Nina Fedoroff: A secret weapon against Zika and other mosquito-borne diseases
Nina Fedoroff: Unha arma secreta contra o Zika e outras enfermidades transmitidas por mosquitos.
Nina Fedoroff writes and lectures about the history and science of genetically modified organisms. Full bio
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it's a relatively mild disease --
trátase dunha doenza leve:
joint pain, maybe a rash.
dor nas articulacións, quizais un eccema.
don't even know they've had it.
non sabe sequera que o tivo.
about the Zika virus
have noticed an uptick
un incremento nos últimos andazos
syndrome in recent outbreaks.
síndrome de Guillain-Barré.
attacks your nerve cells
ataca as células nerviosas,
or even totally paralyze you.
and most people recover.
e a maioría recupérase.
when you're infected
no momento da infección
with what's called microcephaly.
in northeastern Brazil
after a Zika outbreak,
tras un andazo de febre de Zika,
in the incidence of microcephaly.
by the Zika virus,
the evidence" type,
and how did it get here?
it came out of Africa,
en concreto do bosque de Zika en Uganda.
Yellow Fever Research Institute
para a Investigación en Febre Amarela
in a monkey in the Zika forest
nun mono da selva de Zika
en Uganda e Tanzania
Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia.
India, Malaisia, Indonesia.
and, of course, mosquitoes.
por suposto, mosquitos.
it was first identified in 1947 and 2007
entre a primeira aparición de 1947 e 2007
of human Zika fever.
on the tiny Micronesian Yap islands.
nas minúsculas illas Yap da Micronesia.
fully 75 percent of the population.
ata ao 75 % da poboación.
commercial airline passengers.
de pasaxeiros de avión.
fly halfway around the world
e voar por medio mundo
if they develop symptoms at all.
(se é que presenta algún).
begin to bite them and spread the fever.
vano picar e espallar a febre.
in 2013 in French Polynesia.
en 2013 na Polinesia francesa.
transmitted locally by the mosquitoes.
en decembro dese ano.
almost 30,000 people were affected.
case 30 000 persoas foron infectadas.
Islands, in New Caledonia,
en Nova Caledonia,
of South America and Easter Island.
e Illa de Pascua.
of a dengue-like syndrome
dunha síndrome similar ao dengue
in northeastern Brazil.
and it spread rapidly --
e estendeuse rapidamente.
center, soon became the epicenter.
axiña se converteu no epicentro.
2014 World Cup soccer fans
os seareiros do Mundial de fútbol de 2014
it was Pacific Islanders
no campionato de canoas
that brought it in.
Central America, Mexico
América Central, México
thousands of cases
were contracted elsewhere.
contraéronse noutra parte.
transmitted locally in Miami.
xa se transmite localmente en Miami.
or about eliminating the mosquitoes.
como en eliminar os mosquitos.
and apply insect repellent.
e botar repelente.
because there isn't a vaccine yet
porque aínda non hai vacina
for a couple of years.
ata dentro dun par de anos.
a foolproof protection either
it can be sexually transmitted.
que se transmite por vía sexual.
insect repellent does work ...
para mosquitos funciona...
and here's how we control them now:
como os controlamos ata hoxe:
because these are toxic chemicals
por tratarse de substancias tóxicas
to kill a person than to kill a bug.
para matar a alguén.
Brazil and Nicaragua.
de Brasil e Nicaragua.
insecticides from planes.
insecticida dende avións.
in Dorchester County, South Carolina,
en Dorchester County (Carolina do Sur),
as recommended by the manufacturer.
como recomenda o fabricante.
contoulles aos xornalistas
like it had been nuked.
arrasada pola bomba atómica.
but spraying continued.
in the number of Zika fever cases.
Tamén os casos de Zika.
aren't very effective.
non son moi efectivos.
perhaps more effective than spraying
máis eficaces cá fumigación
than toxic chemicals?
ca as substancias tóxicas?
do control biolóxico,
author of "Silent Spring,"
autora de Primavera silenciosa,
the environmental movement.
do movemento medioambiental.
as an example,
pest of livestock
extraordinary story today.
when we were writing an editorial
retold that story.
sobre a problemática actual do mosquito.
that's the immature form of the insect --
(é dicir, a forma inmatura do insecto)
grown to adulthood
creceron ata a adultez
all over the Southwest,
por todo o Suroeste, o Sueste,
and into Central America
from little airplanes,
that terrible insect pest
to how we can do that today --
o que podiamos facer hoxe:
but with our knowledge of genetics.
vector of diseases,
Chikungunya, West Nile virus
e a antiga praga, a febre amarela.
that does the dirty work.
to feed her offspring.
para a súa prole.
have the mouth parts to bite.
elementos trabadores na boca.
genetically modified that mosquito
modificou xeneticamente o mosquito
its eggs don't develop to adulthood.
os ovos non chegaran á idade adulta.
when the male mates with the wild female
ao copularen entre eles
just diagrammatically how they do it.
of a mosquito cell,
represents its genome,
by this orange ball
to keep cranking out more of that protein.
cuspindo máis proteína.
go and gum up the mosquitoes' genes,
afectan aos xenes do mosquito
they use a compound called tetracycline.
usaron o composto tetraciclina.
and allows normal development.
permite o desenvolvemento normal.
so that they could study what happens.
para poder estudar o que pasaba.
that makes the insect glow under UV light
que brilla baixo luz ultravioleta
they could follow exactly how far it went
podían seguilo por moi lonxe que fora
and all of the kinds of data
e todos eses datos necesarios
and at this stage
into the males and the females
entre machos e femias,
to grow to adulthood.
that males don't bite.
que os machos non pican.
and drive around the city,
e conduciron pola cidade
releasing the first batch
liberando o primeiro lote
this is an American city, but it's not.
of dengue by 91 percent.
spraying can do.
biological control in the US?
este extraordinario control biolóxico?
a genetically modified organism.
un organismo modificado xeneticamente.
if the FDA would let them
se a FDA lles deixase
when Zika arrives.
cando chegue o Zika.
of GM regulation in the US
da lexislación sobre OMX nos EUA.
regulate genetically modified organisms:
os organismos modificados xeneticamente:
da Alimentación e Medicamentos),
to decide that it would be the FDA
decidir que debería ser a FDA
if that makes any sense.
animal medicamento, se iso ten sentido.
and forth and back and forth
indo de aquí para alá
that this would not harm people,
para a xente
permission to run a little test
para facer un pequeno test este verán
when they Keys had an outbreak of dengue.
cando o brote do dengue.
mosquitoes tested in their community
mosquitos modificados xeneticamente
the internet with this cuddly logo,
en internet con ese logo tan curriño
some 160,000 signatures
in just a couple of weeks
would be permitted at all.
these better ways of controlling insects.
mellores modos de controlar os insectos.
of more than 60 legislators
composto por máis de 60 lexisladores
Secretaria de Saúde,
expedite access for Florida
lle facilite a Florida o acceso
very much more environmentally friendly
e moito máis amigábel co medio ambiente
which are toxic chemicals.
que son substancias tóxicas.
time; it's true today.
e segue a ser así hoxe.
enormously more information
infinitamente máis información
to use that information
para usar esa información
is aroused your curiosity enough
a súa curiosidade o suficiente
not into just GM mosquitoes
non só sobre os mosquitos MX
organisms that are so controversial today.
tan controvertidos agora.
through all of the misinformation,
and the Greenpeaces
ou dos Greenpeaces
the accurate science,
ABOUT THE SPEAKERNina Fedoroff - Molecular biologist
Nina Fedoroff writes and lectures about the history and science of genetically modified organisms.
Why you should listen
Nina Fedoroff serves as science adviser to several organizations, including OFW Law and the Global Knowledge Initiative (GKI) in Washington, DC and the Santa Fe Institute in Santa Fe, NM. With former Secretary of Agriculture Jack Block, she recently published a New York Times editorial titled "Mosquito vs. Mosquito in the Battle Over the Zika Virus."
Fedoroff was trained as a molecular biologist and geneticist at the Rockefeller University in New York City. The university awarded her an honorary doctorate in 2008 as one of its most distinguished alumni on the occasion of its 50th anniversary.
Fedoroff's early scientific accomplishments include analyzing a curious enzyme that replicates the RNA genome of a tiny RNA virus and sequencing of one the first genes ever to be sequenced. On the strength of this work, she was appointed a member of the scientific staff of the Carnegie Institution for Science’s Department of Embryology. Her most important contributions began when she met the legendary biologist Barbara McClintock in 1978. She was intrigued by McClintock’s pioneering work on transposable elements, commonly known as "jumping genes," in corn plants.
McClintock's work was purely genetic, hence Fedoroff set out to study her jumping genes at the molecular level. That meant figuring out how to clone plant genes, none of which had yet been cloned. In fact, people had begun to wonder whether plant genes could be cloned at all. Solving the technical problems, Fedoroff and her students unraveled the molecular details of how these mobile DNA sequences move and how the plants exert epigenetic control of their movement. This work led to her election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1990. Her capstone book on transposable elements entitled Plant Transposons and Genome Dynamics in Evolution ,was published in 2013.
Fedoroff moved the Penn State University in 1995 as the Director of the Biotechnology Institute and Vern M. Willaman Chair in Life Sciences. Here she organized a multidisciplinary graduate and research program now known as the Huck Institute of the Life Sciences. Her laboratory research shifted to understanding how plants respond to stress and how they process small regulatory RNAs from larger precursors. She also began to dance Argentine tango. And she wrote a book with science writer Nancy Marie Brown titled Mendel in the Kitchen: A Scientist’s View of Genetically Modified Foods.
The year 2007 was marked by two extraordinary events in Fedoroff's life. She was named a National Medal of Science laureate for 2006 and she was appointed as the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State by then-Secretary of State Condoleeza Rice. The science advisory position gave her an unexpected bully pulpit to talk about the importance of science in diplomacy, about which she was interviewed by Claudia Dreifus of the New York Times. It also gave her many opportunities to talk about genetic modification and GMOs all over the world. Realizing that development efforts would benefit from increased involvement of scientists, she organized the GKI, an NGO that builds collaborative networks around problems requiring scientific and technological input.
Completing her advisory work at the State Department in 2010, Fedoroff was recruited to the new King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) as a Distinguished Professor of the Life Sciences. At KAUST, Fedoroff organized a Center for Desert Agriculture, seeking to address the difficulties facing agriculture in increasingly populous dryland areas.
Today Fedoroff continues write and lecture internationally, most recently keynoting the 2017 Mantua Food and Science Festival in Mantua, Italy. She continues to dance tango, traveling to Buenos Aires each of the past couple of years.
Nina Fedoroff | Speaker | TED.com