Sal Khan: Let's teach for mastery -- not test scores
Salman Khan: Să învăţăm ca să stăpânim cunoştinţele, nu pentru note
In 2004, Sal Khan, a hedge fund analyst, began making math tutorials for his cousins. Twelve years later, Khan Academy has more than 42 million registered users from 190 countries, with tutorials on subjects from basic math through economics, art history, computer science, health, medicine and more. Full bio
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the two ideas that,
despre cele două idei care,
my observations at Khan Academy,
la Khan Academy,
or the key leverage points for learning.
puncte de sprijin ale învăţării.
working with my cousins.
în care lucram cu verii mei.
with math at first,
aveau probleme cu matematica,
accumulated in their learning.
multe goluri în învăţare.
they got to an algebra class
shaky on some of the pre-algebra,
pe cunoştinţele de bază
they didn't have the math gene.
că nu au gena matematicii.
shaky on the algebra.
some of those videos on YouTube,
dintre filmele acelea pe Youtube
who were not my cousins were watching.
şi oameni care nu erau verii mei.
were just simple thank-yous.
erau simple mulţumiri.
you all spend on YouTube.
nu sunt „Mulţumesc”.
got a little more intense,
au devenit puţin mai intense,
that they had grown up not liking math.
că au crescut urând matematica.
into more advanced math topics.
la subiecte mai avansate.
they couldn't engage with it.
încât nu o puteau aborda.
have the math gene.
şi au decis să se implice.
and decided to engage.
şi să stăpânească acele concepte,
and master those concepts,
le-a arătat că se poate;
that it wasn't fixed;
of learning mathematics.
you would master a lot of things in life.
în multe domenii.
learn a martial art.
pentru centura albă atât cât e necesar
practice the white belt skills
a musical instrument:
over and over again,
treci la cele mai complexe.
academic model is structured,
nu e structurat aşa,
that most of us grew up in.
în care majoritatea am crescut.
usually by age,
together at the same pace.
la ora de algebră,
a lecture on exponents,
we'll review the homework,
two or three weeks,
gaps in our knowledge,
lacune în cunoştinţele noastre...
the five percent they didn't know?
care sunt cele 5% pe care nu le ştiu?
move on to the next subject,
la următoarea lecţie,
that's going to build on those gaps.
ce se va baza pe acele goluri.
or negative exponents.
and you immediately start to realize
of the more foundational thing,
to the more advanced thing.
spre lucruri mai avansate.
all the way until at some point,
până când, la un moment dat,
or trigonometry class
sau de trigonometrie
is fundamentally difficult
e în mod fundamental dificilă
and they're dealing with exponents
şi ei lucrează cu exponenţi
that I didn't know is showing up.
ies la iveală.
in our life that way.
şi alte lucruri în acest fel.
two weeks to build a foundation.
să construim fundaţia.
the inspector comes, looks around,
dirigintele de şantier verifică
is still wet right over there,
Let's build the first floor."
Hai să construim parterul.”
faceţi ce puteţi, dirigintele vine, 75%.
inspector shows up, it's a 75 percent.
întreaga structură se surpă.
while you're building the third floor,
celei pe care o ai în cazul educaţiei,
you typically have in education,
poţi spune că n-a fost bun constructorul,
we had a bad contractor,
mai bune sau mai dese,
or more frequent inspection.
was the process.
how long we had to something,
termene pentru activităţi,
and identifying those gaps,
şi să identificăm problemele,
is to do the exact opposite.
e să faci exact opusul.
that variable outcome,
to work on something,
they actually master the material.
să stăpânească perfect acel subiect.
learn their exponents better,
să-şi înveţe mai bine exponenţii,
the right mindset muscles.
20 percent wrong on something,
că dacă nu ştii 20% din ceva,
a C branded in your DNA somehow.
ai un 7 gravat în ADN.
keep working on it.
doar să continui să munceşti.
you should have perseverance;
trebuie să perseverezi;
well, hey, this is all great,
totul e grozav,
a învăţării bazate pe excelenţă
of mastery-based learning
over their learning.
but it seems impractical.
greu de transpus în practică.
would be on their own track.
ar trebui să meargă pe drumul său.
and worksheets for every student.
şi planificări pentru fiecare elev.
in Winnetka, Illinois, 100 years ago,
în Winnetka, Illinois, acum 100 de ani
and saw great results,
a dat rezultate grozave,
because it was logistically difficult.
din cauza problemelor logistice.
worksheets to every student,
fişe diferite fiecărui student,
at their own time and pace?
la timpul şi în ritmul lor?
readily available for students.
graduale pentru elevi.
all sorts of neat things happen.
apar tot felul de beneficii.
master the concepts,
mentalitatea de creştere,
their growth mindset,
tot felul de lucruri bune
can start to happen
on the lecture,
pot aprofunda materia
over the material.
of a thought experiment.
into the past to Western Europe,
de acum 400 de ani,
literate parts of the planet,
cele mai alfabetizate ale lumii,
of the population knew how to read.
ştia să citească.
who did know how to read,
pe cineva care ştia să citească,
do you think is even capable of reading?"
crezi că ar fi capabilă să citească?”
with a great education system,
cu un sistem educaţional grozav,
would have been wildly pessimistic,
ar fi fost foarte pesimistă,
of the population is capable of reading.
e capabilă să citească.
a similar question:
do you think is capable
credeţi că e capabil
to cancer research?"
la cercetările împotriva cancerului?”
with a great education system,
„Cu un sistem educaţional grozav,
in a non-mastery framework,
în cadrul existent acum,
or observing your peers,
sau a celor ca voi,
at this set pace through classes,
în acest ritm prestabilit prin clase,
you get to an advanced class,
ajungi la noţiuni avansate,
nu am talent de matematician.”
not meant to be a mathematician."
să învăţaţi într-un cadru de excelenţă,
in a mastery framework,
să aveţi iniţiativa pregătirii voastre
take agency over your learning,
ca pe o ocazie de învăţare,
as a moment of learning --
care ar putea excela în analiză matematică
that could really master calculus
the industrial age
this information revolution.
things are happening.
societatea era o piramidă.
society was a pyramid.
era nevoie de forţă de muncă.
you needed human labor.
you had an information processing,
era procesarea informaţiei,
you had your owners of capital
aveam deţinătorii de capital
automation, is going to take over.
because of this technology,
se datorează tehnologiei,
of the pyramid, in which case,
mult mai dezirabil?
that's more aspirational?
to invert the pyramid,
can participate as an entrepreneur,
să poată participa ca antreprenor,
is all based on the idea
lăsăm oamenii să-şi înţeleagă potenţialul
tap into their potential
over their learning,
iniţiativei propriei instruiri,
as just a citizen of the world,
ca un simplu cetăţean al lumii,
the type of equity we can we have,
could even progress.
a pretty exciting time to be alive.
să trăieşti acele timpuri.
ABOUT THE SPEAKERSal Khan - Educator and social entrepreneur
In 2004, Sal Khan, a hedge fund analyst, began making math tutorials for his cousins. Twelve years later, Khan Academy has more than 42 million registered users from 190 countries, with tutorials on subjects from basic math through economics, art history, computer science, health, medicine and more.
Why you should listen
Salman "Sal" Khan is the founder and chief executive officer of Khan Academy, a not-for-profit with a mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere.
Khan Academy started as a passion project in 2004. Khan's cousin was struggling with math, so he tutored her remotely and posted educational videos on YouTube. So many people watched the videos that eventually Khan quit his job at a hedge fund and pursued Khan Academy full time. Today Khan Academy has more than 100 employees in Mountain View, California. Khan Academy believes learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. Its resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, grammar, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance and history. Additionally, Khan Academy offers free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. More than 42 million registered users access Khan Academy in dozens of languages across 190 countries.
Khan has been profiled by "60 Minutes," featured on the cover of Forbes, and recognized as one of TIME’s "100 Most Influential People in the World." In his book, The One World Schoolhouse: Education Reimagined, Sal outlines his vision for the future of education.
Khan holds three degrees from MIT and an MBA from Harvard Business School.
Sal Khan | Speaker | TED.com