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TEDGlobal 2011

Harald Haas: Wireless data from every light bulb

Harald Haas: Bežićni podaci iz svake žarulje

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Što kad bi svaka žarulja na svijetu također mogla prenositi podatke? Na skupu TEDGlobal, Harald Haas po prvi puta demonstrira uređaj koji može upravo to. Treperenjem svjetlosti iz jedne LED žarulje, brzinom prevelikom da bi to ljudsko oko zabilježilo, on prenosi puno više podataka od mobitelskog tornja -- i čini to na učinkovitiji, sigurniji i rasprostranjeniji način.

- Communications technology innovator
Harald Haas is the pioneer behind a new technology that can communicate as well as illuminate. Full bio

Do you know
Znate li
00:15
that we have 1.4 million cellular radio masts
da imamo 1,4 milijuna mobitelskih antena
00:17
deployed worldwide?
postavljenih širom svijeta?
00:20
And these are base stations.
A to su bazne stanice.
00:22
And we also have
Također imamo
00:24
more than five billion
više od pet milijardi
00:26
of these devices here.
uređaja.
00:28
These are cellular mobile phones.
To su mobilni telefoni.
00:30
And with these mobile phones,
S tim mobitelima,
00:33
we transmit more than 600 terabytes of data
odašiljemo više od 600 terabajta podataka
00:35
every month.
svakoga mjeseca.
00:37
This is a 6 with 14 zeroes --
To je 6 sa 14 nula --
00:39
a very large number.
jako velik broj.
00:41
And wireless communications
A bežične komunikacije
00:43
has become a utility
postaju režije,
00:46
like electricity and water.
poput struje i vode.
00:49
We use it everyday. We use it in our everyday lives now --
Koristimo ih svakodnevno. Koristimo ih u svakodnevnom životu --
00:51
in our private lives, in our business lives.
u privatne svrhe, u poslovne svrhe.
00:54
And we even have to be asked sometimes, very kindly,
Čak nas ponekad zamole, vrlo ljubazno,
00:56
to switch off the mobile phone at events like this
da na skupovima poput ovoga isključimo mobitele,
01:00
for good reasons.
iz dobrih razloga.
01:02
And it's this importance
Ta važnost je razlog zašto sam
01:05
why I decided to look into the issues
odlučio razmotriti probleme
01:07
that this technology has,
koji stoje pred ovom tehnologijom,
01:09
because it's so fundamental to our lives.
jer je tako fundamentalna za naše živote.
01:11
And one of the issues is capacity.
Jedan od tih problema je kapacitet.
01:14
The way we transmit wireless data is by using electromagnetic waves --
Mi prenosimo podatke bežično pomoću elektromagnetnih valova --
01:16
in particular, radio waves.
konkretno, pomoću radio valova.
01:19
And radio waves are limited.
A radio valovi su ograničeni.
01:22
They are scarce; they are expensive;
Oni su rijetki; oni su skupi;
01:24
and we only have a certain range of it.
i pokrivaju samo određeni raspon.
01:26
And it's this limitation
A to se ograničenje
01:30
that doesn't cope
ne može nositi
01:32
with the demand of wireless data transmissions
sa zahtjevima bežičnog prijenosa podataka
01:34
and the number of bytes and data which are transmitted every month.
i s količinom bajtova i podataka koje odašiljemo svaki mjesec.
01:36
And we are simply running out of spectrum.
Naprosto nam ponestaje spektra.
01:39
There's another problem.
Ima i drugi problem.
01:41
That is efficiency.
Učinkovitost.
01:43
These 1.4 million cellular radio masts, or base stations,
Tih 1,4 milijuna mobilnih antena, ili baznih stanica,
01:45
consume a lot of energy.
troši puno energije.
01:48
And mind you, most of the energy
A podsjećam vas, većina energije
01:50
is not used to transmit the radio waves,
nije utrošena u transmisiju radio valova,
01:52
it is used to cool the base stations.
utrošena je u hlađenje baznih stanica.
01:54
Then the efficiency of such a base station
Tako je učinkovitost takve bazne stanice
01:57
is only at about five percent.
samo negdje oko pet posto.
01:59
And that creates a big problem.
I to stvara velik problem.
02:02
Then there's another issue that you're all aware of.
A tu je i problem kojega ste svi svjesni.
02:05
You have to switch off your mobile phone
Morate isključiti svoj mobitel
02:08
during flights.
tijekom leta.
02:10
In hospitals, they are security issues.
U bolnicama, mobiteli su sigurnosno pitanje.
02:12
And security is another issue.
A sigurnost je drugi problem.
02:15
These radio waves penetrate through walls.
Ti radio valovi prolaze kroz zidove.
02:18
They can be intercepted,
Može ih se presresti,
02:20
and somebody can make use of your network
i netko može upotrijebiti vašu mrežu
02:22
if he has bad intentions.
ako ima loše namjere.
02:25
So these are the main four issues.
To su, dakle, četiri glavna problema.
02:27
But on the other hand,
No, s druge strane,
02:29
we have 14 billion of these:
imamo 14 milijardi:
02:31
light bulbs, light.
žarulja, lampi.
02:33
And light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A svjetlost je dio elektromagnetnog spektra.
02:36
So let's look at this in the context
Pa pogledajmo stvar u kontekstu
02:39
of the entire electromagnetic spectrum, where we have gamma rays.
čitavog elektromagnetnog spektra u kojem imamo gama zrake.
02:41
You don't want to get close to gamma rays, it could be dangerous.
Ne želite prići blizu gama zrakama, mogu biti opasne.
02:44
X-rays, useful when you go to hospitals.
X-zrake, korisne kad idete u bolnicu.
02:46
Then there's ultraviolet light.
Zatim je tu ultraljubičasta svjetlost.
02:49
it's good for a nice suntan,
Dobra je za preplanuo ten,
02:51
but otherwise dangerous for the human body.
ali je inače opasna za ljudsko tijelo.
02:53
Infrared --
Infracrvene --
02:55
due to eye safety regulations,
zbog propisa o sigurnosti vida,
02:57
can be only used with low power.
mogu se koristiti samo sa slabom strujom.
02:59
And then we have the radio waves, they have the issues I've just mentioned.
A onda su tu radio valovi, s problemima koje sam spomenuo.
03:01
And in the middle there, we have this visible light spectrum.
A ovdje u sredini, nalazi se spektar vidljive svjetlosti.
03:04
It's light,
To je svjetlost,
03:07
and light has been around for many millions of years.
a svjetlost je tu već mnogo milijuna godina.
03:09
And in fact, it has created us,
U stvari, ona nas je stvorila,
03:11
has created life,
stvorila je život,
03:14
has created all the stuff of life.
stvorila je sve što čini život.
03:16
So it's inherently safe to use.
Pa je inherentno sigurna za upotrebu.
03:18
And wouldn't it be great to use that for wireless communications?
Ne bi li bilo sjajno koristiti je za bežične komunikacije?
03:21
Not only that, I compared [it to] the entire spectrum.
Ne samo to, usporedio sam je sa cijelim spektrom.
03:25
I compared the radio waves spectrum --
Usporedio sam spektar radio valova --
03:28
the size of it --
njegovu veličinu --
03:30
with the size of the visible light spectrum.
s veličinom spektra vidljive svjetlosti.
03:32
And guess what?
I pogodite što?
03:34
We have 10,000 times more of that spectrum,
Imamo 10.000 puta više tog spektra,
03:36
which is there for us to use.
i on nam je na raspolaganju.
03:39
So not only do we have this huge amount of spectrum,
Tako da ne samo da imamo ogromnu količinu spektra,
03:42
let's compare that with a number I've just mentioned.
usporedimo to s brojem koji sam spomenuo.
03:45
We have 1.4 million
Imamo 1,4 milijuna
03:47
expensively deployed,
skupo postavljenih,
03:49
inefficient radio cellular base stations.
neučinkovitih mobilnih radio baznih stanica.
03:51
And multiply that by 10,000,
Pomnožite li to s 10.000,
03:54
then you end up at 14 billion.
dođete do broja od 14 milijardi.
03:56
14 billion is the number of light bulbs installed already.
14 milijardi je broj žarulja koje su već instalirane.
03:58
So we have the infrastructure there.
Dakle, infrastruktura već postoji.
04:01
Look at the ceiling, you see all these light bulbs.
Pogledajte strop, vidite sve te žarulje.
04:03
Go to the main floor, you see these light bulbs.
Odite do glavne pozornice, vidite te žarulje.
04:06
Can we use them for communications?
Možemo li ih koristiti za komunikacije?
04:08
Yes.
Da.
04:10
What do we need to do?
Što moramo učiniti?
04:12
The one thing we need to do
Jedna stvar koju valja učiniti
04:14
is we have to replace these inefficient incandescent light bulbs,
je ta da moramo zamijeniti neučinkovite klasične žarulje,
04:16
florescent lights,
florescentne žarulje,
04:19
with this new technology of LED,
s novom LED tehnologijom,
04:22
LED light bulbs.
LED žaruljama.
04:24
An LED is a semiconductor. It's an electronic device.
LED je poluvodič. On je elektronički sklop.
04:26
And it has a very nice acute property.
I ima vrlo lijepo precizno svojstvo.
04:28
Its intensity can be modulated
Intenzitet se može modulirati
04:32
at very high speeds,
na vrlo visokim brzinama,
04:35
and it can be switched off at very high speeds.
i može ga se isključiti na vrlo visokim brzinama.
04:37
And this is a fundamental basic property
A to je fundamentalno temeljno svojstvo
04:40
that we exploit
koje iskorištavamo
04:42
with our technology.
s našom tehnologijom.
04:44
So let's show how we do that.
Da pokažemo kako to činimo.
04:47
Let's go to the closest neighbor to the visible light spectrum --
Pođimo do najbližeg susjeda spektra vidljive svjetlosti --
04:49
go to remote controls.
daljinskih upravljača.
04:51
You all know remote controls have an infrared LED --
Svi znate da daljinski upravljač ima infracrveni LED --
04:53
basically you switch on the LED, and if it's off, you switch it off.
U principu, uključite LED, ili ga isključite.
04:55
And it creates a simple, low-speed data stream
To stvara jednostavnu struju podataka male brzine
04:58
in 10,000 bits per second,
s 10.000 bita u sekundi,
05:01
20,000 bits per second.
20.000 bita u sekundi.
05:03
Not usable for a YouTube video.
Neupotrebljivo za YouTube video.
05:05
What we have done
Mi smo razvili
05:07
is we have developed a technology
tehnologiju
05:09
with which we can furthermore
s kojom možemo dodatno
05:12
replace the remote control of our light bulb.
zamijeniti daljinski upravljač naše žarulje.
05:15
We transmit with our technology,
S našom tehnologijom prenosimo,
05:17
not only a single data stream,
ne samo jednu struju podataka,
05:19
we transmit thousands of data streams
prenosimo tisuće struja podataka
05:21
in parallel,
paralelno,
05:23
at even higher speeds.
na većim brzinama.
05:25
And the technology we have developed --
Tehnologija koju smo razvili --
05:27
it's called SIM OFDM.
zove se SIM OFDM.
05:29
And it's spacial modulation --
Riječ je o prostornoj modulaciji --
05:31
these are the only technical terms, I'm not going into details --
ovo su tehnički termini, ne upuštam se u detalje --
05:33
but this is how we enabled
ali na taj način smo omogućili
05:36
that light source
da svjetlosno tijelo
05:38
to transmit data.
prenosi podatke.
05:40
You will say, "Okay, this is nice --
Reći ćete, "Okej, to je zgodno --
05:43
a slide created in 10 minutes."
slajd napravljen za 10 minuta."
05:46
But not only that.
Ali nije samo to.
05:48
What we've done
Ono što smo učinili je
05:50
is we have also developed a demonstrator.
da smo također razvili i demonstrator.
05:52
And I'm showing for the first time in public
Prvi puta javno pokazujem
05:55
this visible light demonstrator.
demonstrator vidljive svjetlosti.
05:57
And what we have here
Ovo ovdje nije
05:59
is no ordinary desk lamp.
obična stolna lampa.
06:01
We fit in an LED light bulb,
U LED žarulju,
06:04
worth three U.S. dollars,
koja košta tri američka dolara,
06:06
put in our signal processing technology.
instalirali smo našu tehnologiju za obradu signala.
06:09
And then what we have here is a little hole.
Ovdje imamo mali otvor.
06:11
And the light goes through that hole.
Svjetlost prolazi kroz taj otvor.
06:14
There's a receiver.
Ovdje je prijamnik.
06:16
The receiver will convert these little, subtle changes in the amplitude
Prijamnik će pretvoriti male, suptilne promjene amplitude
06:18
that we create there
koje ovdje stvorimo
06:21
into an electrical signal.
u električni signal.
06:23
And that signal is then converted back
Taj signal se zatim ponovno pretvara
06:25
to a high-speed data stream.
u podatkovnu struju velike brzine.
06:27
In the future we hope
U budućnosti se nadamo
06:29
that we can integrate this little hole
da možemo integrirati ovaj mali otvor
06:31
into these smart phones.
u ove pametne telefone.
06:33
And not only integrate a photo detector here,
I ne samo integrirati foto detektor ovdje,
06:36
but maybe use the camera inside.
već možda i koristiti kameru koja je unutra.
06:39
So what happens
Što se događa
06:43
when I switch on that light?
kad uključim to svjetlo?
06:45
As you would expect,
Kao što biste očekivali,
06:50
it's a light, a desk lamp.
riječ je o svjetlosti, o stolnoj lampi.
06:52
Put your book beneath it and you can read.
Stavite knjigu pod nju i možete čitati.
06:54
It's illuminating the space.
Osvjetljava prostor.
06:57
But at the same time, you see this video coming up here.
Ali istovremeno, vidite video koji pristiže.
06:59
And that's a video, a high-definition video
A to je video, video visoke definicije
07:03
that is transmitted through that light beam.
koji se prenosi kroz tu zraku svjetlosti.
07:06
You're critical.
Kritički ste raspoloženi.
07:08
You think, "Ha, ha, ha.
Mislite, "Ha, ha, ha.
07:10
This is a smart academic doing a little bit of tricks here."
Evo pametnog učenjaka koji malo izvodi trikove."
07:12
But let me do this.
Ali učinimo ovo.
07:15
(Applause)
(Pljesak)
07:19
Once again.
Još jednom.
07:24
Still don't believe?
Još uvijek mi ne vjerujete?
07:27
It is this light
To je ovo svjetlo
07:30
that transmits this high-definition video in a split stream.
koje prenosi video visoke definicije u podijeljenoj struji.
07:32
And if you look at the light,
A ako pogledate svjetlost,
07:36
it is illuminating as you would expect.
ona osvjetljava, kako biste i očekivali.
07:39
You don't notice with your human eye.
Ne primjećujete ljudskim okom.
07:41
You don't notice the subtle changes in the amplitude
Ne primjećujete suptilne promjene amplitude
07:43
that we impress onto this light bulb.
koje smo uveli u ovu žarulju.
07:46
It's serving the purpose of illumination,
Ona služi u rasvjetne svrhe,
07:49
but at the same time, we are able to transmit this data.
ali istovremeno smo u stanju prenositi podatke.
07:51
And you see,
I vidite,
07:54
even light from the ceiling comes down here to the receiver.
čak i svjetlost sa stropa se spušta u prijamnik.
07:56
It can ignore that constant light,
On može ignorirati to konstantno osvjetljenje,
07:59
because all the receiver's interested in
jer je prijamnik zainteresiran samo
08:02
are subtle changes.
za suptilne promjene.
08:04
You also have a critical question now, and
Sad također imate kritičko pitanje,
08:09
you say, "Okay,
kažete, "Dobro,
08:11
do I have to have the light on all the time
moram li neprekidno imati uključeno svjetlo
08:13
to have this working?"
da bi ovo funkcioniralo?"
08:15
And the answer is yes.
A odgovor je - da.
08:17
But, you can dim down the light
Ali možete prigušiti svjetlo
08:19
to a level that it appears to be off.
na razinu na kojoj se čini da je isključeno.
08:23
And you are still able to transmit data -- that's possible.
I još uvijek možete prenositi podatke -- to je moguće.
08:25
So I've mentioned to you the four challenges.
Spomenuo sam vam četiri problema.
08:28
Capacity:
Kapacitet:
08:31
We have 10,000 times more spectrum,
Imamo 10.000 puta više spektra,
08:33
10,000 times more LEDs
10.000 puta više LED žarulja
08:35
installed already in the infrastructure there.
koje su već instalirane.
08:37
You would agree with me, hopefully,
Složit ćete se, nadam se,
08:39
there's no issue of capacity anymore.
da problem kapaciteta više ne postoji.
08:41
Efficiency:
Učinkovitost:
08:43
This is data through illumination --
Podaci dolaze kroz rasvjetu --
08:45
it's first of all an illumination device.
ovo je prvo rasvjetno tijelo.
08:47
And if you do the energy budget,
Ako izračunate energetski proračun,
08:49
the data transmission comes for free --
prijenos podataka je besplatan --
08:52
highly energy efficient.
visoka energetska učinkovitost.
08:54
I don't mention the high energy efficiency
I ne spominjem visoku energetsku učinkovitost
08:56
of these LED light bulbs.
tih LED žarulja.
08:58
If the whole world would deploy them,
Kad bi ih cijeli svijet priključio,
09:00
you would save hundreds of power plants.
uštedjeli biste stotine elektro-postrojenja.
09:02
That's aside.
To je dodatni plus.
09:05
And then I've mentioned the availability.
Spomenuo sam i dostupnost.
09:07
You will agree with me that we have lights in the hospital.
Složit ćete se da imamo svjetla u bolnici.
09:09
You need to see what to do.
Moramo vidjeti što činimo.
09:12
You have lights in an aircraft.
Imate svjetla u letjelicama.
09:14
So it's everywhere in a day there is light.
Svjetlost je posvuda.
09:16
Look around. Everywhere. Look at your smart phone.
Osvrnite se. Posvuda. Pogledajte svoj pametni telefon.
09:18
It has a flashlight, an LED flashlight.
Ima lampu, LED lampu.
09:21
These are potential sources for high-speed data transmission.
To su potencijalni izvori prijenosa podataka visokim brzinama.
09:23
And then there's security.
A tu je i problem sigurnosti.
09:27
You would agree with me
Složit ćete se sa mnom
09:30
that light doesn't penetrate through walls.
da svjetlost ne prodire kroz zidove.
09:32
So no one, if I have a light here,
Tako da nitko, ako ovdje imam svjetlo,
09:35
if I have secure data,
ako imam sigurne podatke,
09:37
no one on the other side of this room through that wall
nitko s druge strane ne može kroza zid
09:39
would be able to read that data.
pročitati te podatke.
09:41
And there's only data where there is light.
I podaci su samo ondje gdje ima svjetla.
09:43
So if I don't want that receiver to receive the data,
Pa ako ne želim da prijamnik prima podatke,
09:46
then what I could do,
tada mogu učiniti ovo,
09:50
turn it away.
okrenuti ga.
09:54
So the data goes in that direction, not there anymore.
Pa podaci idu u onom smjeru, nema ih više.
09:57
Now we can in fact see where the data is going to.
Sada zapravo možemo vidjeti kamo idu podaci.
09:59
So for me,
Pa za mene,
10:05
the applications of it,
primjena ovoga,
10:08
to me, are beyond imagination at the moment.
trenutno nadilazi maštu.
10:11
We have had a century of very nice, smart application developers.
Imali smo stoljeće razvijatelja pametnih aplikacija.
10:15
And you only have to notice, where we have light,
I morate samo primijetiti, gdje imamo svjetlost,
10:19
there is a potential way to transmit data.
tu je i potencijal za prijenos podataka.
10:22
But I can give you a few examples.
Mogu vam dati nekoliko primjera.
10:25
Well you may see the impact already now.
Možda već sad možete vidjeti učinak.
10:28
This is a remote operated vehicle
Ovo je plovilo na daljinsko upravljanje
10:32
beneath the ocean.
pod površinom oceana.
10:34
And they use light to illuminate space down there.
Koriste svjetlost da osvijetle prostor ondje dolje.
10:36
And this light can be used to transmit wireless data
Ta svjetlost se može upotrijebiti za bežični prijenos podataka
10:39
that these things [use] to communicate with each other.
koje ta plovila koriste za međusobnu komunikaciju.
10:41
Intrinsically safe environments
U intrinzično sigurnim okružjima
10:44
like this petrochemical plant --
poput ovog petrokemijskog postrojenja --
10:46
you can't use RF, it may generate antenna sparks,
ovdje ne možete koristiti RF, zbog iskrenja antena,
10:48
but you can use light -- you see plenty of light there.
ali možete koristiti svjetlost -- vidite da ima mnoštvo svjetla.
10:51
In hospitals,
U bolnicama,
10:54
for new medical instruments;
za nove medicinske instrumente;
10:56
in streets for traffic control.
na ulicama za kontrolu prometa.
10:59
Cars have LED-based headlights, LED-based back lights,
Auti imaju farove na bazi LED-a, stražnja svjetla na bazi LED-a,
11:02
and cars can communicate with each other
i automobili mogu komunicirati jedan s drugim
11:05
and prevent accidents
i spriječiti nesreće
11:07
in the way that they exchange information.
pomoću razmjene informacija.
11:10
Traffic lights can communicate to the car and so on.
Prometni uređaji mogu komunicirati s autima, itd.
11:13
And then you have these millions of street lamps
A imate i milijune uličnih lampi
11:16
deployed around the world.
postavljenih širom svijeta.
11:19
And every street lamp could be a free access point.
I svaka lampa bi mogla biti besplatni pristupni čvor.
11:22
We call it, in fact, a Li-Fi,
Mi to zovemo Li-Fi,
11:24
light-fidelity.
svjetlosna vjernost (light-fidelity).
11:26
And then we have these aircraft cabins.
Imamo i kokpite letjelica.
11:28
There are hundreds of lights in an aircraft cabin,
U kokpitu je na stotine žaruljica,
11:32
and each of these lights
i svako od tih svjetala
11:36
could be a potential transmitter of wireless data.
može biti potencijalni odašiljač bežičnih podataka.
11:38
So you could enjoy your most favorite TED video
Pa biste mogli uživati u omiljenom TED videu
11:41
on your long flight back home.
tijekom dugog leta kući.
11:44
Online life. So that is a vision, I think, that is possible.
Život online. To je vizija za koju mislim da je moguća.
11:46
So, all we would need to do
Dakle, sve što bismo trebali učiniti je
11:55
is to fit a small microchip
staviti mali mikročip
11:57
to every potential illumination device.
u svaki potencijalni rasvjetni uređaj.
11:59
And this would then combine
I ono bi tada kombiniralo
12:02
two basic functionalities:
dvije osnovne funkcionalnosti:
12:05
illumination and wireless data transmission.
rasvjetu i bežični prijenos podataka.
12:07
And it's this symbiosis that I personally believe
I ta je simbioza ona, kako vjerujem,
12:09
could solve the four essential problems
koja može riješiti četiri temeljna problema
12:12
that face us in wireless communication these days.
s kojima smo suočeni danas u bežičnim komunikacijama.
12:14
And in the future,
A u budućnosti,
12:17
you would not only have 14 billion light bulbs,
ne samo da biste imali 14 milijardi žarulja,
12:19
you may have 14 billion Li-Fis
imali biste 14 milijardi Li-Fi-jeva
12:22
deployed worldwide --
razasutih posvuda --
12:25
for a cleaner, a greener,
za čistiju, zeleniju,
12:27
and even a brighter future.
pa čak i svjetliju budućnost.
12:29
Thank you.
Hvala vam.
12:31
(Applause)
(Pljesak)
12:33
Translated by Davorin Jelačić
Reviewed by Tilen Pigac - EFZG

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About the speaker:

Harald Haas - Communications technology innovator
Harald Haas is the pioneer behind a new technology that can communicate as well as illuminate.

Why you should listen

Imagine using your car headlights to transmit data ... or surfing the web safely on a plane, tethered only by a line of sight. Harald Haas is working on it. He currently holds the Chair of Mobile Communications at the University of Edinburgh, and is co-founder and Chief Scientific Officer of pureLiFi Ltd as well as the Director of the LiFi Research and Development Center at the University of Edinburgh. His main research interests are in optical wireless communications, hybrid optical wireless and RF communications, spatial modulation, and interference coordination in wireless networks.

Haas has long been studying ways to communicate electronic data signals, designing modulation techniques that pack more data onto existing networks. But his latest work leaps beyond wires and radio waves to transmit data via an LED bulb that glows and darkens faster than the human eye can see. His group published the first proof-of-concept results demonstrating that it is possible to to turn commercially available light emitting diode (LED) light bulbs into broadband wireless transmission systems. 

"It should be so cheap that it's everywhere," he says. "Using the visible light spectrum, which comes for free, you can piggy-back existing wireless services on the back of lighting equipment."

More profile about the speaker
Harald Haas | Speaker | TED.com