ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Mark Pagel - Evolutionary biologist
Using biological evolution as a template, Mark Pagel wonders how languages evolve.

Why you should listen

Mark Pagel builds statistical models to examine the evolutionary processes imprinted in human behavior, from genomics to the emergence of complex systems -- to culture. His latest work examines the parallels between linguistic and biological evolution by applying methods of phylogenetics, or the study of evolutionary relatedness among groups, essentially viewing language as a culturally transmitted replicator with many of the same properties we find in genes. He’s looking for patterns in the rates of evolution of language elements, and hoping to find the social factors that influence trends of language evolution.
 
At the University of Reading, Pagel heads the Evolution Laboratory in the biology department, where he explores such questions as, "Why would humans evolve a system of communication that prevents them with communicating with other members of the same species?" He has used statistical methods to reconstruct features of dinosaur genomes, and to infer ancestral features of genes and proteins.

He says: "Just as we have highly conserved genes, we have highly conserved words. Language shows a truly remarkable fidelity."

More profile about the speaker
Mark Pagel | Speaker | TED.com
TEDGlobal 2011

Mark Pagel: How language transformed humanity

Mark Pagel: Kako je jezik transformisao čovječanstvo

Filmed:
1,587,545 views

Biolog Mark Pagel predstavlja intrigantnu teoriju o razlogu zbog kojeg su ljudi razvili složen jezički sistem kakav imamo danas. On sugeriše da je jezik dio "društvene tehnologije" koja je ranim ljudskim plemenima omogućila prustup novom moćnom oruđu: saradnji.
- Evolutionary biologist
Using biological evolution as a template, Mark Pagel wonders how languages evolve. Full bio

Double-click the English transcript below to play the video.

00:15
Each of you possesses
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Svako od vas posjeduje
00:17
the most powerful, dangerous and subversive trait
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najmoćniju, najopasniju i nasubverzivniju osobinu
00:20
that natural selection has ever devised.
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ikada stvorenu prirodnom selekcijom.
00:23
It's a piece of neural audio technology
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To je dio neuralno-audio tehnologije
00:26
for rewiring other people's minds.
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za ponovno uvezivanje ljudskih umova.
00:28
I'm talking about your language, of course,
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Naravno, govorim o jeziku
00:31
because it allows you to implant a thought from your mind
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jer jezik omogućava da misao iz svoje glave
00:34
directly into someone else's mind,
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direktno usadite u nečiju glavu,
00:37
and they can attempt to do the same to you,
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isto kao što i oni mogu pokušati da to isto urade vama,
00:39
without either of you having to perform surgery.
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a da nijedno vas ne mora izvršiti hiruršku operaciju.
00:42
Instead, when you speak,
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Umjesto toga, kada govorite,
00:44
you're actually using a form of telemetry
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vi zapravo koristite vid telemetrije
00:46
not so different
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koja se ne razlikuje pretjerano
00:48
from the remote control device for your television.
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od daljinskog upravljača za vaš televizor.
00:50
It's just that, whereas that device
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Jedina razlika je da dok se taj upravljač
00:52
relies on pulses of infrared light,
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oslanja na signale infracrvenog svjetla,
00:54
your language relies on pulses,
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vaš jezik se oslanja na pulsiranje,
00:57
discrete pulses, of sound.
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diskretno pulsiranje zvuka.
00:59
And just as you use the remote control device
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I kao što koristite daljinski upravljač
01:02
to alter the internal settings of your television
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da biste promijenili unutrašnji seting vašeg televizora
01:04
to suit your mood,
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kako bi odgovarao vašem raspoloženju,
01:06
you use your language
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koristite jezik
01:08
to alter the settings inside someone else's brain
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kako biste izmijenili postavke unutar nečijeg mozga
01:10
to suit your interests.
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u skladu sa vašim interesima.
01:12
Languages are genes talking,
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Jezici su geni koji govore,
01:14
getting things that they want.
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i koji dobiju ono što požele.
01:16
And just imagine the sense of wonder in a baby
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Samo zamislite osjećaj čuđenja kod bebe
01:19
when it first discovers that, merely by uttering a sound,
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kada po prvi put otkrije da tek prostim izgovaranjem zvuka,
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it can get objects to move across a room
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može pomjerati predmete po prostoriji
01:24
as if by magic,
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kao čarolijom,
01:26
and maybe even into its mouth.
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a možda ih čak pomjeriti ravno u svoja usta.
01:29
Now language's subversive power
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Subverzivna moć jezika
01:31
has been recognized throughout the ages
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je već vijekovima prepoznata
01:33
in censorship, in books you can't read,
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kroz cenzuru, u knjigama koje ne možete pročitati,
01:35
phrases you can't use
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rečenicama koje ne smijete koristiti
01:37
and words you can't say.
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i riječima koje ne možete reći.
01:39
In fact, the Tower of Babel story in the Bible
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Zapravo, priča o Vavilonskoj kuli u Svetom pismu
01:42
is a fable and warning
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je basna i upozorenje
01:44
about the power of language.
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o moći jezika.
01:46
According to that story, early humans developed the conceit
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Prema toj priči, prvi ljudi su uobrazili
01:49
that, by using their language to work together,
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da bi, koristeći se svojim jezicima kako bi ostvarili saradnju,
01:51
they could build a tower
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mogli sagraditi kulu
01:53
that would take them all the way to heaven.
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kojom bi se popeli sve do samih nebesa.
01:55
Now God, angered at this attempt to usurp his power,
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A onda je Bog, razljućen tim pokušajem nezakonitog prisvajanja njegove moći,
01:58
destroyed the tower,
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uništio kulu,
02:01
and then to ensure
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a da bi osigurao
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that it would never be rebuilt,
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da više nikada neće biti ponovno izgrađena,
02:05
he scattered the people by giving them different languages --
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raspršio je ljude tako što im je dao različite jezike --
02:08
confused them by giving them different languages.
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odnosno, zbunio ih je dajući im različite jezike.
02:11
And this leads to the wonderful irony
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I u tome je predivna ironija
02:13
that our languages exist to prevent us from communicating.
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da naši jezici postoje kako bi nas spriječili da komuniciramo.
02:16
Even today,
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Čak i danas
02:18
we know that there are words we cannot use,
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znamo da postoje riječi koje ne možemo koristiti,
02:20
phrases we cannot say,
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rečenice koje ne smijemo reći,
02:22
because if we do so,
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jer ukoliko to učinimo,
02:24
we might be accosted, jailed,
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možemo biti verbalno napadnuti, završiti u zatvoru,
02:27
or even killed.
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ili čak ubijeni.
02:29
And all of this from a puff of air
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I sve to iz daška vazduha
02:31
emanating from our mouths.
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koji izlazi iz naših usta.
02:33
Now all this fuss about a single one of our traits
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I sva ova zbrka oko jedne jedine od naših osobina
02:36
tells us there's something worth explaining.
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kazuje nam da postoji nešto vrijedno objašnjenja.
02:38
And that is how and why
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A to je kako i zbog čega
02:40
did this remarkable trait evolve,
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se ta nevjerovatna osobina razvila
02:42
and why did it evolve
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i zašto se razvila
02:44
only in our species?
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samo među našom vrstom?
02:46
Now it's a little bit of a surprise
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Malo je iznenađujuće
02:48
that to get an answer to that question,
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da ako želimo dobiti odgovor na to pitanje,
02:50
we have to go to tool use
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moramo da se vratimo na upotrebu pomagala
02:52
in the chimpanzees.
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kod šimpanzi.
02:54
Now these chimpanzees are using tools,
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Evo ove šimpanze koriste pomagala
02:56
and we take that as a sign of their intelligence.
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i mi mislimo da je to znak njihove inteligencije.
02:59
But if they really were intelligent,
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Ako ako su zaista tako inteligentne,
03:01
why would they use a stick to extract termites from the ground
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zašto koriste štap umjesto lopate
03:04
rather than a shovel?
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da bi iščeprkali termite iz zemlje?
03:06
And if they really were intelligent,
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I ako su zaista tako inteligentne,
03:09
why would they crack open nuts with a rock?
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zašto tucaju orahe kamenom?
03:11
Why wouldn't they just go to a shop and buy a bag of nuts
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Zašto jednostavno ne odu u prodavnicu i kupe vreću oraha
03:14
that somebody else had already cracked open for them?
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koje je neko već očistio za njih?
03:17
Why not? I mean, that's what we do.
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Zašto? Hoću reći, to je ono što bismo mi uradili.
03:19
Now the reason the chimpanzees don't do that
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A razlog zbog kojeg šimpanze to ne čine
03:21
is that they lack what psychologists and anthropologists call
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jeste zato što im nedostaje ono što psiholozi i antropolozi nazivaju
03:24
social learning.
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društvenom vještinom.
03:26
They seem to lack the ability
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Čini se da im nedostaje sposobnost
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to learn from others
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da uče od drugih
03:30
by copying or imitating
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kopirajući ili imitirajući ih,
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or simply watching.
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ili jednostavno posmatrajući.
03:34
As a result,
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Kao rezultat,
03:36
they can't improve on others' ideas
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oni ne mogu unaprijediti tuđe ideje
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or learn from others' mistakes --
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niti naučiti nešto iz tuđih grešaka --
03:40
benefit from others' wisdom.
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izvući korist iz mudrosti drugih.
03:42
And so they just do the same thing
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I stoga stalno rade jedno te isto
03:44
over and over and over again.
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iznova i iznova.
03:46
In fact, we could go away for a million years and come back
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Zapravo, kada bismo sada napustili ovaj svijet i vratili se nakon milion godina
03:50
and these chimpanzees would be doing the same thing
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ove šimpanze bi i dalje radile istu stvar
03:53
with the same sticks for the termites
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sa istim štapićima za kopanje termita
03:55
and the same rocks to crack open the nuts.
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i istim kamenjem za tucanje oraha.
03:58
Now this may sound arrogant, or even full of hubris.
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Ovo možda zvuči arogantno, ili čak puno oholosti.
04:01
How do we know this?
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Kako to znamo?
04:03
Because this is exactly what our ancestors, the Homo erectus, did.
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Zato što je to upravo ono što je naš predak, Homo erectus, činio.
04:06
These upright apes
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Ti uspravni majmuni
04:08
evolved on the African savanna
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su nastali u afričkoj savani
04:10
about two million years ago,
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prije otprilike dva miliona godina,
04:12
and they made these splendid hand axes
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i napravili su ove izvrsne sjekire
04:14
that fit wonderfully into your hands.
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koje su savršeno prilagođene obliku naših ruku.
04:16
But if we look at the fossil record,
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Ali ako bismo pogledali sačuvane registre fosila,
04:18
we see that they made the same hand axe
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vidjeli bismo da su pravili iste sjekire
04:21
over and over and over again
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iznova i iznova
04:23
for one million years.
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cijelih milion godina.
04:25
You can follow it through the fossil record.
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Možete to pratiti kroz registar fosila.
04:27
Now if we make some guesses about how long Homo erectus lived,
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Ako napravimo nekoliko pretpostavki o tome koliko je Homo erectus živio,
04:29
what their generation time was,
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koliko dug je bio njegov životni vijek,
04:31
that's about 40,000 generations
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to je oko 40.000 generacija
04:34
of parents to offspring, and other individuals watching,
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od roditelja do potomaka i ostalih pojedinaca,
04:37
in which that hand axe didn't change.
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tokom kojih se njihova sjekira nije promijenila.
04:39
It's not even clear
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Čak nije jasno
04:41
that our very close genetic relatives, the Neanderthals,
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da li su naši genetski bliski rođaci, Neandertalci,
04:43
had social learning.
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posjedovali društvene vještine.
04:45
Sure enough, their tools were more complicated
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Sasvim sigurno, njihova oruđa su bila komplikovanija
04:48
than those of Homo erectus,
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od oruđa koja je koristio Homo erectus,
04:50
but they too showed very little change
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ali su se jako malo promijenila
04:52
over the 300,000 years or so
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tokom perioda od nekih 300.000 godina
04:55
that those species, the Neanderthals,
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kada su te vrste, Neandertalci,
04:57
lived in Eurasia.
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živjeli u Euroaziji.
04:59
Okay, so what this tells us
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U redu, znači to nam kazuje
05:01
is that, contrary to the old adage,
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da, suprotno staroj poslovici,
05:04
"monkey see, monkey do,"
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"majmun vidi, majmun uradi"
05:07
the surprise really is
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iznenađenje je zapravo u tome
05:09
that all of the other animals
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da sve ostale životinje
05:11
really cannot do that -- at least not very much.
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zapravo to ne mogu učiniti -- ili barem ne u velikoj mjeri.
05:14
And even this picture
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Pa čak i ova slika
05:16
has the suspicious taint of being rigged about it --
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ima sumnjiv znak prevare u sebi --
05:19
something from a Barnum & Bailey circus.
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nešto poput scene iz cirkuske predstave.
05:21
But by comparison,
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No, u usporedbi sa njima
05:23
we can learn.
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mi možemo učiti.
05:25
We can learn by watching other people
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Možemo naučiti posmatrajući druge
05:28
and copying or imitating
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i kopirajući ili imitirajući
05:30
what they can do.
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ono što oni rade.
05:32
We can then choose, from among a range of options,
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Potom možemo odabrati, iz niza opcija,
05:35
the best one.
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onu najbolju.
05:37
We can benefit from others' ideas.
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Možemo profitirati iz tuđih ideja.
05:39
We can build on their wisdom.
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Možemo nadograditi na njihovu mudrost.
05:41
And as a result, our ideas do accumulate,
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A kao rezultat, naše ideje se gomilaju,
05:44
and our technology progresses.
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i naše tehnologije se unaprjeđuju.
05:48
And this cumulative cultural adaptation,
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I ova kumulativna kulturna adaptacija,
05:53
as anthropologists call
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kako bi je antropolozi nazvali,
05:55
this accumulation of ideas,
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ova akumulacija ideja,
05:57
is responsible for everything around you
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je odgovorna za sve što je oko vas
05:59
in your bustling and teeming everyday lives.
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u vašim užurbanim i prepunin svakodnevnim životima.
06:01
I mean the world has changed out of all proportion
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Mislim, svijet se izmijenio izvan svih proporcija
06:03
to what we would recognize
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do onoga što smo mogli prepoznati
06:05
even 1,000 or 2,000 years ago.
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čak prije 1.000 ili 2.000 godina.
06:08
And all of this because of cumulative cultural adaptation.
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A sve to zbog kumulativne kulturne adaptacije.
06:11
The chairs you're sitting in, the lights in this auditorium,
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Stolice na kojima sjedite, svjetla u ovom auditorijumu,
06:13
my microphone, the iPads and iPods that you carry around with you --
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moj mikrofon, iPad-ovi i iPod-ovi koje nosite sa sobom posvuda --
06:16
all are a result
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su svi rezultat
06:18
of cumulative cultural adaptation.
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kumulativne kulturne adaptacije.
06:20
Now to many commentators,
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Za mnoge komentatore,
06:24
cumulative cultural adaptation, or social learning,
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kumulativna kulturna adaptacija, ili socijalna vještina,
06:27
is job done, end of story.
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su završen posao, kraj priče.
06:30
Our species can make stuff,
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Naša vrsta može praviti stvari,
06:33
therefore we prospered in a way that no other species has.
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znači, mi smo prosperirali na način na koji niti jedna druga vrsta nije.
06:36
In fact, we can even make the "stuff of life" --
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Zapravo, mi čak možemo napraviti "životnu tvar" --
06:39
as I just said, all the stuff around us.
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kao što rekoh, sve što je oko nas.
06:41
But in fact, it turns out
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No, zapravo se ispostavlja
06:43
that some time around 200,000 years ago,
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da je prije otprilike nekih 200.000 godina,
06:46
when our species first arose
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kada se naša vrsta po prvi put uspravila
06:48
and acquired social learning,
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i usvojila sposobnost socijalnog učenja,
06:50
that this was really the beginning of our story,
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da je to zaista početak naše priče,
06:52
not the end of our story.
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a ne njezin kraj.
06:54
Because our acquisition of social learning
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Zbog toga što je naše usvajanje socijalnog učenja
06:57
would create a social and evolutionary dilemma,
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stvorilo socijalnu i evolucionarnu dilemu,
07:00
the resolution of which, it's fair to say,
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čije bi rješenje, ispravno je reći,
07:03
would determine not only the future course of our psychology,
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odredilo ne samo budućnost naše psihologije,
07:07
but the future course of the entire world.
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već i budući pravac cijeloga svijeta.
07:09
And most importantly for this,
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A ono što je najznačajnije,
07:12
it'll tell us why we have language.
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kazaće nam zbog čega posjedujemo jezik.
07:15
And the reason that dilemma arose
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Razlog zbog kojeg je došlo do te dileme je,
07:17
is, it turns out, that social learning is visual theft.
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kako se ispostavlja, da je socijalno učenje vizuelna krađa.
07:20
If I can learn by watching you,
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Ako ja mogu naučiti posmatrajući vas,
07:23
I can steal your best ideas,
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mogu ukrasti vaše najbolje ideje,
07:25
and I can benefit from your efforts,
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i mogu imati korist od vaših napora,
07:28
without having to put in the time and energy that you did
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a da ne uložim istu količinu vremena i energije koju ste vi uložili
07:30
into developing them.
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da biste ih razvili.
07:32
If I can watch which lure you use to catch a fish,
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Ako mogu posmatrati koji mamac koristite da uhvatim ribu,
07:35
or I can watch how you flake your hand axe
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ili kako oštrite vašu sjekiru
07:37
to make it better,
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da biste je učinili boljom,
07:39
or if I follow you secretly to your mushroom patch,
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ili ako vas krišom slijedim do vašeg proplanka sa gljivama,
07:42
I can benefit from your knowledge and wisdom and skills,
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mogu profitirati iz vašeg znanja i mudrosti i vještina,
07:45
and maybe even catch that fish
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a možda čak i uhvatiti ribu
07:47
before you do.
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prije vas.
07:49
Social learning really is visual theft.
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Društvena vještina je vizuelna krađa.
07:52
And in any species that acquired it,
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I svaka vrsta koje posjeduje do znanje,
07:54
it would behoove you
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bi trebala
07:56
to hide your best ideas,
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da sakrije svoje najbolje ideje,
07:58
lest somebody steal them from you.
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kako ih neko ne bi ukrao od vas.
08:02
And so some time around 200,000 years ago,
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I tako, prije nekih 200.000 godina
08:05
our species confronted this crisis.
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naša vrsta se suočila sa ovom krizom.
08:08
And we really had only two options
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I zaista, imali smo samo dvije mogućnosti
08:11
for dealing with the conflicts
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da riješimo sukobe
08:13
that visual theft would bring.
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koji bi nastali usljed vizualne krađe.
08:15
One of those options
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Jedna od mogućnosti
08:17
was that we could have retreated
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je bila da se povučemo
08:20
into small family groups.
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u male porodične skupine.
08:22
Because then the benefits of our ideas and knowledge
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Tada bi dobrobiti naših ideja i znanja
08:25
would flow just to our relatives.
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išle samo našim rođacima.
08:27
Had we chosen this option,
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Da smo smo se odlučili za ovu mogućnost,
08:29
sometime around 200,000 years ago,
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prije nekih 200.000 godina,
08:32
we would probably still be living like the Neanderthals were
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vjerovatno bismo još uvijek živjeli kao što su Neandertalci
08:35
when we first entered Europe 40,000 years ago.
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živjeli kada smo po prvi put ušli u Evropu prije 40.000 godina.
08:38
And this is because in small groups
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A to je zbog toga što u malim grupama
08:40
there are fewer ideas, there are fewer innovations.
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ima manje ideja, manje inovacija.
08:43
And small groups are more prone to accidents and bad luck.
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I male grupe su sklonije nesrećama i lošoj sreći.
08:46
So if we'd chosen that path,
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Znači, da smo odabrali taj pravac,
08:48
our evolutionary path would have led into the forest --
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naš evolucijski put bi nas odveo u šumu --
08:51
and been a short one indeed.
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i bio bi zaista kratak.
08:53
The other option we could choose
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Druga mogućnost koju smo mogli odabrati
08:55
was to develop the systems of communication
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bila je da razvijemo sisteme komunikacije
08:58
that would allow us to share ideas
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koji bi nam omogućili da dijelimo ideje
09:00
and to cooperate amongst others.
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i sarađujemo sa drugima.
09:03
Choosing this option would mean
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Biranje te mogućnosti bi značilo
09:05
that a vastly greater fund of accumulated knowledge and wisdom
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da će neuporedivo veći izvor nakupljenog znanja i mudrosti
09:08
would become available to any one individual
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biti dostupan svakom pojedincu
09:11
than would ever arise from within an individual family
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nego što bi ikada proizišlo unutar pojedinačne porodice
09:14
or an individual person on their own.
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ili samog pojedinca.
09:18
Well, we chose the second option,
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Pa, odabrali smo drugu mogućnost
09:21
and language is the result.
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i jezik je rezultat toga.
09:24
Language evolved to solve the crisis
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Jezik je evoluirao kako bi razriješio krizu
09:26
of visual theft.
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vizualne krađe.
09:28
Language is a piece of social technology
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Jezik je dio socijalne tehnologije
09:31
for enhancing the benefits of cooperation --
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za unapređenje dobrobiti saradnje --
09:34
for reaching agreements, for striking deals
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za ostvarivanje sporazuma, za sklapanje dogovora
09:37
and for coordinating our activities.
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i za koordiniranje naših aktivnosti.
09:41
And you can see that, in a developing society
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I možete vidjeti da, u razvijenom društvu
09:43
that was beginning to acquire language,
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koje je počelo sa usvajanjem jezika,
09:45
not having language
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ne posjedovati jezik
09:47
would be a like a bird without wings.
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bi bilo poput ptice bez krila.
09:49
Just as wings open up this sphere of air
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Upravo kao što krila otvaraju ovu sferu vazduha
09:52
for birds to exploit,
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da bi je ptice istražile,
09:54
language opened up the sphere of cooperation
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jezik je otvorio sferu saradnje
09:56
for humans to exploit.
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kako bi je ljudi istražili.
09:58
And we take this utterly for granted,
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I mi to u potpunosti uzimamo zdravo za gotovo,
10:00
because we're a species that is so at home with language,
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jer smo mi vrsta koja osjeća da je jezik nešto sasvim prirodno,
10:03
but you have to realize
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no morate shvatiti
10:05
that even the simplest acts of exchange that we engage in
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da čak i najednostavniji čin razmjene u koji se uključimo
10:08
are utterly dependent upon language.
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u potpunosti zavisi od jezika.
10:11
And to see why, consider two scenarios
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A da biste vidjeli zbog čega, uzmite u obzir dva scenarija
10:13
from early in our evolution.
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iz ranog perioda naše evolucije.
10:15
Let's imagine that you are really good
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Zamislimo da ste jako dobri
10:17
at making arrowheads,
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u pravljenju strelica,
10:19
but you're hopeless at making the wooden shafts
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ali ste očajni u pravljenju drvene drške
10:22
with the flight feathers attached.
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na koji su pričvršćena perca za bolji let.
10:25
Two other people you know are very good at making the wooden shafts,
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Dvoje drugih ljudi koje poznajete su jako dobri u pravljenju drvenih drški,
10:28
but they're hopeless at making the arrowheads.
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ali su potpuno bespomoćni u pravljenju strelica.
10:31
So what you do is --
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Znači, šta činiti --
10:33
one of those people has not really acquired language yet.
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kada jedno od njih još uvijek nije usvojilo poznavanje jezika,
10:36
And let's pretend the other one is good at language skills.
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dok, recimo, no drugo posjeduje jako dobre jezičke sposobnosti.
10:38
So what you do one day is you take a pile of arrowheads,
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Znači, ono što uradite je da jednog dana uzmete hrpu strelica,
10:41
and you walk up to the one that can't speak very well,
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i odete do onoga koji ne može baš najbolje komunicirati
10:43
and you put the arrowheads down in front of him,
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i spustite te strelice tačno ispred njega
10:45
hoping that he'll get the idea that you want to trade your arrowheads
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sa nadom da će mu biti jasno da želite da trampite vaše strelice
10:48
for finished arrows.
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za napravljene drvene dijelove.
10:50
But he looks at the pile of arrowheads, thinks they're a gift,
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No, on pogleda tu gomilu strelica i pomisli da je to poklon,
10:52
picks them up, smiles and walks off.
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pokupi ih, nasmiješi se i odšeta.
10:55
Now you pursue this guy, gesticulating.
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Vi potom krenete za njim, gestikulirajući.
10:57
A scuffle ensues and you get stabbed
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Izbije koškanje između vas i vi budete ubodeni
10:59
with one of your own arrowheads.
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jednom od vaših strelica.
11:02
Okay, now replay this scene now, and you're approaching the one who has language.
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Dobro, sada zamislite istu scenu od početka, i zamislite da prilazite nekome ko posjeduje sposobnost komuniciranja.
11:05
You put down your arrowheads and say,
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Spustite strelice ispred njega i kažete,
11:07
"I'd like to trade these arrowheads for finished arrows. I'll split you 50/50."
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"Želio bih trampiti ove strelice za gotove strijele. Podijelićemo sve na pola."
11:10
The other one says, "Fine. Looks good to me.
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On odgovori: "Dobro, čini mi se da je to u redu.
11:12
We'll do that."
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Učinićemo tako."
11:15
Now the job is done.
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I posao je obavljen.
11:18
Once we have language,
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Onda kada imamo jezik
11:20
we can put our ideas together and cooperate
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možemo sastaviti naše ideje i sarađivati
11:22
to have a prosperity
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kako bismo prosperirali
11:24
that we couldn't have before we acquired it.
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na način koji ne bismo mogli da ne posjedujemo jezik.
11:27
And this is why our species
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I zbog toga je naša vrsta
11:29
has prospered around the world
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ostvarila napredak širom svijeta
11:31
while the rest of the animals
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dok je ostatak životinja
11:33
sit behind bars in zoos, languishing.
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sjedio iza rešetaka u zoološkim vrtovima, čameći.
11:36
That's why we build space shuttles and cathedrals
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Zbog toga mi pravimo svemirske letjelice i gradimo katedrale
11:39
while the rest of the world sticks sticks into the ground
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dok ostatak svijeta zabada štapiće u zemlju
11:41
to extract termites.
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kako bi iskopali termite.
11:43
All right, if this view of language
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No dobro, ako je ovakvo viđenje jezika
11:46
and its value
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i njegove vrijednosti
11:48
in solving the crisis of visual theft is true,
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u rješavanju krize vizuelne krađe istinito,
11:51
any species that acquires it
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svaka vrsta koja ga nauči
11:53
should show an explosion of creativity and prosperity.
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bi trebala pokazati eksploziju kreativnosti i prosperiteta.
11:56
And this is exactly what the archeological record shows.
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I to je upravo ono što pokazuju arheološki fajlovi.
11:59
If you look at our ancestors,
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Ako pogledate naše pretke,
12:01
the Neanderthals and the Homo erectus, our immediate ancestors,
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Neandertalce i Homo erectuse, naše direktne pretke,
12:04
they're confined to small regions of the world.
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vidimo da su ograničeni na male dijelove svijeta.
12:07
But when our species arose
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No, kada se naša vrsta uspravila
12:09
about 200,000 years ago,
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prije nekih 200.000 godina
12:11
sometime after that we quickly walked out of Africa
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ubrzo nakon toga smo otišli iz Afrike
12:14
and spread around the entire world,
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i raširili se po cijelom svijetu,
12:17
occupying nearly every habitat on Earth.
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zauzimajući gotovo svaku naseobinu na Zemlji.
12:20
Now whereas other species are confined
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Tamo gdje su druge vrste ostale ograničenima
12:23
to places that their genes adapt them to,
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na mjesta na koja su prilagođena njihovim genima,
12:26
with social learning and language,
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sa društvenim vještinama i jezikom,
12:28
we could transform the environment
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smo mogli transformisati okruženje
12:30
to suit our needs.
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kako bi odgovaralo našim potrebama.
12:32
And so we prospered in a way
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I tako smo napredovali na način
12:34
that no other animal has.
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na koji niti jedna životinjska vrsta nije.
12:36
Language really is
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Jezik je zaista
12:39
the most potent trait that has ever evolved.
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najmoćnija odlika koja je ikada evoluirala.
12:42
It is the most valuable trait we have
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Jezik je najvrjednija osobina koju posjedujemo
12:45
for converting new lands and resources
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za preobraćanje novih teritorija i izvora
12:48
into more people and their genes
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u više ljudi i njihove gene
12:51
that natural selection has ever devised.
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nego što je prirodnoj selekciji ikada pošlo za rukom.
12:53
Language really is
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Jezik je zaista
12:55
the voice of our genes.
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glas naših gena.
12:57
Now having evolved language, though,
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Doduše, sada kada smo razvili jezik
12:59
we did something peculiar,
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učinili smo nešto jako neobično,
13:01
even bizarre.
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čak bizarno.
13:03
As we spread out around the world,
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Kako smo se raspršili po cijelom svijetu,
13:05
we developed thousands of different languages.
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razvili smo na hiljade različitih jezika.
13:08
Currently, there are about seven or 8,000
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Trenutno postoji oko 7.000 ili 8.000
13:10
different languages spoken on Earth.
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različitih jezika koji se govore na Zemlji.
13:13
Now you might say, well, this is just natural.
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Vi biste sada mogli reći da je to sasvim prirodno.
13:15
As we diverge, our languages are naturally going to diverge.
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Kao što se mi razlikujemo, prirodno je da se i naši jezici razlikuju.
13:18
But the real puzzle and irony
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No, prava zagonetka i ironija
13:20
is that the greatest density of different languages on Earth
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su u tome što je najveća gustina jezika na Zemlji
13:23
is found where people are most tightly packed together.
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upravo tamo gdje su ljudi najgušće naseljeni.
13:27
If we go to the island of Papua New Guinea,
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Ako odemo na otok Papua nova Gvineja
13:29
we can find about 800 to 1,000
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naći ćemo oko 800 do 1.000
13:32
distinct human languages,
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odvojenih ljudskih jezika,
13:34
different human languages,
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različitih ljudskih jezika,
13:36
spoken on that island alone.
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koji se govore samo na tom otoku.
13:38
There are places on that island
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Na tom otoku postoje mjesta
13:40
where you can encounter a new language
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gdje se možete susresti sa novim jezikom
13:42
every two or three miles.
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na svake 2-3 milje.
13:44
Now, incredible as this sounds,
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Međutim, koliko god nevjerovatnim ovo zvučalo,
13:46
I once met a Papuan man, and I asked him if this could possibly be true.
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jednom prilikom sam upoznao čovjeka iz Papue, i upitao sam ga da li je to zaista tačno.
13:49
And he said to me, "Oh no.
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On mi je rekao, "Ma ne.
13:51
They're far closer together than that."
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Ta razdaljina između njih je mnogo manja."
13:54
And it's true; there are places on that island
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I to je tačno; na tom otoku postoje mjesta
13:56
where you can encounter a new language in under a mile.
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gdje se možete susresti sa novim jezikom na manje od milju.
13:59
And this is also true of some remote oceanic islands.
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A to je takođe tačno i za neke udaljene okeanske otoke.
14:03
And so it seems that we use our language,
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I tako se čini da koristimo jezik
14:05
not just to cooperate,
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ne samo da bismo sarađivali,
14:07
but to draw rings around our cooperative groups
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već i da bismo okružili naše grupe saradnje
14:10
and to establish identities,
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i uspostavili identitete,
14:12
and perhaps to protect our knowledge and wisdom and skills
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a možda i da bismo zaštitili naše znanje, mudrosti i vještine
14:15
from eavesdropping from outside.
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od prisluškivanja izvana.
14:18
And we know this
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A to znamo
14:20
because when we study different language groups
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zbog toga što kada izučavamo različite jezičke skupine
14:22
and associate them with their cultures,
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i kada ih povežemo sa njihovim kulturama,
14:24
we see that different languages
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vidimo da različiti jezici
14:26
slow the flow of ideas between groups.
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usporavaju tok ideja između grupa.
14:29
They slow the flow of technologies.
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Oni usporavaju tok tehnologija.
14:32
And they even slow the flow of genes.
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I čak usporavaju tok gena.
14:35
Now I can't speak for you,
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Ja ne mogu govoriti u vaše ime,
14:37
but it seems to be the case
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ali čini se da jeste slučaj
14:39
that we don't have sex with people we can't talk to.
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da ne možemo upražnjavati seks sa ljudima sa kojima ne možemo razgovarati.
14:43
(Laughter)
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(Smijeh)
14:45
Now we have to counter that, though,
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Doduše, moramo se suočiti da --
14:47
against the evidence we've heard
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usprkos dokaza u suprotno koji smo čuli --
14:49
that we might have had some rather distasteful genetic dalliances
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da možda jesmo imali nekakve poprilično neukusne genetske igrarije
14:52
with the Neanderthals and the Denisovans.
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sa Neandertalcima i Denisovancima.
14:54
(Laughter)
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(Smijeh)
14:56
Okay, this tendency we have,
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U redu, ova naša sklonost,
14:58
this seemingly natural tendency we have,
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ova naizgled prirodna tendencija,
15:00
towards isolation, towards keeping to ourselves,
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ka izolaciji, ka čuvanju stvari samo za sebe,
15:03
crashes head first into our modern world.
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u našem je savremenom svijetu osuđena na propast.
15:06
This remarkable image
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Ovaj nevjerovatni prizor
15:08
is not a map of the world.
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nije mapa svijeta.
15:10
In fact, it's a map of Facebook friendship links.
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Zapravo, to je mapa prijateljstava na Facebook-u.
15:14
And when you plot those friendship links
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I kada povežete te prijateljske veze
15:16
by their latitude and longitude,
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putem njihovih geografskih širina i dužina,
15:18
it literally draws a map of the world.
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doslovice dobijete mapu svijeta.
15:21
Our modern world is communicating
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Naš savremeni svijet komunicira
15:23
with itself and with each other
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sa sobom i sa drugima
15:25
more than it has
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više nego
15:27
at any time in its past.
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ikada prije.
15:29
And that communication, that connectivity around the world,
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I ta komunikacija, ta povezanost širom svijeta,
15:32
that globalization
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ta globalizacija
15:34
now raises a burden.
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sada podiže teret.
15:37
Because these different languages
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Jer svi ovi različiti jezici
15:39
impose a barrier, as we've just seen,
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nameću barijeru, kao što ste upravo vidjeli,
15:41
to the transfer of goods and ideas
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na prenošenje roba i ideja
15:43
and technologies and wisdom.
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i tehnologija i mudrosti.
15:45
And they impose a barrier to cooperation.
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I oni nameću barijeru saradnji.
15:48
And nowhere do we see that more clearly
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Nigdje to ne možemo jasnije vidjeti
15:51
than in the European Union,
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nego u Evropskoj uniji
15:53
whose 27 member countries
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čijih 27 zemalja članica
15:56
speak 23 official languages.
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govore 23 zvanična jezika.
15:59
The European Union
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Evropska unija
16:01
is now spending over one billion euros annually
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sada troši preko bilion eura godišnje
16:05
translating among their 23 official languages.
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za prevođenje ta 23 zvanična jezika.
16:08
That's something on the order
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To je otprilike nekih
16:10
of 1.45 billion U.S. dollars
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1.45 biliona američkih dolara
16:12
on translation costs alone.
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samo za troškove prevođenja,
16:15
Now think of the absurdity of this situation.
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Razmislite o apsurdnosti ove situacije.
16:17
If 27 individuals
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Ako bi 27 pojedinaca
16:19
from those 27 member states
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iz tih 27 zemalja članica
16:21
sat around table, speaking their 23 languages,
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sjelo za sto, govoreći 23 jezika,
16:24
some very simple mathematics will tell you
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jednostavnom računicom biste došli do zaključka
16:26
that you need an army of 253 translators
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da je potrebna vojska od 253 prevodioca
16:30
to anticipate all the pairwise possibilities.
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da predvidi sve moguće kombinacije.
16:34
The European Union employs a permanent staff
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Evropska unija stalno zapošljava
16:37
of about 2,500 translators.
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oko 2.500 prevodioca.
16:39
And in 2007 alone --
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A samo u 2007. godini --
16:41
and I'm sure there are more recent figures --
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a siguran sam da postoje i skoriji podaci --
16:43
something on the order of 1.3 million pages
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otprilike nekih 1.3 miliona stranica
16:46
were translated into English alone.
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je prevedeno samo na engleski jezik.
16:49
And so if language really is
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I ako je jezik uistinu
16:52
the solution to the crisis of visual theft,
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rješenje za krizu vizuelne krađe,
16:55
if language really is
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ako je jezik zaista
16:57
the conduit of our cooperation,
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provodnik naše saradnje,
16:59
the technology that our species derived
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tehnologija koju je naša vrsta razvila
17:02
to promote the free flow and exchange of ideas,
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kako bi promovisala slobodan tok i razmjenu ideja
17:06
in our modern world,
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u našem savremenom svijetu,
17:08
we confront a question.
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postavljamo sljedeće pitanje.
17:10
And that question is whether
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A to pitanje je da li
17:12
in this modern, globalized world
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u ovom modernom, globalizovanom svijetu
17:14
we can really afford to have all these different languages.
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zaista možemo priuštiti da imamo sve ove različite jezike.
17:17
To put it this way, nature knows no other circumstance
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Ili da kažemo drugačije, priroda ne poznaje druge okolnosti
17:20
in which functionally equivalent traits coexist.
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u kojima koegzistiraju funkcionalno ekvivalentne osobine.
17:25
One of them always drives the other extinct.
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Jedna od njih uvijek dovede do istrjebljenja one druge.
17:28
And we see this in the inexorable march
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To vidimo u neumoljivom marširanju
17:30
towards standardization.
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ka standardizaciji.
17:32
There are lots and lots of ways of measuring things --
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Postoji jako mnogo načina za mjerenje stvari --
17:35
weighing them and measuring their length --
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za vaganje i mjerenje njihove dužine --
17:37
but the metric system is winning.
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ali metrički sistem je i dalje u prednosti.
17:39
There are lots and lots of ways of measuring time,
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Jako je mnogo načina da se izmjeri vrijeme,
17:42
but a really bizarre base 60 system
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ali zaista bizarni 60-ni sistem
17:45
known as hours and minutes and seconds
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poznat kao sati, minuti i sekunde
17:47
is nearly universal around the world.
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koristi se gotovo širom cijelog svijeta.
17:50
There are many, many ways
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Postoji mnogo, mnogo načina
17:52
of imprinting CDs or DVDs,
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za snimanje CD-ova ili DVD-ova,
17:54
but those are all being standardized as well.
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ali i oni su svi standardizovani.
17:57
And you can probably think of many, many more
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I vjerovatno možete smisliti još mnogo, mnogo više takvih
18:00
in your own everyday lives.
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u vašim svakodnevnim životima.
18:02
And so our modern world now
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I tako se nas naš moderni svijet sada
18:05
is confronting us with a dilemma.
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suočava sa dilemom.
18:07
And it's the dilemma
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I to je dilema
18:09
that this Chinese man faces,
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sa kojom se suočava Kinez
18:11
who's language is spoken
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čiji jezik govori
18:13
by more people in the world
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više ljudi u svijetu
18:15
than any other single language,
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u odnosu na bilo koji drugi jezik,
18:18
and yet he is sitting at his blackboard,
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pa ipak, on sjedi pored svoje table,
18:22
converting Chinese phrases
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i prebacuje kineske rečenice
18:25
into English language phrases.
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na rečenice na engleskom jeziku.
18:27
And what this does is it raises the possibility to us
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I time se povećava mogućnost
18:30
that in a world in which we want to promote
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da u svijetu u kojem želimo promovisati
18:32
cooperation and exchange,
446
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saradnju i razmjenu,
18:34
and in a world that might be dependent more than ever before
447
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i u svijetu koji vjerovatno više nego ikada zavisi
18:37
on cooperation
448
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od saradnje
18:39
to maintain and enhance our levels of prosperity,
449
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da održi i poboljša naše nivoe prosperiteta,
18:42
his actions suggest to us
450
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njegova djela nam sugerišu
18:44
it might be inevitable
451
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da je možda neizbježno
18:46
that we have to confront the idea
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da se moramo suočiti sa idejom
18:48
that our destiny is to be one world with one language.
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da je naša sudbina da budemo jedan svijet sa jednim jezikom.
18:51
Thank you.
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Hvala.
18:53
(Applause)
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(Aplauz)
19:01
Matt Ridley: Mark, one question.
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Matt Ridley: Mark, jedno pitanje.
19:03
Svante found that the FOXP2 gene,
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Svante je otkrio da FOXP2 gen,
19:06
which seems to be associated with language,
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koji je, čini se, povezan sa jezikom,
19:08
was also shared in the same form
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su ga u istoj formi dijelili
19:10
in Neanderthals as us.
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Neandertalci sa nama.
19:12
Do we have any idea
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Imamo li ikakvu ideju
19:14
how we could have defeated Neanderthals
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kako bismo uspjeli poraziti Neandertalce
19:16
if they also had language?
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da su i oni imali jezik?
19:18
Mark Pagel: This is a very good question.
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Mark Pagel: To je jako dobro pitanje.
19:20
So many of you will be familiar with the idea that there's this gene called FOXP2
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Mnogima od vas neće biti nova ideja da postoji gen koji se zove FOXP2
19:23
that seems to be implicated in some ways
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za kojeg se čini da bi na neki način mogao biti impliciran
19:26
in the fine motor control that's associated with language.
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u istančanu motornu kontrolu koja se povezuje sa jezikom.
19:29
The reason why I don't believe that tells us
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Razlog zbog kojeg ne vjerujem da nam kazuje
19:31
that the Neanderthals had language
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da su Neandertalci imali jezik
19:33
is -- here's a simple analogy:
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jeste -- ovdje imamo jednostavnu analogiju:
19:36
Ferraris are cars that have engines.
471
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Ferariji su auta koja imaju motore.
19:39
My car has an engine,
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Moj auto ima motor,
19:41
but it's not a Ferrari.
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ali nije Ferrari.
19:43
Now the simple answer then
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Znači, jednostavan odgovor
19:45
is that genes alone don't, all by themselves,
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je da geni sami po sebi ne
19:47
determine the outcome
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određuju ishod
19:49
of very complicated things like language.
477
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veoma komplikovanih stvari kao što je jezik.
19:51
What we know about this FOXP2 and Neanderthals
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Ono što znamo o ovom FOXP2 i Neandertalcima
19:53
is that they may have had fine motor control of their mouths -- who knows.
479
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je da su možda imali sofisticiranu motornu kontrolu nad svojim ustima -- ko zna-
19:57
But that doesn't tell us they necessarily had language.
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No, to nam ne kazuje da su takođe imali i jezik.
19:59
MR: Thank you very much indeed.
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Hvala vam mnogo, zaista.
20:01
(Applause)
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(Aplauz)
Translated by Mirjana Kosic
Reviewed by Nela Kacmarcik

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ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Mark Pagel - Evolutionary biologist
Using biological evolution as a template, Mark Pagel wonders how languages evolve.

Why you should listen

Mark Pagel builds statistical models to examine the evolutionary processes imprinted in human behavior, from genomics to the emergence of complex systems -- to culture. His latest work examines the parallels between linguistic and biological evolution by applying methods of phylogenetics, or the study of evolutionary relatedness among groups, essentially viewing language as a culturally transmitted replicator with many of the same properties we find in genes. He’s looking for patterns in the rates of evolution of language elements, and hoping to find the social factors that influence trends of language evolution.
 
At the University of Reading, Pagel heads the Evolution Laboratory in the biology department, where he explores such questions as, "Why would humans evolve a system of communication that prevents them with communicating with other members of the same species?" He has used statistical methods to reconstruct features of dinosaur genomes, and to infer ancestral features of genes and proteins.

He says: "Just as we have highly conserved genes, we have highly conserved words. Language shows a truly remarkable fidelity."

More profile about the speaker
Mark Pagel | Speaker | TED.com