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TED2011

David Brooks: The social animal

David Brooks: Društvena životinja

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Koristeći se zaključcima iz svoje poslednje knjige, kolumnista NYTimes-a, David Brooks otvara nove uvide u ljudsku prirodu kroz kognitivne nauke -- uvide koji imaju ogromne implikacije po ekonomiju i politiku kao i na našu samosvijest. U govoru prepunom humora, pokazuje kako je nemoguće shvatiti ljudska bića kao odvojene pojedince koji prave izbore na osnovu sopstvene svijesti.

- Op-ed columnist
Writer and thinker David Brooks has covered business, crime and politics over a long career in journalism. Full bio

When I got my current job, I was given a good piece of advice,
Kada sam počeo raditi svoj sadašnji posao,
dobio sam dobar savjet
00:15
which was to interview three politicians every day.
a to je da svakog dana
intervjuišem troje političara.
00:18
And from that much contact with politicians,
I iz svog tog kontakta sa političarima,
00:21
I can tell you they're all emotional freaks of one sort or another.
mogu vam reći da su svi oni na neki način emocionalni čudaci.
00:23
They have what I called "logorrhea dementia,"
Oni pate od nečega što ja nazivam logorrhea dementia,
00:27
which is they talk so much they drive themselves insane.
što znači da pričaju toliko mnogo da na kraju sami sebe izlude.
00:29
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
00:32
But what they do have is incredible social skills.
No, ono što oni posjeduju su nevjerovatne socijalne vještine.
00:34
When you meet them, they lock into you,
Kada se sretnete, oni vas obgrle,
00:37
they look you in the eye,
gledaju vas u oči,
00:39
they invade your personal space,
zaposjednu vaš lični prostor,
00:41
they massage the back of your head.
masiraju vam potiljak.
00:43
I had dinner with a Republican senator several months ago
Prije nekoliko mjeseci sam bio na večeri sa jednim Republikanskim senatorom
00:45
who kept his hand on my inner thigh
koji je tokom cijele večere držao ruku na unutrašnjoj strani moje butine
00:47
throughout the whole meal -- squeezing it.
-- stiskajući je.
00:49
I once -- this was years ago --
Jednom sam -- to je bilo prije mnogo godina --
00:52
I saw Ted Kennedy and Dan Quayle meet in the well of the Senate.
vidjeo Teda Kennedyja i Dana Quayle kako se susreću u Senatu.
00:54
And they were friends, and they hugged each other
Njih dvojica su bili prijatelji, zagrlili su se
00:56
and they were laughing, and their faces were like this far apart.
i smijali su se, dok su im lica bila tek ovoliko udaljena.
00:58
And they were moving and grinding
I micali su se i stiskali
01:01
and moving their arms up and down each other.
i mazili jedan drugog.
01:03
And I was like, "Get a room. I don't want to see this."
Ja sam bio u fazonu, "Uzmite sobu. Ne želim ovo gledati."
01:05
But they have those social skills.
Ali oni naprosto posjeduju te socijalne vještine.
01:08
Another case:
Drugi slučaj:
01:10
Last election cycle,
Tokom poslednjeg izbornog kruga sam
01:12
I was following Mitt Romney around New Hampshire,
pratio Mitta Romneya kroz New Hampshire.
01:14
and he was campaigning with his five perfect sons:
On je vodio kampanju sa petoricom svojih savršenih sinova:
01:16
Bip, Chip, Rip, Zip, Lip and Dip.
Bipom, Chipom, Ripom, Zipom, Lipom i Dipom.
01:19
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
01:21
And he's going into a diner.
I on odlazi u restoran.
01:23
And he goes into the diner, introduces himself to a family
Ulazi u restoran, predstavlja se jednoj porodici
01:25
and says, "What village are you from in New Hampshire?"
i kaže, "Iz kojeg ste sela u New Hampshireu?"
01:28
And then he describes the home he owned in their village.
Te potom opiše kuću koju je imao u njihovom selu.
01:30
And so he goes around the room,
I tako prošeta prostorijom,
01:34
and then as he's leaving the diner,
a na izlasku iz restorana,
01:37
he first-names almost everybody he's just met.
obraća se prvim imenom gotovo svima koje je tek tada upoznao.
01:39
I was like, "Okay, that's social skill."
Pomislio sam "Pa dobro, to je socijalna vještina."
01:42
But the paradox is,
Ali paradoks je u tome što
01:44
when a lot of these people slip into the policy-making mode,
kada mnogi od ovih ljudi otpočnu sa oblikovanjem politika,
01:46
that social awareness vanishes
ta socijalna svijest iščezne
01:50
and they start talking like accountants.
i oni počinju pričati kao računovođe.
01:52
So in the course of my career,
Tokom svoje karijere sam
01:54
I have covered a series of failures.
pisao o mnogim neuspjesima.
01:56
We sent economists in the Soviet Union
Kada se Sovjetski Savez raspao
01:58
with privatization plans when it broke up,
mi smo poslali ekonomiste sa planovima privatizacije,
02:00
and what they really lacked was social trust.
a ono što je njima zapravo nedostajalo je bilo socijalno povjerenje.
02:02
We invaded Iraq with a military
Izvršili smo vojnu invaziju Iraka
02:05
oblivious to the cultural and psychological realities.
nesvjesni kulturnih i psiholoških realnosti.
02:07
We had a financial regulatory regime
Imali smo finansijski regulatorni režim
02:10
based on the assumptions
zasnovan na pretpostavkama
02:12
that traders were rational creatures
da su trgovci racionalna stvorenja
02:14
who wouldn't do anything stupid.
koja ne bi učinila ništa glupo.
02:16
For 30 years, I've been covering school reform
Trideset godina pišem o reformi školstva
02:18
and we've basically reorganized the bureaucratic boxes --
a praktično smo reorganizovali birokratske kutije --
02:21
charters, private schools, vouchers --
povelje, privatne škole, vaučere --
02:24
but we've had disappointing results year after year.
no, godinu za godinom imamo razočaravajuće rezultate.
02:27
And the fact is, people learn from people they love.
A činjenica je da ljudi uče od onih koje vole.
02:31
And if you're not talking about the individual relationship
I ako ne govorite o individualnoj vezi
02:34
between a teacher and a student,
između nastavnika i učenika,
02:36
you're not talking about that reality.
ne govorite o toj realnosti,
02:38
But that reality is expunged
ta realnost je izbrisana
02:40
from our policy-making process.
iz našeg procesa definisanja politika.
02:42
And so that's led to a question for me:
I to je me je dovelo do pitanja:
02:44
Why are the most socially-attuned people on earth
Zbog čega socijalno najprilagođeniji ljudi na planeti
02:47
completely dehumanized
postanu potpuno dehumanizirani
02:50
when they think about policy?
kada razmišljaju o politikama?
02:52
And I came to the conclusion,
I došao sam do zaključka
02:55
this is a symptom of a larger problem.
da je to simptom jednog većeg problema.
02:57
That, for centuries, we've inherited a view of human nature
Vijekovima nasljeđujemo sliku ljudske prirode
03:00
based on the notion
koja je zasnovana na pojmu
03:03
that we're divided selves,
da smo mi podijeljelja bića,
03:05
that reason is separated from the emotions
da je razum odvojen od emocija
03:07
and that society progresses
i da društvo napreduje
03:10
to the extent that reason can suppress the passions.
do te mjere da razum može potisnuti strasti.
03:12
And it's led to a view of human nature
To je dovelo do viđenja ljudske prirode
03:15
that we're rational individuals
po kojem smo mi racionalne individue
03:18
who respond in straightforward ways to incentives,
koje na direktan način odgovaraju na podsticaje.
03:20
and it's led to ways of seeing the world
I to je dovelo do načina posmatranja svijeta
03:23
where people try to use the assumptions of physics
u kojem ljudi pokušavaju da koriste pretpostavke iz fizike
03:26
to measure how human behavior is.
kako bi izmjerili ljudsko ponašanje.
03:29
And it's produced a great amputation,
To je stvorilo ogroman nedostatak,
03:34
a shallow view of human nature.
površno posmatranje ljudske prirode.
03:36
We're really good at talking about material things,
Jako smo dobri kada pričamo o materijalnim stvarima,
03:39
but we're really bad at talking about emotions.
ali smo očajni kada govorimo o emocijama.
03:41
We're really good at talking about skills
Dobri smo kada pričamo o vještinama,
03:44
and safety and health;
bezbjednosti i zdravlju,
03:46
we're really bad at talking about character.
ali smo jako loši kada pričamo o karakteru.
03:48
Alasdair MacIntyre, the famous philosopher,
Alasdair MacIntyre, poznati filosof,
03:51
said that, "We have the concepts of the ancient morality
je rekao "Poznajemo pojmove drevne moralnosti,
03:54
of virtue, honor, goodness,
vrline, časti, dobrote,
03:57
but we no longer have a system
ali više nemamo sistem
03:59
by which to connect them."
kojim bismo ih povezali."
04:01
And so this has led to a shallow path in politics,
I to nas je dovelo do površnog puta u politici,
04:03
but also in a whole range of human endeavors.
ali i mnogim drugim ljudskim nastojanjima.
04:06
You can see it in the way we raise our young kids.
To možete vidjeti u načinu na koji odgajamo djecu.
04:10
You go to an elementary school at three in the afternoon
Ako odete u osnovnu školu u tri sata poslijepodne
04:13
and you watch the kids come out,
i gledate djecu kako izlaze,
04:16
and they're wearing these 80-pound backpacks.
sva djeca nose ruksake teške 40 kilograma.
04:18
If the wind blows them over, they're like beetles stuck there on the ground.
Kada bi ih vjetar otpuhao, ležali bi kao bube izvrnute na zemlji.
04:21
You see these cars that drive up --
Vidite te automobile koji prilaze --
04:25
usually it's Saabs and Audis and Volvos,
uglavnom su to Saabovi, Audi i Volvo,
04:27
because in certain neighborhoods it's socially acceptable to have a luxury car,
jer je u pojedinim dijelovima grada društveno prihvatljivo imati luksuzni auto
04:30
so long as it comes from a country hostile to U.S. foreign policy --
dok god je porijeklom iz zemlje koja je neprijateljski nastrojena prema američkoj vanjskoj politici --
04:33
that's fine.
to je u redu.
04:36
They get picked up by these creatures I've called uber-moms,
Po njih dolaze ova stvorenja koja ja nazivam uber-mamama,
04:38
who are highly successful career women
to su izuzetno uspješne žene
04:41
who have taken time off to make sure all their kids get into Harvard.
koje naprave pauzu u karijeri kako bi bile sigurne da će im djeca upasti na Harvard.
04:43
And you can usually tell the uber-moms
Uber-mame uglavnom možete prepoznati
04:46
because they actually weigh less than their own children.
po tome što imaju manje kilograma od sopstvene djece.
04:48
(Laughter)
(Smijeh).
04:50
So at the moment of conception,
U trenutku začeća
04:52
they're doing little butt exercises.
one rade vježbice za guzu.
04:54
Babies flop out,
Bebe izlete van,
04:56
they're flashing Mandarin flashcards at the things.
dok im one mašu karticama na mandarinskom jeziku ispred nosa.
04:58
Driving them home, and they want them to be enlightened,
Voze ih kući, žele da budu prosvijetljeni,
05:01
so they take them to Ben & Jerry's ice cream company
pa ih vode u Ben i Jerry's slastičarne
05:04
with its own foreign policy.
koje imaju sopstvenu vanjsku politiku.
05:06
In one of my books,
U jednoj od mojih knjiga
05:08
I joke that Ben & Jerry's should make a pacifist toothpaste --
sam se našalio da bi Ben i Jerry's trebali napraviti pacifisirajuću pastu za zube --
05:10
doesn't kill germs, just asks them to leave.
koja ne ubija klice, već ih samo zamoli da odu.
05:12
It would be a big seller.
Odlično bi se prodavala.
05:14
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
05:16
And they go to Whole Foods to get their baby formula,
I potom odlaze u prodavnice zdrave hrane da uzmu suplemente za bebe.
05:18
and Whole Foods is one of those progressive grocery stores
A ove prodavnice zdrave hrane su ona vrsta progresivnih prodavnica
05:21
where all the cashiers look like they're on loan from Amnesty International.
u kojima sve kasirke izgledaju kao da su pozajmljenje od organizacije Amnesty International.
05:23
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
05:26
They buy these seaweed-based snacks there
Tu kupuju krekere od algi
05:28
called Veggie Booty with Kale,
koji se zovu Veggie Booty sa keljom,
05:30
which is for kids who come home and say,
koji su za djecu koja dođu kući kažu:
05:32
"Mom, mom, I want a snack that'll help prevent colon-rectal cancer."
"Mama, mama, hoću užinu koja pomaže u prevenciji raka debelog crijeva!
05:34
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
05:37
And so the kids are raised in a certain way,
I tako se ta djeca odgajaju na određen način,
05:39
jumping through achievement hoops of the things we can measure --
preskaču kroz obruč ostvarenja koja se mogu izmjeriti --
05:41
SAT prep, oboe, soccer practice.
pripreme za prijemni ispit, oboa, fudbal.
05:44
They get into competitive colleges, they get good jobs,
Upisuju se na konkurentne koledže, dobijaju dobre poslove,
05:47
and sometimes they make a success of themselves
i ponekad postanu uspješni
05:50
in a superficial manner, and they make a ton of money.
na površan način, i zarade gomilu novca.
05:52
And sometimes you can see them at vacation places
A ponekad ih možete vidjeti u odmaralištima
05:55
like Jackson Hole or Aspen.
poput Jackson Hole ili Aspena.
05:57
And they've become elegant and slender --
I onda vidite da su i oni postali elegantni i vitki --
05:59
they don't really have thighs;
zapravo nemaju butine;
06:01
they just have one elegant calve on top of another.
imaju samo dva elegantna lista, jedan na drugome.
06:03
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
06:06
They have kids of their own,
I oni imaju svoju djecu,
06:08
and they've achieved a genetic miracle by marrying beautiful people,
a ostvarili su genetsko čudo ženeći se ili udajući lijepim ljudima,
06:10
so their grandmoms look like Gertrude Stein,
tako da njihove bake izgledaju kao Gertrude Stein,
06:13
their daughters looks like Halle Berry -- I don't know how they've done that.
njihove kćerke poput Halle Berry -- ne znam kako im to uspjeva.
06:16
They get there and they realize
Dospiju dotle i tada shvate
06:19
it's fashionable now to have dogs a third as tall as your ceiling heights.
da je sada u modi imati pse koji su visoki do pola zida.
06:22
So they've got these furry 160-pound dogs --
I tako oni imaju ove čupave pse teške 80kg --
06:26
all look like velociraptors,
koji izgledaju kao velociraptori (vrsta dinosaurusa, prim.prev.),
06:29
all named after Jane Austen characters.
a imena su dobili po likovima Jane Austin.
06:32
And then when they get old, they haven't really developed a philosophy of life,
I onda kada ostare, shvate da zapravo nisu razvili životnu filozofiju,
06:35
but they've decided, "I've been successful at everything;
ali odluče, "Uspješan/-na sam u svemu,
06:38
I'm just not going to die."
i jednostavno neću umrijeti."
06:40
And so they hire personal trainers;
I onda unajme lične trenere,
06:42
they're popping Cialis like breath mints.
gutaju Cialis kao pepermint bombone.
06:45
You see them on the mountains up there.
I tako ih viđate na planinama.
06:47
They're cross-country skiing up the mountain
Skijaju uz planinu
06:49
with these grim expressions
sa namrgođenim izrazom lica
06:51
that make Dick Cheney look like Jerry Lewis.
tako da pored njih Dick Cheney izgleda kao Jerry Lewis.
06:53
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
06:55
And as they whiz by you,
I dok proleću pored vas
06:57
it's like being passed by a little iron Raisinet
kao da vas mimoilaze male željezne grožđice
06:59
going up the hill.
koje se penju uzbrdo.
07:01
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
07:03
And so this is part of what life is,
Znači, ovo je dio onoga što čini život,
07:05
but it's not all of what life is.
ali nije sve u životu.
07:08
And over the past few years,
Mislim da smo tokom nekoliko poslednjih godina,
07:11
I think we've been given a deeper view of human nature
dobili dublji pogled na ljudsku prirodu
07:13
and a deeper view of who we are.
i dublji uvid u to ko smo mi.
07:17
And it's not based on theology or philosophy,
A on ne počiva na teologiji ili filosofiji,
07:19
it's in the study of the mind,
već na izučavanju uma,
07:21
across all these spheres of research,
u raznim sferama istraživanja.
07:23
from neuroscience to the cognitive scientists,
od neuroloških do kognitivnih naučnika,
07:25
behavioral economists, psychologists,
bihejvioralnih ekonomista, psihologa,
07:27
sociology,
sociologa,
07:29
we're developing a revolution in consciousness.
razvijamo revoluciju svjesti.
07:31
And when you synthesize it all,
I kada napravite sintezu svega toga,
07:34
it's giving us a new view of human nature.
dobijemo novi pogled na ljudsku prirodu.
07:36
And far from being a coldly materialistic view of nature,
Daleko od toga da je to hladno materijalističko viđenje prirode,
07:38
it's a new humanism, it's a new enchantment.
to je novi humanizam, nova očaranost.
07:41
And I think when you synthesize this research,
Mislim da, kada napravite sintezu ovog istraživanja,
07:44
you start with three key insights.
otpočnete sa tri ključna uvida.
07:46
The first insight is
Prvi uvid je taj da
07:48
that while the conscious mind writes the autobiography of our species,
dok svjesni um piše autobiografiju naše vrste,
07:50
the unconscious mind does most of the work.
nesvjesni um obavlja najveći dio posla.
07:53
And so one way to formulate that is
Mogli bismo reći da
07:57
the human mind can take in millions of pieces of information a minute,
ljudski um može primiti milione informacija u minuti,
07:59
of which it can be consciously aware of about 40.
ali može biti svjestan samo otprilike njih 40.
08:02
And this leads to oddities.
A to vodi ka čudnim stvarima.
08:05
One of my favorite is that people named Dennis
Jedna od mojih omiljenih je da ljudi po imenu Dennis
08:07
are disproportionately likely to become dentists,
imaju disproporcionalnu vjerovatnoću da postanu zubari (Dennis-dentist),
08:09
people named Lawrence become lawyers,
oni koji se zovu Lawrence postaju advokati (Lawrence-lawyer)
08:12
because unconsciously we gravitate toward things
jer nesvjesno gravitiramo ka stvarima
08:14
that sound familiar,
koje zvuči poznato,
08:16
which is why I named my daughter President of the United States Brooks.
a zbog čega sam svoju kćerku nazvao Predsjednica Sjedinjenih Država Brooks.
08:18
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
08:21
Another finding is that the unconscious,
Drugo otkriće je da to nesvjesno,
08:24
far from being dumb and sexualized,
koje je daleko od toga da je glupo i seksualizirano,
08:27
is actually quite smart.
zapravo prilično pametno.
08:29
So one of the most cognitively demanding things we do is buy furniture.
Jedna od kognitivno najzahtjevnijih stvari koje radimo je kupovina namještaja.
08:31
It's really hard to imagine a sofa, how it's going to look in your house.
Zaista je teško zamisliti kako će divan izgledati u vašem domu.
08:34
And the way you should do that
A ono što biste trebali učiniti
08:37
is study the furniture,
je da proučite namještaj,
08:39
let it marinate in your mind, distract yourself,
pustite ga da se marinira u vašim mislima, i da se zanimate nečim drugim,
08:41
and then a few days later, go with your gut,
te da poslije nekoliko dana slijedite osjećaj,
08:43
because unconsciously you've figured it out.
jer ste nesvjesno već odlučili.
08:45
The second insight
Drugi uvid je
08:47
is that emotions are at the center of our thinking.
da su emocije u centru našeg razmišljanja.
08:49
People with strokes and lesions
Ljudi koji su imali moždani udar ili lezije
08:52
in the emotion-processing parts of the brain
u dijelu mozga koji obrađuje emocije
08:54
are not super smart,
nisu super pametni,
08:56
they're actually sometimes quite helpless.
ponekad su zapravo potpuno bespomoćni.
08:58
And the "giant" in the field is in the room tonight
Večeras je sa nama veliki stručnjak u toj oblasti
09:00
and is speaking tomorrow morning -- Antonio Damasio.
-- Antonio Damasio, koji će govoriti sutra.
09:02
And one of the things he's really shown us
Jedna od stvari koje nam je pokazao
09:05
is that emotions are not separate from reason,
je da emocije nisu odvojene od razuma,
09:07
but they are the foundation of reason
već su temelj razuma
09:10
because they tell us what to value.
jer nam kazuju šta da vrjednujemo.
09:12
And so reading and educating your emotions
Čitanje i obrazovanje vaših emocija
09:14
is one of the central activities of wisdom.
su jedna od centralnih aktivnosti mudrosti.
09:16
Now I'm a middle-aged guy.
Evo, ja sam muškarac u srednjim godinama;
09:19
I'm not exactly comfortable with emotions.
nije mi baš prijatno sa emocijama.
09:21
One of my favorite brain stories described these middle-aged guys.
Jedna od mojih omiljenih priča o mozgu opisuje nekoliko muškaraca srednjih godina.
09:23
They put them into a brain scan machine --
Stavljaju ih uređaj u za skeniranje mozga --
09:26
this is apocryphal by the way, but I don't care --
usput, ovo je apokrifično, no nije me briga --
09:29
and they had them watch a horror movie,
i daju im da gledaju horor film,
09:32
and then they had them describe their feelings toward their wives.
a potom ih pitaju da opišu šta osjećaju prema svojim suprugama.
09:35
And the brain scans were identical in both activities.
Snimke mozga su bile identične prilikom obje aktivnosti.
09:39
It was just sheer terror.
To je bio potpuni užas.
09:42
So me talking about emotion
Tako da kada ja pričam o emocijama
09:44
is like Gandhi talking about gluttony,
je kao kada bi Gandhi pričao o proždrljivosti,
09:46
but it is the central organizing process
no to je centralni organizacioni proces
09:48
of the way we think.
načina na koji razmišljamo.
09:50
It tells us what to imprint.
Govori nam šta da zapamtimo.
09:52
The brain is the record of the feelings of a life.
Mozak je skladište osjećanja jednog života.
09:54
And the third insight
I treći uvid
09:56
is that we're not primarily self-contained individuals.
je da nismo prvenstveno samo-dovoljne individue.
09:58
We're social animals, not rational animals.
Mi smo društvene životinje, a ne racionalne životinje.
10:02
We emerge out of relationships,
Izranjamo iz veza,
10:05
and we are deeply interpenetrated, one with another.
i duboko smo prožeti jedni drugima.
10:07
And so when we see another person,
I kada vidimo drugu osobu,
10:10
we reenact in our own minds
u sopstvenim umovima preslikamo
10:12
what we see in their minds.
ono što vidimo u njihovim.
10:14
When we watch a car chase in a movie,
Kada gledamo jurnjavu auta u filmu,
10:16
it's almost as if we are subtly having a car chase.
kao da i mi sami donekle učestvujemo u jurnjavi.
10:18
When we watch pornography,
Kada gledamo pornografiju,
10:21
it's a little like having sex,
pomalo je kao da i sami upražnjavamo seks,
10:23
though probably not as good.
premda, vjerovatno, ne podjednako dobro.
10:25
And we see this when lovers walk down the street,
Vidimo to kada zaljubljeni parovi šetaju ulicom,
10:27
when a crowd in Egypt or Tunisia
kada masu ljudi u Egiptu ili Tunisu
10:30
gets caught up in an emotional contagion,
preplavi emotivni talas,
10:32
the deep interpenetration.
duboko uzajamno prožimanje.
10:34
And this revolution in who we are
A ova revolucija u tome ko smo mi
10:36
gives us a different way of seeing, I think, politics,
omogućava da na drugačiji način posmatramo politiku
10:39
a different way, most importantly,
što je najznačajnije, na drugačiji način
10:42
of seeing human capital.
posmatramo ljudski potencijal.
10:44
We are now children of the French Enlightenment.
Mi smo sada djeca francuskog prosvjetiteljstva.
10:46
We believe that reason is the highest of the faculties.
Vjerujemo da je razum najviša od sposobnosti.
10:50
But I think this research shows
No, mislim da ovo istraživanje pokazuje
10:53
that the British Enlightenment, or the Scottish Enlightenment,
da je britansko prosvjetiteljstvo, ili škotsko prosvjetiteljstvo,
10:55
with David Hume, Adam Smith,
sa Davidom Humom, Adamom Smithom,
10:57
actually had a better handle on who we are --
zapravo imalo bolju ideju o tome ko smo mi --
10:59
that reason is often weak, our sentiments are strong,
razum je često slab, naša osjećanja su jaka,
11:02
and our sentiments are often trustworthy.
a osjećanjima se često može vjerovati.
11:05
And this work corrects that bias in our culture,
Ovaj rad ispravlja tu pristrasnost u našoj kulturi,
11:08
that dehumanizing bias.
tu duboko humanizirajuću pristrasnost.
11:11
It gives us a deeper sense
Daje nam dublji smisao
11:13
of what it actually takes
onoga što je zapravo potrebno
11:15
for us to thrive in this life.
da bismo napredovali u ovom životu.
11:17
When we think about human capital
Kada razmišljamo o ljudskom potencijalu
11:19
we think about the things we can measure easily --
mislimo na ono što možemo lako izmjeriti --
11:21
things like grades, SAT's, degrees,
poput ocjena, prijemnog ispita za koledž, diploma,
11:24
the number of years in schooling.
broja godina obrazovanja.
11:27
What it really takes to do well, to lead a meaningful life,
Ono što je zaista potrebno da bismo vodili smislen život
11:29
are things that are deeper,
je nešto što je mnogo dublje,
11:32
things we don't really even have words for.
nešto za šta čak nemamo riječi.
11:34
And so let me list just a couple of the things
Dopustite mi da nabrojim nekoliko stvari
11:37
I think this research points us toward trying to understand.
ka čijem razumijevanje nas ovo istraživanje upućuje.
11:39
The first gift, or talent, is mindsight --
Prvi dar, ili talenat, je pronicljivost --
11:43
the ability to enter into other people's minds
sposobnost da uđemo u umove drugih
11:46
and learn what they have to offer.
i shvatimo šta imaju za ponuditi.
11:50
Babies come with this ability.
Bebe se rađaju sa tom sposobnošću.
11:52
Meltzoff, who's at the University of Washington,
Meltzoff, sa Univerziteta u Washingtonu,
11:54
leaned over a baby who was 43 minutes old.
nagnuo se nad bebu koja je bila stara 43 minute.
11:56
He wagged his tongue at the baby.
Isplazio joj je jezik.
11:59
The baby wagged her tongue back.
Beba je isplazila svoj jezik zauzvrat.
12:01
Babies are born to interpenetrate into Mom's mind
Bebe su rođene da proniknu u majčin um
12:04
and to download what they find --
i preuzmu ono što nađu --
12:07
their models of how to understand reality.
njihove modele razumevanja stvarnosti.
12:09
In the United States, 55 percent of babies
U Sjedinjenim Državama, 55% beba
12:11
have a deep two-way conversation with Mom
ima dubok dvosmjerni razgovor sa majkama
12:14
and they learn models to how to relate to other people.
i tako usvajaju modele odnošenja prema drugim ljudima.
12:16
And those people who have models of how to relate
A pojedinci koji imaju takve modele odnosa
12:19
have a huge head start in life.
u ogromnoj su prednosti u životu.
12:21
Scientists at the University of Minnesota did a study
Naučnici na Univerzitetu Minnesota su radili studiju
12:23
in which they could predict
u kojoj su mogli predvidjeti
12:25
with 77 percent accuracy, at age 18 months,
sa 77% tačnosti, u dobu od 18 mjeseci,
12:27
who was going to graduate from high school,
ko će maturirati u srednjoj školi,
12:30
based on who had good attachment with mom.
na osnovu toga ko je imao dobru vezu sa majkom.
12:32
Twenty percent of kids do not have those relationships.
20% djece nemaju takvu vrstu odnosa.
12:35
They are what we call avoidantly attached.
Oni su ono što mi nazivamo izbjegavajuće privrženi.
12:38
They have trouble relating to other people.
Imaju teškoća u odnosima prema drugim ljudima.
12:40
They go through life
Idu kroz život
12:42
like sailboats tacking into the wind --
poput jedrilica koje poigravaju na vjetru --
12:44
wanting to get close to people,
žele da se približe ljudima,
12:46
but not really having the models of how to do that.
ali zapravo nemaju modele na koji način da to urade.
12:48
And so this is one skill
I to je jedna od vještina
12:51
of how to hoover up knowledge, one from another.
usvajanja znanja, jedno od drugoga.
12:53
A second skill is equal poise,
Druga vještina je izbalansiranost.
12:55
the ability to have the serenity
Sposobnost da se posjeduje smirenost
12:58
to read the biases and failures in your own mind.
da se prepoznaju predrasude i neuspjesi u sopstvenom umu.
13:00
So for example, we are overconfidence machines.
Na primjer, mi smo uređaji sa pretjeranim samopouzdanjem.
13:03
Ninety-five percent of our professors report
95% naših profesora kažu
13:06
that they are above-average teachers.
da su oni iznad prosječnih nastavnika.
13:09
Ninety-six percent of college students
96% studenata
13:11
say they have above-average social skills.
kažu da posjeduju nadprosječne socijalne vještine.
13:13
Time magazine asked Americans, "Are you in the top one percent of earners?"
Time magazin je pitao Amerikance, "Spadate li vi u onih 1% na samom vrhu po zaradi?"
13:16
Nineteen percent of Americans are in the top one percent of earners.
19% Amerikanaca se nalaze među tih 1%.
13:19
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
13:22
This is a gender-linked trait, by the way.
Usput rečeno, to je i rodna odlika.
13:24
Men drown at twice the rate of women,
Muškarci se utapaju u dvostruko većem broju u odnosu na žene,
13:26
because men think they can swim across that lake.
jer misle da mogu preplivati jezero.
13:28
But some people have the ability and awareness
No, neki ljudi imaju sposobnost i svijest
13:31
of their own biases, their own overconfidence.
o sopstvenim predrasudama, o svom pretjeranom samopouzdanju.
13:34
They have epistemological modesty.
Oni posjeduju epistemološku skromnost.
13:37
They are open-minded in the face of ambiguity.
Otvorenog uma se suočavaju sa dvosmislenošću.
13:39
They are able to adjust strength of the conclusions
U stanju su prilagoditi snagu zaključaka
13:42
to the strength of their evidence.
snazi svojih dokaza.
13:44
They are curious.
Radoznali su.
13:46
And these traits are often unrelated and uncorrelated with IQ.
A ove odlike često nisu povezane, niti imaju bilo kakvu uzajamnu vezu sa koeficijentom inteligencije.
13:48
The third trait is metis,
Treća odlika je medes,
13:51
what we might call street smarts -- it's a Greek word.
ono što zovemo mudrost ulice -- to je grčka riječ.
13:53
It's a sensitivity to the physical environment,
To je osjetljivost na fizičko okruženja,
13:56
the ability to pick out patterns in an environment --
sposobnost razaznavanja obrazaca iz okruženja --
13:58
derive a gist.
izvlačenja srži.
14:00
One of my colleagues at the Times
Jedan od mojih kolega iz Times-a
14:02
did a great story about soldiers in Iraq
je napisao sjajnu priču o vojnicima u Iraku
14:04
who could look down a street and detect somehow
koji bi mogli pogledati niz ulicu i nekako utvrditi
14:06
whether there was an IED, a landmine, in the street.
da li u njoj ima eksplozivnih sredstava, ili nagaznih mina.
14:09
They couldn't tell you how they did it,
Nisu znali objasniti kako to rade,
14:11
but they could feel cold, they felt a coldness,
već bi jednostavno osjetili jezu, osjetili bi hladnoću,
14:13
and they were more often right than wrong.
i mnogo češće su bili u pravu nego što bi pogriješili.
14:16
The third is what you might call sympathy,
Treće je ono što bi se moglo nazvati saosjećanjem,
14:19
the ability to work within groups.
sposobnošću da radimo unutar grupa.
14:21
And that comes in tremendously handy,
A to je nevjerovatno zgodno imati,
14:24
because groups are smarter than individuals.
jer su grupe pametnije od pojedinaca --
14:27
And face-to-face groups are much smarter
a grupe koje sarađuju neposredno su mnogo pametnije
14:29
than groups that communicate electronically,
od grupa koje komuniciraju elektronskim putem,
14:31
because 90 percent of our communication is non-verbal.
jer je 90% naše komunikacije neverbalna.
14:34
And the effectiveness of a group
Efikasnost grupe
14:37
is not determined by the IQ of the group;
nije određena koeficijentom inteligencije grupe,
14:39
it's determined by how well they communicate,
već time koliko uspješno članovi grupe komuniciraju,
14:42
how often they take turns in conversation.
koliko često se smjenjuju u razgovoru.
14:45
Then you could talk about a trait like blending.
A onda možemo pričati o ličnoj crti poput uklapanja.
14:48
Any child can say, "I'm a tiger," pretend to be a tiger.
Svako dijete može reći, "ja sam tigar", i pretvarati se da jeste.
14:51
It seems so elementary.
To izgleda potpuno obično.
14:54
But in fact, it's phenomenally complicated
No, zapravo je izuzetno komplikovano
14:56
to take a concept "I" and a concept "tiger"
uzeti pojam "ja" i pojam "tigar"
14:58
and blend them together.
i spojiti ih zajedno.
15:00
But this is the source of innovation.
Ali to je izvor inovacije.
15:02
What Picasso did, for example,
Picasso je, na primjer,
15:04
was take the concept "Western art"
uzeo koncept zapadnjačke umjetnosti
15:06
and the concept "African masks"
i koncept afričkih maski
15:08
and blend them together --
i spojio ih --
15:10
not only the geometry,
ne samo geometriju,
15:12
but the moral systems entailed in them.
već i moralne sisteme sadržane u njima.
15:14
And these are skills, again, we can't count and measure.
A to su, opet, vještine koje ne možemo brojati niti mjeriti.
15:16
And then the final thing I'll mention
I poslednja stvar koju ću pomenuti
15:18
is something you might call limerence.
je nešto što biste mogli nazvati iskustvom zaljubljivanja.
15:20
And this is not an ability;
To nije sposobnost,
15:22
it's a drive and a motivation.
već poriv i motivacija.
15:24
The conscious mind hungers for success and prestige.
Svjestan um žudi za uspjehom i prestižem.
15:27
The unconscious mind hungers
Nesvjestan um čezne za
15:30
for those moments of transcendence,
onim trenucima transcendentalnog,
15:32
when the skull line disappears
kada fizička granica nestane,
15:34
and we are lost in a challenge or a task --
a mi se izgubimo u izazovu ili zadatku --
15:36
when a craftsman feels lost in his craft,
kada se zanatlija izgubi u svom zanatu,
15:39
when a naturalist feels at one with nature,
kada prirodnjak osjeti jedinstvo sa prirodom,
15:42
when a believer feels at one with God's love.
kada vjernik osjeti da je dio božje ljubavi.
15:45
That is what the unconscious mind hungers for.
To je ono za čim žudi nesvjestan um.
15:48
And many of us feel it in love
Mnogi od nas osjećaju to u ljubavi
15:51
when lovers feel fused.
kad ljubavnici osjećaju jedinstvo.
15:53
And one of the most beautiful descriptions
Jedan od najljepših opisa
15:55
I've come across in this research
na koje sam naišao tokom ovog istraživanja
15:57
of how minds interpenetrate
o tome na koji način se misli prepliću
16:00
was written by a great theorist and scientist
napisao je čuveni teoretičar i naučnik
16:02
named Douglas Hofstadter at the University of Indiana.
po imenu Douglas Hofstadter sa Univerziteta Indiana.
16:04
He was married to a woman named Carol,
Bio je oženjen ženom po imenu Carol,
16:07
and they had a wonderful relationship.
i imali su predivnu vezu.
16:09
When their kids were five and two,
Kada su njihova djeca imala pet i dvije godine,
16:11
Carol had a stroke and a brain tumor and died suddenly.
Carol je imala moždani udar i tumor, i iznenada je preminula.
16:13
And Hofstadter wrote a book
Hofstadter je napisao knjigu
16:17
called "I Am a Strange Loop."
pod nazivom "Ja sam neobična petlja".
16:19
In the course of that book, he describes a moment --
Na jednom mjestu u toj knjizi opisuje trenutak --
16:21
just months after Carol has died --
svega mjesec dana nakon što je Carol umrla --
16:23
he comes across her picture on the mantel,
kadabi pronašao njezinu sliku na polici,
16:26
or on a bureau in his bedroom.
ili na pisaćem stolu u spavaćoj sobi.
16:28
And here's what he wrote:
Napisao je sljedeće:
16:30
"I looked at her face,
"Gledao sam njezino lice,
16:32
and I looked so deeply
i tako duboko sam gledao
16:34
that I felt I was behind her eyes.
da sam osjetio kao da gledam njenim očima.
16:36
And all at once I found myself saying
I odjednom sam se našao kako,
16:38
as tears flowed,
dok su mi suze tekle,
16:40
'That's me. That's me.'
govorim "To sam ja. To sam ja."
16:42
And those simple words
I te jednostavne riječi
16:44
brought back many thoughts that I had had before,
su vratile mnoge misli koje sam nekada imao
16:46
about the fusion of our souls
o spajanju naših duša
16:48
into one higher-level entity,
u jedno biće na višem nivou,
16:50
about the fact that at the core of both our souls
o činjenici da se u suštini naših duša
16:52
lay our identical hopes and dreams for our children,
nalaze naše identične nade i snovi o našoj djeci,
16:55
about the notion that those hopes
o saznanju da te nade
16:59
were not separate or distinct hopes,
nisu odvojene niti različite,
17:01
but were just one hope,
već tek jedna nada,
17:03
one clear thing that defined us both,
jedna jasna stvar koja nas je definisala oboje,
17:05
that welded us into a unit --
koja nas je stopila u jedinku --
17:07
the kind of unit I had but dimly imagined
jedinku kakvu gotovo da nisam mogao zamisliti
17:09
before being married and having children.
dok se nisam oženio i dobio djecu.
17:12
I realized that, though Carol had died,
Shvatio sam da, iako je Carol umrla,
17:15
that core piece of her had not died at all,
taj suštinski dio nje uopšte nije umro,
17:17
but had lived on very determinedly in my brain."
već je odlučno nastavio živjeti u mome mozgu."
17:20
The Greeks say we suffer our way to wisdom.
Grci kažu da patnjom stižemo do mudrosti.
17:24
Through his suffering, Hofstadter understood
Kroz svoju patnju, Hofstadter je shvatio
17:27
how deeply interpenetrated we are.
koliko duboko smo isprepleteni.
17:29
Through the policy failures of the last 30 years,
Kroz političke neuspjehe tokom poslednjih 30 godina,
17:32
we have come to acknowledge, I think,
mislim da smo shvatili
17:35
how shallow our view of human nature has been.
koliko je površno naše viđenje ljudske prirode.
17:38
And now as we confront that shallowness
I sada kada se suočavamo sa tom površnošću
17:41
and the failures that derive from our inability
i neuspjesima koji proizilaze iz naše nesposobnosti
17:44
to get the depths of who we are,
da prodremo u dubine sopstvenog bića,
17:46
comes this revolution in consciousness --
nastupa ova revolucija svijesti --
17:48
these people in so many fields
ti ljudi iz toliko mnogo oblasti
17:50
exploring the depth of our nature
istražuju dubinu naše prirode
17:53
and coming away with this enchanted,
i otkrivaju ovaj začarani,
17:55
this new humanism.
ovaj novi humanizam.
17:57
And when Freud discovered his sense of the unconscious,
A kada je Freud otkrio svoje shvatanje podsvjesnog,
17:59
it had a vast effect on the climate of the times.
to je imalo ogroman uticaj na tadašnje vrijeme.
18:01
Now we are discovering a more accurate vision
Sada otkrivamo tačniju verziju
18:04
of the unconscious, of who we are deep inside,
podsvjesnoga -- onoga što smo duboko iznutra.
18:07
and it's going to have a wonderful and profound
I to će imati predivan i dubok
18:10
and humanizing effect on our culture.
i humanizirajući uticaj na našu kulturu.
18:12
Thank you.
Hvala vam.
18:14
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
18:16
Translated by Mirjana Kosic
Reviewed by Mirjana Jovanovic

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About the speaker:

David Brooks - Op-ed columnist
Writer and thinker David Brooks has covered business, crime and politics over a long career in journalism.

Why you should listen

David Brooks became an Op-Ed columnist for The New York Times in September 2003. He is currently a commentator on "The PBS Newshour," NPR’s "All Things Considered" and NBC's "Meet the Press."

He is the author of Bobos in Paradise and The Social Animal. In April 2015, he released with his fourth book, The Road to Character, which was a #1 New York Times bestseller.

Brooks also teaches at Yale University, and is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.

Born on August 11, 1961 in Toronto, Canada, Brooks graduated a bachelor of history from the University of Chicago in 1983. He became a police reporter for the City News Bureau, a wire service owned jointly by the Chicago Tribune and Sun-Times.

He worked at The Washington Times and then The Wall Street Journal for nine years. His last post at the Journal was as Op-ed Editor. Prior to that, he was posted in Brussels, covering Russia, the Middle East, South Africa and European affairs. His first post at the Journal was as editor of the book review section, and he filled in as the Journal's movie critic.

He also served as a senior editor at The Weekly Standard for 9 years, as well as contributing editor for The Atlantic and Newsweek.

More profile about the speaker
David Brooks | Speaker | TED.com