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TEDGlobal 2007

Andrew Mwenda: Aid for Africa? No thanks.

Endru Muenda beleži novi pogled na Afriku.

Filmed:
930,197 views

U ovom provokativnom govoru, novinar Endru Muenda traži da preformulišemo " afričko pitanje" -- da gledamo izvan medijiskih priča o siromaštvu, gradjanskom ratu i bespomoćnosti i ugledamo mogućnosti za stvaranje bogatstva i sreće širom kontinenta.

- Journalist
Journalist Andrew Mwenda has spent his career fighting for free speech and economic empowerment throughout Africa. He argues that aid makes objects of the poor -- they become passive recipients of charity rather than active participants in their own economic betterment. Full bio

I am very, very happy to be amidst some of the most --
Ja sam vrlo, vrlo srećan da sam okružen nekima od naj --
00:26
the lights are really disturbing my eyes
svetla zaista smetaju mojim očima
00:30
and they're reflecting on my glasses.
i odbijaju se o moje naočare.
00:32
I am very happy and honored to be amidst
Ja sam vrlo srećan i počastvovan da sam okružen
00:34
very, very innovative and intelligent people.
vrlo, vrlo inovativnim i inteligentnim ljudima.
00:38
I have listened to the three previous speakers,
Slušao sam prethodna tri govornika,
00:41
and guess what happened?
i pogodite šta se dogodilo?
00:44
Every single thing I planned to say, they have said it here,
Sve što sam nameravao reći, oni su to već rekli ovde,
00:46
and it looks and sounds like I have nothing else to say.
i to izgleda i zvuči kao da nemam ništa drugo za reći.
00:49
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
00:54
But there is a saying in my culture
Ali postoji izreka u mom narodu
00:55
that if a bud leaves a tree without saying something,
da ako populjak ostavi drvo bez reči,
00:58
that bud is a young one.
taj populjak je mlad.
01:03
So, I will -- since I am not young and am very old,
Pa ću ja -- pošto nisam mlad i vrlo sam star --
01:06
I still will say something.
ipak nešto reći.
01:11
We are hosting this conference at a very opportune moment,
Održavamo ovu konferenciju u veoma povoljnom trenutku
01:13
because another conference is taking place in Berlin.
jer druga konferencija se održava u Berlinu.
01:18
It is the G8 Summit.
To je samit G8.
01:20
The G8 Summit proposes that the solution to Africa's problems
Samit G8 predlaže da rešenje za probleme Afrike
01:23
should be a massive increase in aid,
treba da bude masivna porast novčane pomoći,
01:30
something akin to the Marshall Plan.
nešto slično Maršalovom planu.
01:33
Unfortunately, I personally do not believe in the Marshall Plan.
Nažalost, ja lično ne verujem u Maršalov plan.
01:35
One, because the benefits of the Marshall Plan have been overstated.
Prvo, jer je korist od Maršalovog plana bila preterana.
01:39
Its largest recipients were Germany and France,
Njegovi najveći primaoci su bili Nemačka i Francuska,
01:44
and it was only 2.5 percent of their GDP.
i to samo 2,5% njihovog BDP-a.
01:47
An average African country receives foreign aid
Prosečna afrička zemlja dobija inostranu pomoć
01:50
to the tune of 13, 15 percent of its GDP,
u iznosu od 13, 15 % njenog BDP-a,
01:53
and that is an unprecedented transfer of financial resources
i to je jedan, do tada, nevidjen transfer finansijskih sredstava
01:59
from rich countries to poor countries.
iz bogatih zemalja u siromašne zemlje.
02:02
But I want to say that there are two things we need to connect.
Ali želim reći da postoje dve stvari koje su nam potrebne za spajanje.
02:05
How the media covers Africa in the West, and the consequences of that.
Kako mediji pokrivaju Afriku na Zapadu, i posledice toga.
02:08
By displaying despair, helplessness and hopelessness,
Prikazujući očaj, bespomoćnost i beznadje,
02:14
the media is telling the truth about Africa, and nothing but the truth.
mediji govore istinu o Africi, i ništa osim istine.
02:17
However, the media is not telling us the whole truth.
Medjutim, mediji nam ne govore celu istinu.
02:23
Because despair, civil war, hunger and famine,
Zato što očaj, gradjanski rat, glad i oskudica,
02:27
although they're part and parcel of our African reality,
iako su deo i breme naše afričke realnosti,
02:31
they are not the only reality.
nisu jedina realnost.
02:35
And secondly, they are the smallest reality.
I drugo, to su delići realnosti.
02:37
Africa has 53 nations.
Afrika ima 53 nacije.
02:39
We have civil wars only in six countries,
Imamo gradjanski rat u samo šest zemalja,
02:41
which means that the media are covering only six countries.
što znači da mediji pokrivaju samo šest zemalja.
02:44
Africa has immense opportunities that never navigate
Afrika ima velike mogucnosti koje nikad ne prodju
02:48
through the web of despair and helplessness
kroz mrežu očaja i bespomoćnosti
02:52
that the Western media largely presents to its audience.
koje Zapadni mediji u velikoj meri prezentuju svojoj publici.
02:54
But the effect of that presentation is, it appeals to sympathy.
Ali efekat te prezentacije je da apeluje na saučešće.
02:59
It appeals to pity. It appeals to something called charity.
Apeluje na sažaljenje; apeluje na nešto što se zove milosrdje.
03:03
And, as a consequence, the Western view
I, kao posledica, zapadni pogled
03:08
of Africa's economic dilemma is framed wrongly.
na afričke ekonomske dileme je pogrešno formulisan.
03:11
The wrong framing is a product of thinking
Pogrešna formulacija je proizvod razmišljanja
03:16
that Africa is a place of despair.
da je Afrika mesto očaja.
03:20
What should we do with it? We should give food to the hungry.
Šta treba da radimo s tim? Treba da damo hranu gladnima.
03:23
We should deliver medicines to those who are ill.
Treba da dostavimo lekove onima koji su bolesni.
03:26
We should send peacekeeping troops
Treba da pošaljemo mirovne trupe
03:29
to serve those who are facing a civil war.
da služe onima koji se součavaju sa gradjanskim ratom.
03:31
And in the process, Africa has been stripped of self-initiative.
I u tom procesu Afrika je lišena samoinicijative.
03:33
I want to say that it is important to recognize
Želim reći da je važno prepoznati
03:38
that Africa has fundamental weaknesses.
fundamentalne slabosti koje Afrika poseduje.
03:41
But equally, it has opportunities and a lot of potential.
No, jednako, poseduje mogućnosti i mnogo potencijala.
03:44
We need to reframe the challenge that is facing Africa,
Mi moramo preformulisati izazov sa kojim se Afrika suočava
03:48
from a challenge of despair,
od izazova očaja,
03:52
which is called poverty reduction,
očaj koji se zove smanjenje siromaštva,
03:54
to a challenge of hope.
do izazova nade.
03:58
We frame it as a challenge of hope, and that is worth creation.
Mi to formulišemo kao izazov nade, i to je vredna tvorevina.
04:00
The challenge facing all those who are interested in Africa
Izazov sa kojim se součavaju svi oni koji su zainteresovani za Afriku
04:04
is not the challenge of reducing poverty.
nije izazov smanjene siromaštva.
04:07
It should be a challenge of creating wealth.
To bi trebao biti izazov stvaranja bogatstva.
04:09
Once we change those two things --
Jednom kada promenimo te dve stvari --
04:12
if you say the Africans are poor and they need poverty reduction,
ako kazete da su afrikanci siromašni i da im je potrebno smanjene siromaštva,
04:15
you have the international cartel of good intentions
imate medjunarodni kartel dobrih namera
04:20
moving onto the continent, with what?
koji se seli na kontinent, s čim?
04:24
Medicines for the poor, food relief for those who are hungry,
Lekovi za siromašne, hranu za pomoć gladnoj sirotinji,
04:27
and peacekeepers for those who are facing civil war.
i mirovne trupe za one koji se součavaju sa gradjanskim ratom.
04:30
And in the process, none of these things really are productive
I u tom procesu nijedna od ovih stvari nije zaista produktivna
04:35
because you are treating the symptoms, not the causes
jer leči simptome, a ne uzroke
04:39
of Africa's fundamental problems.
afričkih osnovnih problema.
04:41
Sending somebody to school and giving them medicines,
Tako što ćete poslati nekoga u školu i dati mu lekove,
04:44
ladies and gentlemen, does not create wealth for them.
dame i gospodo, to ne stvara bogatstvo za njih.
04:47
Wealth is a function of income, and income comes from you finding
Bogatstvo je funkcija prihoda, a prihod dolazi od pronalaska
04:52
a profitable trading opportunity or a well-paying job.
profitabilne mogućnosti trgovanja ili dobro plaćenog posla.
04:56
Now, once we begin to talk about wealth creation in Africa,
Sada, kada smo počeli govoriti o stvaranju bogatstva u Africi,
05:00
our second challenge will be,
naš drugi izazov će biti,
05:03
who are the wealth-creating agents in any society?
ko su stvaraoci bogatstva u bilo kom društvu?
05:05
They are entrepreneurs. [Unclear] told us they are always
To su preduzetnici. [Nejasno] rečeno nam je da ih je uvek
05:08
about four percent of the population, but 16 percent are imitators.
oko 4% populacije, ali 16% su imitatori.
05:12
But they also succeed at the job of entrepreneurship.
Ali oni takodje uspevaju u poslu preduzetništva.
05:16
So, where should we be putting the money?
Pa gde bi smo trebali ulagati novac?
05:21
We need to put money where it can productively grow.
Moramo ulagati novac tamo gde može produktivno rasti.
05:24
Support private investment in Africa, both domestic and foreign.
Podrška privatnim investicijama u Africi, i domaćim i stranim.
05:29
Support research institutions,
Podrška istraživičkim centrima,
05:33
because knowledge is an important part of wealth creation.
jer znanje je važan deo stvaranja bogatstva.
05:36
But what is the international aid community doing with Africa today?
Ali šta medjunarodna zajednica radi sa Afrikom danas?
05:40
They are throwing large sums of money for primary health,
Oni bacaju velike sume novca na osnovno lečenje,
05:44
for primary education, for food relief.
na osnovno obrazovanje, na pomoć sirotinji u hrani.
05:47
The entire continent has been turned into
Čitav kontinent je pretvoren u
05:50
a place of despair, in need of charity.
u mesto očaja, kome je potrebna milostinja.
05:52
Ladies and gentlemen, can any one of you tell me
Dame i gospodo, može li mi bilo ko od vas reći
05:55
a neighbor, a friend, a relative that you know,
suseda, prijatelja, rodjaka kojeg znate
05:57
who became rich by receiving charity?
a da je postao bogat od primanja milostinje?
06:00
By holding the begging bowl and receiving alms?
Tako što je držao zdelu i primao milostinju?
06:04
Does any one of you in the audience have that person?
Da li iko od vas zna takvu osobu?
06:07
Does any one of you know a country that developed because of
Da li iko od vas zna zemlju koja se razvila zbog
06:10
the generosity and kindness of another?
nečije velikodušnosti i ljubaznosti?
06:15
Well, since I'm not seeing the hand,
Pa, budući da ne vidim ruke,
06:18
it appears that what I'm stating is true.
čini se da je istina ono što sam naveo.
06:20
(Bono: Yes!)
Bono: Da!
06:23
Andrew Mwenda: I can see Bono says he knows the country.
Endru Muenda: Vidim da Bono kaže da zna takvu zemlju?
06:25
Which country is that?
Koja je to zemlja?
06:27
(Bono: It's an Irish land.)
Bono: To je irsko ime.
06:28
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
06:29
(Bono: [unclear])
Bono: [nejasno]
06:31
AM: Thank you very much. But let me tell you this.
Hvala ti mnogo. Ali ispričaću vam ovo.
06:33
External actors can only present to you an opportunity.
Spoljni faktori vam mogu jedino dati šansu.
06:37
The ability to utilize that opportunity and turn it into an advantage
Sposobnost da iskoristite tu šansu i pretvorite je u prednost
06:41
depends on your internal capacity.
zavisi od vaših unutrašnjih kapaciteta.
06:46
Africa has received many opportunities.
Afrika je dobila niz mogućnosti,
06:48
Many of them we haven't benefited much.
mnoge od njih nisu bile puno od koristi.
06:50
Why? Because we lack the internal, institutional framework
Zašto? Zato što nam nedostaje interni institucionalni okvir
06:53
and policy framework that can make it possible for us
i politički okvir koji će nam omogućiti
06:58
to benefit from our external relations. I'll give you an example.
korist od naših spoljnih odnosa. Daću vam jedan primer.
07:01
Under the Cotonou Agreement,
Pod Kotonovim Sporazumom,
07:04
formerly known as the Lome Convention,
ranije poznat kao Lome Konvencija,
07:06
African countries have been given an opportunity by Europe
afričkim zemljama je data prilika od Evrope
07:09
to export goods, duty-free, to the European Union market.
za izvoz robe, oslobodjene carine, na tržište Evropske Unije.
07:12
My own country, Uganda, has a quota to export 50,000 metric tons
Moja zemlja, Uganda, ima kvote za izvoz 50,000 tona
07:17
of sugar to the European Union market.
šećera na tržište Evropske Unije.
07:23
We haven't exported one kilogram yet.
Nismo izvezli još nijedan kilogram.
07:26
We import 50,000 metric tons of sugar from Brazil and Cuba.
Uvezli smo 50,000 tona šećera iz Brazila i Kube.
07:28
Secondly, under the beef protocol of that agreement,
Drugo, pod protokolom tog sporazuma o govedini,
07:37
African countries that produce beef
afričke zemlje koje proizvode govedinu
07:40
have quotas to export beef duty-free to the European Union market.
imaju kvote za izvoz govedine, oslobodjene carine, na tržiste Evropske Unije.
07:42
None of those countries, including Africa's most successful nation, Botswana,
Nijedna od tih zemalja, uključujući i afričku najuspešniju naciju, Bocvanu,
07:47
has ever met its quota.
nije ispunila svoje kvote.
07:51
So, I want to argue today that the fundamental source of Africa's
Zato danas želim da raspravim da je osnovni izvor afričke
07:54
inability to engage the rest of the world
nemogućnosti da se upusti u ostatak sveta
07:59
in a more productive relationship
u produtkivniji odnos
08:01
is because it has a poor institutional and policy framework.
taj što ima siromašan institucionalni i politički okvir.
08:04
And all forms of intervention need support,
I svim oblicima intervencija je potrebna podrška,
08:08
the evolution of the kinds of institutions that create wealth,
evolucija takve vrste institucija koje stvaraju bogatstvo,
08:11
the kinds of institutions that increase productivity.
institucije koje povećavaju produktivnoost.
08:15
How do we begin to do that, and why is aid the bad instrument?
Kako čemo početi to da radimo i zašto je novčana pomoć loše orudje?
08:18
Aid is the bad instrument, and do you know why?
Pomoć je loše orudje, a znate li zašto?
08:22
Because all governments across the world need money to survive.
Jer svim Vladama širom sveta je potreban novac da prežive.
08:24
Money is needed for a simple thing like keeping law and order.
Novac je potreban za jednostavne stvari kao što je čuvanje reda i zakona.
08:28
You have to pay the army and the police to show law and order.
Morate da platite vojsku i policiju da bi pokazali red i zakon.
08:32
And because many of our governments are quite dictatorial,
A budući da su mnoge naše Vlade prilično diktatorske,
08:34
they need really to have the army clobber the opposition.
zaista im je potrebna vojska da izmlati opoziciju.
08:38
The second thing you need to do is pay your political hangers-on.
Druga stvar koju treba da uradite jeste da platite vaše političke prirepke.
08:42
Why should people support their government?
Zašto ljudi treba da podržavaju njihove Vlade?
08:47
Well, because it gives them good, paying jobs,
Pa, zato što im daju dobro plaćena radna mesta.
08:48
or, in many African countries, unofficial opportunities
Ili su to, u mnogim afričkim zemljama, nezvanične prilike
08:50
to profit from corruption.
za zaradu od korupcije.
08:54
The fact is no government in the world,
Činjenica je da nema Vlade u svetu,
08:56
with the exception of a few, like that of Idi Amin,
uz izuzetak nekoliko njih poput one u Idi Aminu,
08:59
can seek to depend entirely on force as an instrument of rule.
koja može da traži da se u potpunosti osloni na snagu kao instrument vladavine.
09:01
Many countries in the [unclear], they need legitimacy.
Mnoge zemlje u [nejasno], potreban im je legitimitet.
09:06
To get legitimacy, governments often need to deliver things like primary education,
Da bi dobili legitimitet, Vlade često treba da omoguće stvari kao što su osnovno obrazovanje,
09:09
primary health, roads, build hospitals and clinics.
osnovnoe lečenje, puteve, rade bolnice i klinike.
09:15
If the government's fiscal survival
Ako Vladin fiskalni opstanak
09:20
depends on it having to raise money from its own people,
zavisi o podizanju novca od svog naroda,
09:22
such a government is driven by self-interest
takva Vlada je vodjena sopstvenim interesima
09:26
to govern in a more enlightened fashion.
upravljanja na prosvećeniji način.
09:28
It will sit with those who create wealth.
Oni će sedeti sa onima koji su stvorili bogatstvo.
09:30
Talk to them about the kind of policies and institutions
Razgovarati sa njima o vrsti politike i institucija
09:33
that are necessary for them to expand a scale and scope of business
koje su potrebne za njih da se proširi lestvica i obim poslovanja
09:36
so that it can collect more tax revenues from them.
tako da mogu prikupiti više prihoda od njih.
09:40
The problem with the African continent
Problem sa afričkim kontinentom
09:43
and the problem with the aid industry
i problem sa industrijom pomoći
09:45
is that it has distorted the structure of incentives
je taj što imaju iskrivljene strukture podsticaja
09:46
facing the governments in Africa.
s kojima se suočavaju Vlade u Africi.
09:49
The productive margin in our governments' search for revenue
Produktivna marža u potrazi naše Vlade za većim prihodom
09:52
does not lie in the domestic economy,
ne leži u domaćoj ekonomiji,
09:55
it lies with international donors.
leži u medjunarodnim donatorima.
09:58
Rather than sit with Ugandan --
Umesto da sede sa ugandskim --
10:00
(Applause) --
(Aplauz)
10:02
rather than sit with Ugandan entrepreneurs,
Umesto da sede sa ugandskim preduzetnicima,
10:06
Ghanaian businessmen, South African enterprising leaders,
biznismenima Gane, Južnoafričkim liderima preduzetništva,
10:09
our governments find it more productive
naše Vlade nalaze produktivnijim
10:15
to talk to the IMF and the World Bank.
da razgovaraju sa MMF-om i Svetskom Bankom.
10:18
I can tell you, even if you have ten Ph.Ds.,
Mogu vam reći, čak i ako imate 10 doktorata,
10:21
you can never beat Bill Gates in understanding the computer industry.
nikada ne možete potući Bil Gejtsa u razumevanju kompjuterske industrije.
10:25
Why? Because the knowledge that is required for you to understand
Zašto? Zato što znanje koje je potrebno za vas da razumete
10:30
the incentives necessary to expand a business --
potrebne podsticaje da proširite biznis,
10:34
it requires that you listen to the people, the private sector actors in that industry.
zahteva da slušate ljude, aktere privatnog sektora u toj industriji.
10:36
Governments in Africa have therefore been given an opportunity,
Vladama u Africi je, dakle, data šansa
10:42
by the international community, to avoid building
od strane medjunarodne zajednice da izbegavaju izgradnju
10:45
productive arrangements with your own citizens,
produktivnih aranžmana sa svojim gradjanima,
10:48
and therefore allowed to begin endless negotiations with the IMF
i stoga je dozvolila da započnu beskrajne pregovore sa MMF-om
10:50
and the World Bank, and then it is the IMF and the World Bank
i Svetskom Bankom, potom MMF-om i Svetskom Bankom
10:56
that tell them what its citizens need.
koji im govore sta je potrebno njihovim gradjanima.
10:59
In the process, we, the African people, have been sidelined
U tom procesu mi, afrički narod, smo bačeni na sporedni kolosek
11:01
from the policy-making, policy-orientation, and policy-
iz kreiranja politike, političke orijentacije i političkog
11:05
implementation process in our countries.
procesa implementacije u našim zemljama.
11:09
We have limited input, because he who pays the piper calls the tune.
Imamo ograničen unos, jer onaj koji plaća svirača zove muziku.
11:11
The IMF, the World Bank, and the cartel of good intentions in the world
MMF, Svetska Banka, i kartel dobrih namera u svetu
11:15
has taken over our rights as citizens,
su preuzeli naša prava kao gradjana,
11:19
and therefore what our governments are doing, because they depend on aid,
i zato ono što naše Vlade rade, jer zavise od pomoći,
11:22
is to listen to international creditors rather than their own citizens.
jeste da slušaju medjunarodne kreditore radije nego svoje gradjane.
11:25
But I want to put a caveat on my argument,
Ali ja želim da uložim prigovor na moj argument,
11:29
and that caveat is that it is not true that aid is always destructive.
a taj prigovor je da nije istina da je novčana pomoć uvek destruktivna.
11:31
Some aid may have built a hospital, fed a hungry village.
Neka pomoć je možda izgradila bolnicu, nahranila gladno selo.
11:39
It may have built a road, and that road
Možda je izgradila put, a taj put
11:46
may have served a very good role.
je možda služio u veoma dobre svrhe.
11:48
The mistake of the international aid industry
Greška medjunarodne industrije pomoći
11:50
is to pick these isolated incidents of success,
je da pokupi ove izolovane incidente uspeha,
11:52
generalize them, pour billions and trillions of dollars into them,
generalizuje ih, ulije milijarde i hiljade miljiarde dolara u njih,
11:56
and then spread them across the whole world,
i onda ih proširi širom sveta,
12:01
ignoring the specific and unique circumstances in a given village,
ignorišući specifične i jedinstvene okolnosti u odredjenom naselju,
12:03
the skills, the practices, the norms and habits
veštine, prakse, norme i navike
12:08
that allowed that small aid project to succeed --
koje dozvoljavaju da mala pomoć za projekat uspe --
12:11
like in Sauri village, in Kenya, where Jeffrey Sachs is working --
kao u Sauri naselju u Keniji gde radi Džefri Saks --
12:14
and therefore generalize this experience
i stoga generalizuje to iskustvo
12:17
as the experience of everybody.
kao iskustvo svih nas.
12:20
Aid increases the resources available to governments,
Pomoć povećava resurse koje su na raspologanju Vladama,
12:23
and that makes working in a government the most profitable thing
i čini rad u Vladi najprofitabilnijom stvari
12:28
you can have, as a person in Africa seeking a career.
koju možete imati u Africi kao osoba koja traži karijeru.
12:32
By increasing the political attractiveness of the state,
Povećanjem političke atraktivnosti države,
12:35
especially in our ethnically fragmented societies in Africa,
pogotovu u našem etnički fragmentiranom društvu u Africi,
12:39
aid tends to accentuate ethnic tensions
pomoć je sklona da akcentira etničku napetost
12:43
as every single ethnic group now begins struggling to enter the state
kao i svaka etnička grupa sada počinje da se bori za ulazak u državu
12:46
in order to get access to the foreign aid pie.
kako bi dobili pristup delu kolača od strane pomoći.
12:52
Ladies and gentlemen, the most enterprising people in Africa
Dame i gospodo, najpoduzetniji ljudi Afrike
12:55
cannot find opportunities to trade and to work in the private sector
ne mogu da pronadju mogućnosti za trgovinu i rad u privatnom sektoru
13:00
because the institutional and policy environment is hostile to business.
jer je institucionalno i političko okruženje neprijatelj poslovanju.
13:05
Governments are not changing it. Why?
Vlade ne menjaju to. Zašto?
13:08
Because they don't need to talk to their own citizens.
Jer nemaju potrebu da razgovaraju sa svojim gradjanima.
13:10
They talk to international donors.
Oni razgovaraju sa medjunarodnim donatorima.
13:15
So, the most enterprising Africans end up going to work for government,
Tako većina afričkih poduzetnika završava odlazeći da radi za Vladu,
13:17
and that has increased the political tensions in our countries
a to je povećalo političku napetost u našim zemljama
13:22
precisely because we depend on aid.
upravo zato jer smo ovisni o pomoć.
13:25
I also want to say that it is important for us to
Takodje želim reći da je važno za nas da
13:28
note that, over the last 50 years, Africa has been receiving increasing aid
imate na umu da tokom poslednjih 50 godina Afrika prima povećanu pomoć
13:32
from the international community,
od strane Medjunarodne Zajednice.
13:36
in the form of technical assistance, and financial aid,
u obliku tehničke i finansijske pomoći,
13:38
and all other forms of aid.
i sve druge oblike pomoći.
13:41
Between 1960 and 2003, our continent received 600 billion dollars of aid,
Izmedju 1960. i 2003. naš kontinent je primio 600 milijardi dolara pomoći,
13:43
and we are still told that there is a lot of poverty in Africa.
i još uvek nam pričaju da u Africi postoji mnogo siromaštva.
13:53
Where has all the aid gone?
Gde je otišla sva ta pomoć?
13:56
I want to use the example of my own country, called Uganda,
Želim iskoristiti primer svoje zemlje Ugande
13:59
and the kind of structure of incentives that aid has brought there.
i vrstu strukture podsticaja koju je pomoć donela tamo.
14:03
In the 2006-2007 budget, expected revenue: 2.5 trillion shillings.
U budžetu za 2006-2007, očekivani prihod je 2.5 hiljade milijardi šilinga.
14:08
The expected foreign aid: 1.9 trillion.
Očekivana strana pomoć: 1.9 hiljada milijardi.
14:14
Uganda's recurrent expenditure -- by recurrent what do I mean?
Povratni izdatak Ugande -- šta mislim pod povratni?
14:17
Hand-to-mouth is 2.6 trillion.
Od danas do sutra -- je 2.6 hiljada milijardi.
14:21
Why does the government of Uganda budget spend 110 percent
Zašto Vlada Ugande troši 110% budžeta
14:25
of its own revenue?
iz vlastitih prihoda?
14:30
It's because there's somebody there called foreign aid, who contributes for it.
To je zato što postoji neko tamo ko je pozvao stranu pomoć da tome doprinosi.
14:31
But this shows you that the government of Uganda
Ali ovo pokazuje da Vlada Republike Ugande
14:36
is not committed to spending its own revenue
nije obavezna da troši sopstvene prihode
14:38
to invest in productive investments,
da bi ulagala u produktivne investicije,
14:42
but rather it devotes this revenue
nego izdvaja ovaj prihod
14:44
to paying structure of public expenditure.
da bi plaćala strukturu javnih izdataka.
14:46
Public administration, which is largely patronage, takes 690 billion.
Državna administracija, koja je u velikoj meri patronaža, uzima 690 milijardi.
14:50
The military, 380 billion.
Vojska, 380 milijardi.
14:55
Agriculture, which employs 18 percent of our poverty-stricken citizens,
Poljoprivreda, koja zapošljava 18% naših siromašnih gradjana,
14:57
takes only 18 billion.
uzima samo 18 milijardi.
15:02
Trade and industry takes 43 billion.
Trgovina i industrija uzimaju 43 milijarde.
15:05
And let me show you, what does public expenditure --
Dopustite mi da vam pokažem šta javni rashodi --
15:09
rather, public administration expenditure -- in Uganda constitute?
radije, izdaci državne administracije -- Ugande čine?
15:13
There you go. 70 cabinet ministers, 114 presidential advisers,
Evo. 70 kabineta ministara, 114 savetnika predsednika --
15:17
by the way, who never see the president, except on television.
uzgred, koji nikad nisu videli predsednika, sem na televiziji.
15:23
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
15:26
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
15:29
And when they see him physically, it is at public functions like this,
A kada ga vide, to je na javnim funkcijama kao što je ova,
15:34
and even there, it is him who advises them.
čak i tamo, on je taj koji ih savetuje.
15:39
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
15:43
We have 81 units of local government.
Mi imamo 81 jedinicu lokalne samouprave,
15:45
Each local government is organized like the central government --
svaka lokalna samouprava je organizovana kao centralna vlast --
15:48
a bureaucracy, a cabinet, a parliament,
birokratija, kabinet, parlament,
15:50
and so many jobs for the political hangers-on.
i tako puno posla za političke prirepke.
15:52
There were 56, and when our president wanted to
Bilo je 56, a kada je naš predsednik hteo da
15:55
amend the constitution and remove term limits,
izmeni Ustav i ukloni pojam ograničenja,
15:58
he had to create 25 new districts, and now there are 81.
morao je da stvori 25 novih distrikta, a sada ih ima 81.
16:01
Three hundred thirty-three members of parliament.
333 članova parlamenta.
16:05
You need Wembley Stadium to host our parliament.
Treba vam Vemblej stadion da ugostite naš parlament.
16:07
One hundred thirty-four commissions
134 komisija
16:09
and semi-autonomous government bodies,
i polu-autonomnih Vladinih tela,
16:11
all of which have directors and the cars. And the final thing,
svi oni imaju direktore i automobile i -- konačna stvar,
16:16
this is addressed to Mr. Bono. In his work, he may help us on this.
ovo je upućeno g. Bonu. On nam može pomoći kroz svoj posao.
16:20
A recent government of Uganda study found
Skorašnja Vladina studija Ugande pokazala je
16:24
that there are 3,000 four-wheel drive motor vehicles
da postoje 3,000 četvorotočkaša
16:26
at the Minister of Health headquarters.
u sedištu ministarstva zdravlja.
16:30
Uganda has 961 sub-counties, each of them with a dispensary,
Uganda ima 961 pod-državu, svaka od njih sa dispanzerom,
16:32
none of which has an ambulance.
od kojih nijedna nema ambulantu.
16:37
So, the four-wheel drive vehicles at the headquarters
Tako četvorotočkaše u ministarstvu
16:39
drive the ministers, the permanent secretaries, the bureaucrats
voze ministri, sekretarice, birokrate
16:42
and the international aid bureaucrats who work in aid projects,
i medjunarodne birokrate koji rade na pojektima pomoći
16:45
while the poor die without ambulances and medicine.
dok siromašni umiru bez ambulante i medicine.
16:48
Finally, I want to say that before I came to speak here,
Na kraju, želim reći da pre nego što sam došao da govorim ovde,
16:54
I was told that the principle of TEDGlobal
Rečeno mi je da je princip TEDGlobal-a
16:58
is that the good speech should be like a miniskirt.
da dobar govor treba da bude poput mini suknje --
17:02
It should be short enough to arouse interest,
dovoljno kratak da probudi interesovanje,
17:05
but long enough to cover the subject.
ali isto tako dovoljno dug da pokrije temu.
17:07
I hope I have achieved that.
Nadam se da sam to postigao.
17:09
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
17:10
Thank you very much.
Mnogo vam hvala.
17:11
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
17:12
Translated by Biljana Tesic
Reviewed by Nenad Stevanovic

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About the speaker:

Andrew Mwenda - Journalist
Journalist Andrew Mwenda has spent his career fighting for free speech and economic empowerment throughout Africa. He argues that aid makes objects of the poor -- they become passive recipients of charity rather than active participants in their own economic betterment.

Why you should listen

Andrew Mwenda is a print, radio and television journalist, and an active critic of many forms of Western aid to Africa. Too much of the aid from rich nations, he says, goes to the worst African countries to fuel war and government abuse. Such money not only never gets to its intended recipients, Africa's truly needy -- it actively plays a part in making their lives worse.

Mwenda worked at the Daily Monitor newspaper in Kampala starting in the mid-1990s, and hosted a radio show, Andrew Mwenda Live, since 2001; in 2005, he was charged with sedition by the Ugandan government for criticizing the president of Uganda on his radio show, in the wake of the helicopter crash that killed the vice president of Sudan. He has produced documentaries and commentary for the BBC on the dangers of aid and debt relief to Africa, and consulted for the World Bank and Transparency international, and was a Knight Fellow at Stanford in 2007.

In December 2007, he launched a new newspaper in Kampala, The Independent, a leading source of uncensored news in the country. The following spring, he was arrested and accused of publishing inflammatory articles about the Ugandan government. Since being released, he has gone on to be recognized by the World Economic Forum as a Young Global Leader and to win the CPJ International Press Freedom Award.    

More profile about the speaker
Andrew Mwenda | Speaker | TED.com