Nina Fedoroff: A secret weapon against Zika and other mosquito-borne diseases
Nina Fedoroff: Uma arma secreta contra a Zika e outras doenças transmitidas por mosquitos
Nina Fedoroff writes and lectures about the history and science of genetically modified organisms. Full bio
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é uma doença relativamente leve:
it's a relatively mild disease --
joint pain, maybe a rash.
e nas articulações, manchas na pele.
don't even know they've had it.
nem sabe que foi infectada,
about the Zika virus
sobre o vírus Zika,
have noticed an uptick
syndrome in recent outbreaks.
de Guillain-Barré em surtos recentes.
attacks your nerve cells
ataca as células nervosas.
or even totally paralyze you.
ou totalmente a pessoa.
e a maioria das pessoas se recupera,
and most people recover.
when you're infected
com uma deformação craniana.
with what's called microcephaly.
com o que chamamos de microcefalia,
in northeastern Brazil
do Nordeste do Brasil
after a Zika outbreak,
após um surto de Zika,
in the incidence of microcephaly.
nas ocorrências de microcefalia.
by the Zika virus,
de que a causa era o Zika,
the evidence" type,
dê uma olhada nessa publicação.
and how did it get here?
e como chegou aos EUA?
it came out of Africa,
ele veio da África,
da floresta Zika, em Uganda.
Yellow Fever Research Institute
da Febre Amarela, nas redondezas,
in a monkey in the Zika forest
num macaco na floresta Zika,
em Uganda e na Tanzânia.
Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia.
Paquistão, Índia, Malásia, Indonésia,
and, of course, mosquitoes.
e, claro, em mosquitos.
it was first identified in 1947 and 2007
foi identificado, em 1947, e 2007,
of human Zika fever.
de Zika em humanos.
minúsculas ilhas de Yap, na Micronésia.
on the tiny Micronesian Yap islands.
fully 75 percent of the population.
75% da população.
commercial airline passengers.
de empresas aéreas.
fly halfway around the world
pode embarcar num avião
antes de desenvolver sintomas,
if they develop symptoms at all.
vão picá-lo, e a doença se espalha.
begin to bite them and spread the fever.
in 2013 in French Polynesia.
na Polinésia Francesa.
transmitted locally by the mosquitoes.
localmente por mosquitos.
almost 30,000 people were affected.
com quase 30 mil pessoas infectadas.
Islands, in New Caledonia,
na Nova Caledônia,
da América do Sul e Ilha de Páscoa.
of South America and Easter Island.
of a dengue-like syndrome
de uma síndrome parecida com a dengue
in northeastern Brazil.
and it spread rapidly --
e se espalhou bem rápido.
center, soon became the epicenter.
uma grande metrópole,
torcedores da Copa do Mundo de 2014
2014 World Cup soccer fans
it was Pacific Islanders
tenham sido ilhéus do Pacífico
de canoagem no Rio, naquele ano,
that brought it in.
localmente por mosquitos
Central America, Mexico
a América do Sul e Central,
thousands of cases
diagnosticados nos EUA
were contracted elsewhere.
em outros países,
transmitido localmente em Miami.
transmitted locally in Miami.
or about eliminating the mosquitoes.
ou eliminar os mosquitos.
onde o vírus circule,
and apply insect repellent.
e aplicar repelente.
pois ainda não existe vacina,
because there isn't a vaccine yet
pelos próximos anos.
for a couple of years.
a foolproof protection either
pode ser transmitido sexualmente.
it can be sexually transmitted.
insect repellent does work ...
se esquece de fazer isso.
and here's how we control them now:
e sabe como os controlamos?
because these are toxic chemicals
que matam pessoas tanto quanto insetos,
to kill a person than to kill a bug.
uma pessoa do que um mosquito.
Brazil and Nicaragua.
do Brasil e da Nicarágua,
inseticida de aviões.
insecticides from planes.
in Dorchester County, South Carolina,
do condado de Dorchester, Carolina do Sul,
"Naled", logo pela manhã,
as recommended by the manufacturer.
uma apicultora contou a jornalistas
ter sofrido um ataque nuclear.
like it had been nuked.
but spraying continued.
o número de casos de Zika,
in the number of Zika fever cases.
não são muito eficazes.
aren't very effective.
talvez mais eficaz do que a pulverização,
perhaps more effective than spraying
than toxic chemicals?
que substâncias químicas?
de controles biológicos,
author of "Silent Spring,"
autora da obra "Primavera Silenciosa",
the environmental movement.
ao movimento ambientalista.
as an example,
ela conta a história
pest of livestock
de gado, bem desagradável,
essa história extraordinária.
extraordinary story today.
ao escrevermos um editorial
when we were writing an editorial
retold that story.
recontamos a história.
that's the immature form of the insect --
prematura do inseto,
grown to adulthood
e foram soltos de aviões
all over the Southwest,
até o México e a América Central,
and into Central America
de pequenos aviões,
from little airplanes,
that terrible insect pest
com esse editorial
to how we can do that today --
como podemos fazer isso hoje,
but with our knowledge of genetics.
com nosso conhecimento de genética.
vector of diseases,
mais comum de doenças:
Chikungunya, West Nile virus
"chicungunha", vírus do oeste do Nilo
conhecida como febre amarela.
that does the dirty work.
to feed her offspring.
para alimentar sua cria.
have the mouth parts to bite.
equipados pra isso.
genetically modified that mosquito
Oxitec modificou geneticamente o mosquito
its eggs don't develop to adulthood.
com uma fêmea na natureza,
when the male mates with the wild female
com a fêmea na natureza,
como eles fazem isso.
just diagrammatically how they do it.
de uma célula de mosquito,
of a mosquito cell,
represents its genome,
representa seu genoma,
by this orange ball
representada por essa bola laranja,
to keep cranking out more of that protein.
mais e mais dessa proteína.
go and gum up the mosquitoes' genes,
deixam os genes do mosquito inoperantes,
usa-se um composto chamado tetraciclina.
they use a compound called tetracycline.
e permite o desenvolvimento normal.
and allows normal development.
so that they could study what happens.
estudar o que acontecia,
that makes the insect glow under UV light
com que o inseto brilhasse sob luz UV,
eles pudessem saber a que distância foi,
they could follow exactly how far it went
and all of the kinds of data
para um bom estudo científico.
e, nesse estágio,
and at this stage
into the males and the females
separados em machos e fêmeas
to grow to adulthood.
cheguem à fase adulta.
that males don't bite.
and drive around the city,
e saem de carro pela cidade,
soltando a primeira leva
releasing the first batch
de uma cidade americana, mas não.
this is an American city, but it's not.
of dengue by 91 percent.
spraying can do.
de inseticida é capaz de fazer.
biological control in the US?
esse controle biológico incrível nos EUA?
a genetically modified organism.
if the FDA would let them
quando o Zika chegasse,
when Zika arrives.
of GM regulation in the US
da regulação sobre OGMs nos EUA.
regulate genetically modified organisms:
de agricultura americano.
to decide that it would be the FDA
para decidir que caberia à FDA
if that makes any sense.
como uma "nova droga animal",
and forth and back and forth
that this would not harm people,
isso não seria prejudicial a pessoas
prejudicial ao ambiente.
permission to run a little test
em meados deste ano,
fosse realizado em Florida Keys,
when they Keys had an outbreak of dengue.
quando a região teve um surto de dengue.
mosquitoes tested in their community
modificados seriam testados na região,
the internet with this cuddly logo,
com esse logotipo bonitinho,
some 160,000 signatures
in just a couple of weeks
would be permitted at all.
these better ways of controlling insects.
desse tipo de controle de insetos.
of more than 60 legislators
de correntes políticas diferentes,
dos EUA, Sylvia Burwell,
expedite access for Florida
a essa nova tecnologia.
very much more environmentally friendly
quanto muito mais amigável ao ambiente
which are toxic chemicals.
que são substâncias tóxicas.
time; it's true today.
de Rachel Carson, e é verdade hoje.
enormously more information
imensamente mais informação
to use that information
de usar essa informação
is aroused your curiosity enough
seu próprio questionamento
not into just GM mosquitoes
organisms that are so controversial today.
organismos geneticamente modificados,
through all of the misinformation,
incorreta e todo o marketing
and the Greenpeaces
orgânica e dos "Green Peaces"
the accurate science,
a ciência correta,
Reviewed by Raissa Mendes
ABOUT THE SPEAKERNina Fedoroff - Molecular biologist
Nina Fedoroff writes and lectures about the history and science of genetically modified organisms.
Why you should listen
Nina Fedoroff serves as science adviser to several organizations, including OFW Law and the Global Knowledge Initiative (GKI) in Washington, DC and the Santa Fe Institute in Santa Fe, NM. With former Secretary of Agriculture Jack Block, she recently published a New York Times editorial titled "Mosquito vs. Mosquito in the Battle Over the Zika Virus."
Fedoroff was trained as a molecular biologist and geneticist at the Rockefeller University in New York City. The university awarded her an honorary doctorate in 2008 as one of its most distinguished alumni on the occasion of its 50th anniversary.
Fedoroff's early scientific accomplishments include analyzing a curious enzyme that replicates the RNA genome of a tiny RNA virus and sequencing of one the first genes ever to be sequenced. On the strength of this work, she was appointed a member of the scientific staff of the Carnegie Institution for Science’s Department of Embryology. Her most important contributions began when she met the legendary biologist Barbara McClintock in 1978. She was intrigued by McClintock’s pioneering work on transposable elements, commonly known as "jumping genes," in corn plants.
McClintock's work was purely genetic, hence Fedoroff set out to study her jumping genes at the molecular level. That meant figuring out how to clone plant genes, none of which had yet been cloned. In fact, people had begun to wonder whether plant genes could be cloned at all. Solving the technical problems, Fedoroff and her students unraveled the molecular details of how these mobile DNA sequences move and how the plants exert epigenetic control of their movement. This work led to her election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1990. Her capstone book on transposable elements entitled Plant Transposons and Genome Dynamics in Evolution ,was published in 2013.
Fedoroff moved the Penn State University in 1995 as the Director of the Biotechnology Institute and Vern M. Willaman Chair in Life Sciences. Here she organized a multidisciplinary graduate and research program now known as the Huck Institute of the Life Sciences. Her laboratory research shifted to understanding how plants respond to stress and how they process small regulatory RNAs from larger precursors. She also began to dance Argentine tango. And she wrote a book with science writer Nancy Marie Brown titled Mendel in the Kitchen: A Scientist’s View of Genetically Modified Foods.
The year 2007 was marked by two extraordinary events in Fedoroff's life. She was named a National Medal of Science laureate for 2006 and she was appointed as the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State by then-Secretary of State Condoleeza Rice. The science advisory position gave her an unexpected bully pulpit to talk about the importance of science in diplomacy, about which she was interviewed by Claudia Dreifus of the New York Times. It also gave her many opportunities to talk about genetic modification and GMOs all over the world. Realizing that development efforts would benefit from increased involvement of scientists, she organized the GKI, an NGO that builds collaborative networks around problems requiring scientific and technological input.
Completing her advisory work at the State Department in 2010, Fedoroff was recruited to the new King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) as a Distinguished Professor of the Life Sciences. At KAUST, Fedoroff organized a Center for Desert Agriculture, seeking to address the difficulties facing agriculture in increasingly populous dryland areas.
Today Fedoroff continues write and lecture internationally, most recently keynoting the 2017 Mantua Food and Science Festival in Mantua, Italy. She continues to dance tango, traveling to Buenos Aires each of the past couple of years.
Nina Fedoroff | Speaker | TED.com