as the hydrogen,
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nuk mund te largohet aq larg sa hidrogjeni
06:59
but it's still escaping
away from the planet.
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por sidoqofte po largohet nga planeti.
07:01
You don't see it all confined
into that red circle.
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Nuk shihet te jete i teri i permbledhur
ne ate rrethin e kuq.
07:05
So the fact that we not only see
atmospheric escape on our own planet
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Pra fakti qe nuk shohim hollim
atmosferik vetem ne Toke
07:09
but we can study it elsewhere
and send spacecraft
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por mund ta studiojme kudo
dhe te dergojme sonda
07:13
allows us to learn
about the past of planets
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na lejon te mesojme
rreth te shkuares se planeteve
07:16
but also about planets in general
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por gjithashtu per planetet ne pergjithesi
07:18
and Earth's future.
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dhe per te ardhmen e Tokes.
07:20
So one way we actually
can learn about the future
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Nje menyre qe mund te mesojme
per te ardhmen
07:23
is by planets so far away
that we can't see.
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eshte nga planetet e larget qe
ne nuk mund t'i shohim.
07:27
And I should just note though,
before I go on to that,
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Me duhet te permend se,
para se te vazhdoj me kete,
07:30
I'm not going to show you
photos like this of Pluto,
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nuk kam per t'iu treguar foto si Plutoni,
07:33
which might be disappointing,
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qe mund te duket zhgenjyese,
07:34
but that's because we don't have them yet.
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por kjo sepse nuk i kemi akoma fotot.
07:36
But the New Horizons mission
is currently studying atmospheric escape
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Por, misioni i New Horizons eshte
qe te studioje hollimin atmosferik
07:39
being lost from the planet.
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qe largohet nga planeti.
07:41
So stay tuned and look out for that.
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Keshtu qe kini mendjen per kete.
07:43
But the planets
that I did want to talk about
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Planetet qe une dua te flas
07:45
are known as transiting exoplanets.
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jane te njohur si ekzoplanetet.
07:48
So any planet orbiting a star
that's not our Sun
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Keshtu qe cdo planet ne orbiten
e nje ylli qe nuk eshte Dielli
07:51
is called an exoplanet,
or extrasolar planet.
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quhet ekzoplanet,
ose planet jashte sistemit solar.
07:54
And these planets that we call transiting
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Dhe keto planete qe ne i quajme kalimtare
07:57
have the special feature
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kane karakteristiken se
07:58
that if you look
at that star in the middle,
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nese shikon yllin ne mes
08:00
you'll see that actually it's blinking.
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mund te shikosh se po vezullon.
08:03
And the reason that it's blinking
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Arsyeja se pse po vezullon
08:04
is because there are planets
that are going past it all the time,
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eshte sepse atje ka planete
qe kalojne me rradhe gjate gjithe kohes
08:09
and it's at special orientation
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dhe eshte nje orientim special
08:11
where the planets are blocking
the light from the star
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ku planetet bllokojne driten nga ylli
08:13
that allows us to see that light blinking.
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qe na lejon te shohim driten qe vezullon.
08:16
And by surveying the stars
in the night sky
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Duke survejuar yjet gjate nates
08:19
for this blinking motion,
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per kete vezullim levizez,
08:21
we are able to find planets.
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jemi ne gjendje te gjejme planetet.
08:22
This is how we've now been able
to detect over 5,000 planets
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Keshtu kemi qene ne gjendje
te zbulojme mbi 5000 planete
08:27
in our own Milky Way,
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ne Rrugen e Qumeshtit,
08:28
and we know there are
many more out there, like I mentioned.
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dhe sic e permenda atje jane
shume me teper planete.
08:31
So when we look at the light
from these stars,
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Kur shikojme driten nga keto yje
08:34
what we see, like I said,
is not the planet itself,
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sic thashe, ajo qe shikojme,
nuk eshte vete planeti,
08:37
but you actually see
a dimming of the light
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po aktualisht shikohet nje zbehje e drites
08:39
that we can record in time.
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qe e regjistrojme ne kohe.
08:41
So the light drops as the planet
decreases in front of the star,
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Drita bie sapo planetet dalin
perballe yllit
08:44
and that's that blinking
that you saw before.
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dhe kjo eshte vezullimi qe
pate me pare.
08:47
So not only do we detect the planets
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Jo vetem qe i zbulojme keto planete
08:49
but we can look at this light
in different wavelengths.
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por mund ta shikojme kete drite
ne gjatesi vale te ndryshme.
08:52
So I mentioned looking at the Earth
and Mars in ultraviolet light.
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Une permenda shikimin e Tokes
dhe Marsit ne driten ultraviolet.
08:56
If we look at transiting exoplanets
with the Hubble Space Telescope,
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Nese e shikojme nje eksoplanet
me Teleskopin Hapesinor Hubble,
08:59
we find that in the ultraviolet,
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zbulojme se ne rrezet ultraviolet,
09:01
you see much bigger blinking,
much less light from the star,
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shikohen vezullime me te medha,
shume me pak drite nga ylli,
09:05
when the planet is passing in front.
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kur planeti i kalon perballe.
09:07
And we think this is because you have
an extended atmosphere of hydrogen
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Ne mendojme se kjo ndodh se ka
nje atmosfere te mbushur me hidrogjen
09:10
all around the planet
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perreth planetit
09:12
that's making it look puffier
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qe e ben te duket me te fryre
09:13
and thus blocking
more of the light that you see.
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e bllokohet me shume drite
qe ne shikojme.
09:16
So using this technique,
we've actually been able to discover
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Nga perdorimi i kesaj teknike kemi
qene ne gjendje te zbulojme
09:19
a few transiting exoplanets
that are undergoing atmospheric escape.
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disa eksoplanete kalimtare qe po
i nenshtrohen hollimit atmosferik.
09:24
And these planets
can be called hot Jupiters,
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Keto planete
mund te quhen Jupitere te nxehte,
09:26
for some of the ones we've found.
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per disa nga ato qe gjetem.
09:28
And that's because
they're gas planets like Jupiter,
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Kjo, sepse ndodhen disa
planete gazore si Jupiteri
09:31
but they're so close to their star,
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por ato jane kaq afer me yllin e tyre,
09:32
about a hundred times closer than Jupiter.
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rreth 100 here me afer se Jupiteri.
09:35
And because there's all this
lightweight gas that's ready to escape,
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Per shkak se atje ndodhet gjithe
ky gaz i lehte qe eshte gati te largohet
09:38
and all this heating from the star,
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dhe gjithe ajo nxehtesi nga ylli,
09:40
you have completely catastrophic rates
of atmospheric escape.
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ka norma shume katastrofike
te hollimit atmosferik.
09:44
So unlike our 400 pounds per minute
of hydrogen being lost on Earth,
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Ndryshe nga 200 kg per min te hidrogjenit
qe largohen ne Toke,
09:48
for these planets,
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per keto planete,
09:50
you're losing 1.3 billion
pounds of hydrogen every minute.
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humbasin 590 milion kg hidrogjen
cdo minute.
09:55
So you might think, well,
does this make the planet cease to exist?
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Pra ju mund te mendoni, a ben kjo qe
keto planete te ndalojne se ekzistuari?
09:59
And this is a question
that people wondered
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Kjo eshte nje pyetje
qe i beri te mendonin njerezit
10:01
when they looked at our solar system,
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kur pane ne sistemin tone diellor,
10:03
because planets
closer to the Sun are rocky,
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sepse planetet sa me afer
Diellit jane shkembor
10:05
and planets further away
are bigger and more gaseous.
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dhe planetet me larg jane me
te medhenj dhe gazor.
10:08
Could you have started
with something like Jupiter
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Mund ta filloje me dicka si Jupiteri
10:11
that was actually close to the Sun,
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qe ishte aktualisht afer Diellit,
10:13
and get rid of all the gas in it?
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dhe te largosh gjithe gazin ne te?
10:14
We now think that if you start
with something like a hot Jupiter,
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Tani ne mendojme se nese e fillon me
dicka si Jupiteri i nxehte
10:17
you actually can't end up
with Mercury or the Earth.
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nuk mund te perfundosh me
Merkurin apo me Token.
10:20
But if you started with something smaller,
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Por nese do ta nisje me dicka me te vogel,
10:22
it's possible that enough gas
would have gotten away
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eshte e mundur qe te largohej
mjaftueshem gaz
10:25
that it would have
significantly impacted it
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qe do te ndkonte ndjeshem
10:27
and left you with something very different
than what you started with.
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dhe do te t'ju linte me dicka shume
te ndryshme nga ajo qe e filluat.
10:31
So all of this sounds sort of general,
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Kjo tingellon si dicka e zakonshme,
10:33
and we might think about the solar system,
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dhe ne mund te mendojme rreth
sistemit diellor,
10:35
but what does this have to do
with us here on Earth?
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por cfare ka te beje kjo me ne
ketu ne Toke?
10:38
Well, in the far future,
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Ne te ardhmen e larget,
10:40
the Sun is going to get brighter.
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Dielli do te behet me i shndritshem.
10:42
And as that happens,
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Dhe ndersa kjo ndodh,
10:43
the heating that we find from the Sun
is going to become very intense.
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nxehtesia qe vjen nga Dielli
do te behet me e forte.
10:47
In the same way that you see
gas streaming off from a hot Jupiter,
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Ne te njejten menyre qe shikon
gazin te leshohet nga Jupiteri i nxehte,
10:51
gas is going to stream off from the Earth.
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gazi do te leshohet nga Toka.
10:54
And so what we can look forward to,
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Keshtu qe ajo qe mund te presim nga
10:56
or at least prepare for,
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2056
ose te pakten te pergatitemi
10:58
is the fact that in the far future,
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eshte fakti se ne te ardhmen e larget,
11:00
the Earth is going to look more like Mars.
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Toka do te duket me shume si Marsi.
11:03
Our hydrogen, from water
that is broken down,
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Hidrogjeni jone, nga uji qe
eshe i zberthyer,
11:06
is going to escape
into space more rapidly,
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ka per t'u leshuar
neper hapesire me shpejt,
11:08
and we're going to be left
with this dry, reddish planet.
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dhe ne do te mbetemi me
kete planet te thate dhe te kuqerremte.
11:12
So don't fear, it's not
for a few billion years,
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Mos u frikesoni, per disa miliarda vjet,
11:15
so there's some time to prepare.
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Pra kemi kohe per tu pergatitur.
11:17
(Laughter)
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(Te qeshura)
11:18
But I wanted you
to be aware of what's going on,
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Por une doja t'ju vija
ne dijeni se cpo ndodh,
11:21
not just in the future,
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jo vetem ne te ardhmen,
11:22
but atmospheric escape
is happening as we speak.
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por hollimi atmosferik po
ndodh teksa ne flasim.
11:25
So there's a lot of amazing science
that you hear about happening in space
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Ka kaq shume shkence te mahnitshme
qe degjojme se po ndodh ne hapesire
11:29
and planets that are far away,
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dhe ne planete qe jane larg,
11:31
and we are studying these planets
to learn about these worlds.
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dhe ne po i studiojme keto planete
te mesojme me shume per keto bote.
11:34
But as we learn about Mars
or exoplanets like hot Jupiters,
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Por teksa mesojme rreth Marsit apo
eksoplaneteve si Jupiteri i nxehte,
11:38
we find things like atmospheric escape
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ne gjejme gjera si hollimi i atmosferes
11:42
that tell us a lot more
about our planet here on Earth.
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qe na tregojne shume rreth planetit tone
ketu ne Toke.
11:45
So consider that the next time
you think that space is far away.
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Keshtu qe mendoni kete, heren tjeter qe
do te mendoni se hapesira eshte larg.
11:49
Thank you.
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Faleminderit
11:51
(Applause)
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(Duartrokitje)
Translated by Gramoz Pisha
Reviewed by Helena Bedalli

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ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Anjali Tripathi - Astrophysicist
Anjali Tripathi explores planets to uncover the processes that make and destroy them.

Why you should listen

Even though Anjali Tripathi worked on NASA's Mars rovers in high school, the California native never expected to become an astronomer. Unlike the earthquakes she researched early on, astronomy seemed unconnected from daily life. As she has since discovered, exploring distant planets has a lot to do with life itself -- including the fate of the air we breathe. Using some of the most powerful telescopes and supercomputers, Tripathi studies how seemingly permanent planets change over time. She has pioneered the characterization of planet-forming environments and developed computer simulations to trace the 3D structure of planet atmospheres that are shrinking due to evaporation.

A natural teacher, Tripathi makes complex science concepts relevant and easy to understand. She believes that everyone can understand science -- even rocket science. She has partnered with the Smithsonian, Teach for America and others to increase scientific literacy and spread enthusiasm for the subject. Her engaging and humorous talks feature real world connections and unusual props, including a fully functioning Mars Pathfinder rover or full-size solar car.

Tripathi earned degrees in physics and astronomy from M.I.T., the University of Cambridge and Harvard University. Recognized as a promising American leader with a commitment to public service, Tripathi is a 2016-17 White House Fellow.


More profile about the speaker
Anjali Tripathi | Speaker | TED.com