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TED2011

Nathan Myhrvold: Cooking as never seen before

Nathan Myhrvold: Kuhanje kakvo niste vidjeli do sada

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Autor kuharice (i štreber) Nathan Myhrvold govori o svom autoritativnom radu, "Modernistička kuhinja" - i otkriva tajnu svojih odličnih fotografskih ilustracija, koje prikazuju poprečne presjeke hrane u toku pripreme.

- Polymath
Nathan Myhrvold is a professional jack-of-all-trades. After leaving Microsoft in 1999, he's been a world barbecue champion, a wildlife photographer, a chef, a contributor to SETI, and a volcano explorer. Full bio

So I'm going to tell you a little bit
Pričaću vam malo
00:15
about reimagining food.
o ponovnom osmišljavanju hrane.
00:17
I've been interested in food for a long time.
Već dugo me interesuje hrana.
00:19
I taught myself to cook
Sam sam naučio kuhati
00:21
with a bunch of big books like this.
uz gomilu velikih knjiga poput ove.
00:23
I went to chef school in France.
Pohađao sam školu za kuhare u Francuskoj.
00:25
And there is a way
I postoji način
00:28
the world both envisions food,
na koji svijet zamišlja hranu,
00:30
the way the world writes about food and learns about food.
način na koji se u svijetu piše o hrani i uči o hrani.
00:32
And it's largely what you would find in these books.
I to je uglavnom ono što ćete pronaći u ovim knjigama.
00:35
And it's a wonderful thing.
I to je nešto prekrasno.
00:38
But there's some things that have been going on
Ali, otkada je formirana ideja o hrani,
00:40
since this idea of food was established.
izdešavale su se neke stvari.
00:42
In the last 20 years,
U posljednjih 20 godina,
00:45
people have realized that science
ljudi su shvatili da je nauka
00:47
has a tremendous amount to do with food.
uveliko povezana sa hranom.
00:49
In fact, understanding why cooking works
U stvari, da bi ste razumijeli zašto kuhanje funkcioniše,
00:51
requires knowing the science of cooking --
potrebno je znati nauku kuhanja --
00:54
some of the chemistry, some of the physics and so forth.
nešto hemije, nešto fizike i tako dalje.
00:56
But that's not in any of those books.
Ali to se ne nalazi ni u jednoj od ovih knjiga.
00:59
There's also a tremendous number of techniques
Takođe postoji ogroman broj tehnika
01:01
that chefs have developed,
koje su kuhari razvili,
01:03
some about new aesthetics, new approaches to food.
neke o novoj estetici, novim pristupima hrani.
01:05
There's a chef in Spain named Ferran Adria.
U Španiji postoji kuhar po imenu Ferran Adria.
01:08
He's developed a very avant-garde cuisine.
On je razvio veoma avangardnu kuhinju;
01:11
A guy in England called Heston Blumenthal,
tip u Engleskoj, po imenu Heston Blumenthal,
01:13
he's developed his avant-garde cuisine.
on je razvio svoju avangardnu kuhinju.
01:16
None of the techniques that these people have developed
Nijedna od tehnika koje su ovi ljudi razvili
01:18
over the course of the last 20 years
u toku posljednjih 20 godina
01:20
is in any of those books.
se ne nalazi u bilo kojoj od tih knjiga.
01:22
None of them are taught in cooking schools.
Nijedna od njih se ne podučava u školama kuhanja
01:24
In order to learn them, you have to go work in those restaurants.
Da biste ih naučili, morate otići i raditi u tim restoranima.
01:26
And finally,
I na kraju,
01:29
there's the old way of viewing food
postoji stari način razmišljanja o hrani
01:31
is the old way.
i to je stari način.
01:33
And so a few years ago -- fours years ago, actually --
I tako sam prije nekoliko godina -- četiri godine, u stvari --
01:35
I set out to say, is there a way
namjerio da otkrijem, postoji li način
01:38
we can communicate science and technique and wonder?
na koji možemo prikazati nauku, tehniku i čudo?
01:40
Is there a way we can show people food
Postoji li način na koji možemo ljudima pokazati hranu
01:44
in a way they have not seen it before?
kako ju nisu vidjeli ranije?
01:46
So we tried, and I'll show you what we came up with.
Pa smo pokušali, i pokazaću vam šta smo smislili.
01:48
This is a picture called a cutaway.
Ovakva slika se naziva presjek.
01:51
This is actually the first picture I took in the book.
Ovo je u stvari prva slika koju sam napravio za ovu knjigu.
01:54
The idea here is to explain what happens
Ovdje je ideja da objasnimo šta se dešava
01:56
when you steam broccoli.
kada brokulu kuhate na pari.
01:58
And this magic view allows you to see
I ovaj magični prizor vam omogućava da vidite
02:00
all of what's happening
sve što se događa
02:02
while the broccoli steams.
dok se brokula kuha na pari.
02:04
Then each of the different little pieces around it
Zatim, svaki različit komadić oko nje
02:06
explain some fact.
objašnjava neku činjenicu.
02:08
And the hope was two-fold.
A namjera je bila dvostruka.
02:10
One is you can actually explain what happens when you steam broccoli.
Prva je da stvarno možete objasniti šta se događa kada brokulu kuhate na pari.
02:12
But the other thing is that maybe we could seduce people
Druga stvar je da možda možemo ljude zavesti stvarima
02:14
into stuff that was a little more technical,
koje su malo više tehničke,
02:17
maybe a little bit more scientific, maybe a little bit more chef-y
možda malo više naučne, možda malo više kuharske
02:19
than they otherwise would have.
nego što bi to inače bile.
02:22
Because with that beautiful photo,
Jer, sa ovom prelijepom fotografijom,
02:24
maybe I can also package this little box here
možda mogu takođe upakovati i ovaj mali blok ovdje
02:26
that talks about how steaming and boiling
u kome se govori o tome kako parenje i kuhanje
02:28
actually take different amounts of time.
u stvari iziskuju različite količine vremena.
02:30
Steaming ought to be faster.
Kuhanje na pari bi trebalo biti brže.
02:32
It turns out it isn't because of something called film condensation,
Ispostavlja se da nije brže, zbog nečega što se naziva kondenzacija,
02:34
and this explains that.
a ovo je objašnjenje.
02:37
Well, that first cutaway picture worked,
Pa, prva slika presjeka je bila uspješna,
02:39
so we said, "Okay, let's do some more."
pa smo rekli: "U redu, hajde da ih napravimo još."
02:42
So here's another one.
I evo još jedne.
02:45
We discovered why woks are the shape they are.
Otkrili smo zašto su vokovi oblikovani onako kako jesu.
02:47
This shaped wok doesn't work very well;
Vok ovoga oblika ne funkcioniše baš dobro;
02:50
this caught fire three times.
ovo se zapalilo tri puta.
02:52
But we had a philosophy,
Ali mi smo imali filozofiju,
02:54
which is it only has to look good for a thousandth of a second.
prema kojoj to mora izgledati dobro samo hiljaditi dijelić sekunde.
02:56
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
02:59
And one of our canning cutaways.
I jedan od naših presjeka sa konzerviranjem.
03:01
Once you start cutting things in half, you kind of get carried away,
Jednom kada počnete stvari sjeći na pola, nekako se zanesete,
03:03
so you see we cut the jars in half as well as the pan.
pa vidite da smo i staklenke presjekli na pola, kao i posudu.
03:06
And each of these text blocks
I svaki od ovih blokova teksta
03:09
explains a key thing that's going on.
objašnjava ključnu stvar koja se dešava.
03:11
In this case, boiling water canning
U ovom slučaju, konzerviranje ključalom vodom
03:13
is for canning things that are already pretty acidic.
je za konzerviranje hrane koja je već poprilično kisela.
03:16
You don't have to heat them up as hot
Ne morate ih zagrijavati tako jako
03:18
as you would something you do pressure canning
kao što bi ste zagrijavali nešto što konzervirate pod pritiskom,
03:20
because bacterial spores can't grow in the acid.
jer bakterijske spore ne mogu rasti u kiselini.
03:23
So this is great for pickled vegetables,
Zato je ovo veoma dobro za ukiseljeno povrće,
03:27
which is what we're canning here.
što upravo ovdje konzervišemo.
03:29
Here's our hamburger cutaway.
Evo i našeg presjeka hamburgera.
03:31
One of our philosophies in the book
Jedna od naših filozofija u ovoj knjizi
03:33
is that no dish
je da ni jedno jelo
03:35
is really intrinsically any better than any other dish.
u stvari nije bolje od bilo kojeg drugog jela.
03:37
So you can lavish
Tako da možete posvetiti
03:39
all the same care, all the same technique,
istu pažnju, sve iste tehnike
03:41
on a hamburger
na hamburger
03:44
as you would on some much more fancy dish.
kao što biste učinili i za neko svečanije jelo.
03:46
And if you do lavish as much technique as possible,
I ako budete upotrijebili najviši mogući nivo tehnike,
03:48
and you try to make the highest quality hamburger,
za pravljenje najkvalitetnijeg mogućeg hamburgera,
03:51
it gets to be a little bit involved.
to može postati pomalo komplikovano.
03:53
The New York Times ran a piece
The New York Times je objavio članak
03:55
after my book was delayed
kada je odgođeno objavljivanje moje knjige
03:57
and it was called "The Wait for the 30-Hour Hamburger
pod naslovom "Tridesetsatno čekanje za hamburger
03:59
Just Got Longer."
se upravo produžilo".
04:02
Because our hamburger recipe, our ultimate hamburger recipe,
Jer naš recept za hamburger, naš recept za najbolji hamburger,
04:04
if you make the buns and you marinate the meat and you do all this stuff,
ako sami napravite pecivo i ako sami marinirate meso i uradite sve to,
04:07
it does take about 30 hours.
stvarno zahtijeva oko 30 sati.
04:10
Of course, you're not actually working the whole time.
Naravno, vi u stvari ne radite cijelo to vrijeme.
04:12
Most of the time is kind of sitting there.
Većina vremena podrazumjeva da samo sjedite.
04:14
The point of this cutaway
Smisao ovog presjeka
04:16
is to show people a view of hamburgers they haven't seen before
je da se ljudima hamburger prikaže u svjetlu u kome ga nisu prije vidjeli,
04:18
and to explain the physics of hamburgers
te da im se pokaže fizika hamburgera
04:20
and the chemistry of hamburgers,
i hemija hamburgera,
04:22
because, believe it or not, there is something to the physics and chemistry --
jer, vjerovali ili ne, ima nešto vezano i za fiziku i hemiju,
04:24
in particular, those flames underneath the burger.
konkretno, u plamenu ispod hamburgera.
04:27
Most of the characteristic char-grilled taste
Glavnina karakterističnog ukusa roštilja na ugalj
04:30
doesn't come from the wood or the charcoal.
ne potiče od uglja ili drveta.
04:33
Buying mesquite charcoal will not actually make that much difference.
Kupovina kvalitetnijeg uglja neće donijeti neku veliku razliku.
04:36
Mostly it comes from fat pyrolyzing, or burning.
Uglavnom, ukus potiče od pirolize, ili sagorijevanja, masnoće.
04:39
So it's the fat that drips down and flares up
Znači, masnoća koja kapa i gori
04:42
that causes the characteristic taste.
je ono što uzrokuje karakterističan ukus.
04:45
Now you might wonder, how do we make these cutaways?
Sada biste se mogli zapitati kako mi pravimo ove presjeke?
04:47
Most people assume we use Photoshop.
Većina ljudi pretpostavlja da koristimo Photoshop.
04:49
And the answer is: no, not really;
I odgovor je ne, u stvari ga ne koristimo,
04:51
we use a machine shop.
koristimo radionicu.
04:53
And it turns out, the best way to cut things in half
I ispostavilo se da je najbolji način da stvari presječemo na pola
04:56
is to actually cut them in half.
taj da ih stvarno presječemo na pola.
04:59
So we have two halves of one of the best kitchens in the world.
Tako da imamo dvije polovice jedne od najboljih kuhinja na svijetu.
05:02
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
05:04
We cut a $5,000 restaurant oven in half.
Presjekli smo restoransku pećnicu vrijednu 5,000 US$ na pola.
05:06
The manufacturer said,
Proizvođači su rekli:
05:10
"What would it take for you to cut one in half?"
"Šta bi bio uslov da jednu od njih presječete na pola?"
05:12
I said, "It would have to show up free."
Rekao sam: "Morala bi biti besplatna."
05:14
And so it showed up, we used it a little while,
I tako je stigla, koristili smo ju jedno vrijeme,
05:16
we cut it in half.
presjekli smo ju na pola.
05:18
Now you can also see a little bit how we did some of these shots.
Sada takođe možete vidjeti kako smo napravili neke od ovih fotografija.
05:20
We would glue a piece of Pyrex
Zalijepili bismo komad Pyrex stakla
05:23
or heat-resistant glass in front.
ili vatrostalnog stakla na prednju stranu.
05:25
We used a red, very high-temperature silicon to do that.
Koristili smo crveni silikon, otporan na veoma visoke temperature, kako bi smo to postigli.
05:28
The great thing is, when you cut something in half,
Kada nešto presječete na pola,dobra je stvar što
05:31
you have another half.
imate i drugu polovinu.
05:33
So you photograph that in exactly the same position,
Tako da ju fotografišete tačno na istoj poziciji.
05:35
and then you can substitute in --
i onda možete zamijeniti --
05:37
and that part does use Photoshop -- just the edges.
i taj dio stvarno zahtijeva Photoshop -- samo ivice.
05:39
So it's very much like in a Hollywood movie
Tako da ovo poprilično liči na holivudski film
05:42
where a guy flies through the air, supported by wires,
gdje tip leti kroz vazduh, na sajlama,
05:44
and then they take the wires away digitally
i onda oni sajle digitalno uklone
05:46
so you're flying through the air.
tako da ispada da stvarno leti kroz vazduh.
05:48
In most cases, though, there was no glass.
U većini slučajeva, ipak, nije bilo stakla.
05:50
Like for the hamburger, we just cut the damn barbecue.
Kao na primjer za hamburger, samo smo presjekli prokleti roštilj.
05:52
And so those coals that kept falling off the edge,
I onaj ugalj je stalno ispadao preko ivice,
05:55
we kept having to put them back up.
a mi smo ga morali vraćati.
05:58
But again, it only has to work for a thousandth of a second.
Ali, opet, to mora funkcionisati samo hiljaditi dio sekunde.
06:00
The wok shot caught fire three times.
Vok se zapalio tri puta.
06:02
What happens when you have your wok cut in half
Ono što se desi kada svoj vok presječete na pola
06:05
is the oil goes down into the fire
je da se ulje slije u vatru
06:07
and whoosh!
i vuuuuš!
06:09
One of our cooks lost his eyebrows that way.
Jedan od naših kuhara je tako ostao bez obrva.
06:11
But hey, they grow back.
Ali hej, one ponovo narastu.
06:13
In addition to cutaways,
Uz presjeke,
06:15
we also explain physics.
takođe objašnjavamo fiziku.
06:17
This is Fourier's law of heat conduction.
Ovo je Fourierov zakon provođenja toplote.
06:19
It's a partial differential equation.
To je parcijalna diferencijalna jednačina.
06:21
We have the only cookbook in the world
Mi imamo jedinu kuharicu na svijetu
06:23
that has partial differential equations in it.
u kojoj se nalaze parcijalne diferencijalne jednačine.
06:25
But to make them palatable,
Ali, kako bi smo ih učinili opipljivima,
06:27
we cut it out of a steel plate and put it in front of a fire
isjekli smo ih na čeličnoj ploči i stavili smo ju ispred vatre
06:29
and photographed it like this.
te smo ih tako fotografisali.
06:32
We've got lots of little tidbits in the book.
Imamo mnogo sitnih poslastica u knjizi.
06:34
Everybody knows that your various appliances
Svi znaju da različiti kućanski aparati
06:37
have wattage, right?
imaju potrošnju izraženu u vatima, zar ne?
06:39
But you probably don't know that much about James Watt.
Ali vjerovatno ne znate mnogo o Jamesu Wattu.
06:42
But now you will; we put a biography of James Watt in.
Ali sada ćete znati; uključili smo biografiju Jamesa Watta u knjigu.
06:44
It's a little couple paragraphs
To je nekoliko paragrafa
06:47
to explain why we call that unit of heat the watt,
koji objašnjavaju zašto tu jedinicu za toplotu zovemo vat
06:49
and where he got his inspiration.
i odakle je on crpio inspiraciju.
06:52
It turned out he was hired by a Scottish distillery
Ispostavilo se da ga je angažovala jedna škotska destilerija
06:54
to understand why they were burning so damn much peat
kako bi ustanovili zašto zašto su koristili toliko vražjeg treseta
06:57
to distill the whiskey.
za destilaciju viskija.
06:59
We also did a lot of calculation.
Takođe smo dosta računali.
07:01
I personally wrote thousands of lines of code
Ja sam lično napisao hiljade linija koda
07:03
to write this cookbook.
kako bih napisao ovu kuharicu.
07:05
Here's a calculation
Ovo je kalkulacija
07:07
that shows how the intensity of a barbecue,
koja prikazuje kako se kreće intenzitet roštilja,
07:09
or other radiant heat source, goes
ili nekog drugog izvora topline koji zrači,
07:11
as you move away from it.
kada se odmičete od njega.
07:13
So as you move vertically away from this surface,
Dakle, ako se vertikalno udaljavate od ove površine,
07:15
the heat falls off.
toplota se smanjuje.
07:17
As you move side to side, it moves off.
Kako se krećete sa jedne na drugu stranu, ona nestaje.
07:19
That horn-shaped region
To područje u obliku roga
07:21
is what we call the sweet spot.
je ono što nazivamo slatka tačka.
07:23
That's the place where the heat is even to within 10 percent.
To je mjesto gdje je toplota ujednačena do unutar 10%.
07:25
So that's the place where you really want to cook.
Dakle, to je mjesto gdje stvarno želite kuhati.
07:28
And it's got this funny horn-shaped thing,
I ima ovu smiješnu stvar u obliku roga,
07:30
which as far as I know, again,
što je, ponovo, koliko je meni poznato,
07:32
the first cookbook to ever do this.
prva kuharica do sada u kojoj je ovo urađeno.
07:34
Now it may also be the last cookbook that ever does it.
Sada, ona bi takođe mogla biti i posljednja kuharica u kojoj je ovo ikada urađeno.
07:36
You know, there's two ways
Znate, postoje dva načina
07:39
you can make a product.
da napravite proizvod.
07:41
You can do lots of market research
Možete detaljno istraživati tržište
07:43
and do focus groups
i napraviti fokus grupe
07:45
and figure out what people really want,
i shvatiti šta ljudi stvarno žele,
07:47
or you can just kind of go for it
ili možete jednostavno pokušati
07:49
and make the book you want and hope other people like it.
i napraviti knjigu kakvu vi želite i nadati se da će se svidjeti i drugim ljudima.
07:51
Here's a step-by-step that shows grinding hamburger.
Ovdje korak po korak pokazujemo kako se melje hamburger.
07:54
If you really want great hamburger,
Ako stvarno želite fenomenalan hamburger,
07:57
it turns out it makes a difference if you align the grain.
ispostavilo se da igra ulogu kako poravnate zrnca.
07:59
And it's really simple, as you can see here.
I to je stvarno jednostavno, kao što ovdje možete vidjeti.
08:02
As it comes out of the grinder, you just have a little tray,
Kako izlazi iz mašine za mljevenje, stavite mali poslužavnik,
08:04
and you just take it off in little passes,
i uzimate ga u manjim količinama,
08:06
build it up, slice it vertically.
sastavite ga, isiječete vertikalno.
08:08
Here's the final hamburger.
Ovdje je gotov hamburger.
08:10
This is the 30-hour hamburger.
Ovo je hamburger od 30 sati.
08:12
We make every aspect of this burger.
Mi pravimo sve dijelove ovog hamburgera.
08:14
The lettuce has got liquid smoke infused into it.
U salatu je ubrizgan tečni dim.
08:16
We also have things about how to make the bun.
Takođe imamo objašnjenja kako se pravi pecivo.
08:19
There's a mushroom, ketchup -- it goes on and on.
Tu je i gljiva, kečap -- i tako dalje, i tako dalje.
08:22
Now watch closely. This is popcorn. I'll explain it here.
Sada pažljivo gledajte. Ovo su kokice. Objasniću ovdje.
08:25
The popcorn is illustrating
Kokice ilustruju
08:28
a key thing in physics.
jednu od ključnih stvari u fizici.
08:30
Isn't that beautiful?
Zar ovo nije prelijepo.
08:32
We have a very high-speed camera,
Imamo veoma brzu kameru,
08:34
which we had lots of fun with on the book.
s kojom smo se mnogo zabavljali radeći na knjizi.
08:37
The key physics principle here
Ključno načelo fizike ovdje
08:39
is when water boils to steam
je kada voda ključa i prelazi u paru
08:41
it expands by a factor of 1,600.
ona se proširi za faktor od 1,600.
08:43
That's what's happening to the water inside that popcorn.
To je ono što se dešava sa vodom unutar kokica.
08:45
So it's a great illustration of that.
Tako da je ovo odlična ilustracija toga.
08:47
Now I'm going to close with a video that is kind of unusual.
Sada ću završiti sa videom koji je pomalo nebičan.
08:49
We have a chapter on gels.
Imamo poglavlje o gelovima.
08:52
And because people watch Mythbusters and CSI,
I pošto ljudi gledaju Mythbusterse i CSI,
08:54
I thought, well, let's put in a recipe
pomislio sam, pa, hajde da damo i recept
08:57
for a ballistics gelatin.
za balistički želatin.
08:59
Well, if you have a high-speed camera,
Pa, ako imate brzu kameru,
09:02
and you have a block of ballistics gelatin lying around,
i ako pri ruci imate komad balističkog želatina,
09:04
pretty soon somebody does this.
veoma brzo neko uradi ovo.
09:07
(Gasps)
(Uzdasi)
09:11
Now the amazing thing here
Ono što je ovdje nevjerovatno
09:13
is that a ballistics gelatin is supposed to mimic
je to što bi balistički žele trebao simulirati
09:15
what happens to human flesh when you get shot -- that's why you shouldn't get shot.
šta se događa sa ljudskim mesom kada vas upucaju -- zato vas ne bi trebali upucati.
09:17
The other amazing thing is, when this ballistics gelatin comes down,
Druga nevjerovatna stvar je, kada se ovaj balistički želatin smiri,
09:20
it falls back down as a nice block.
padne dole kao fini blok.
09:23
Anyway, here's the book.
U svakom slučaju, evo knjige.
09:25
Here it is.
Evo je.
09:28
2,438 pages.
2,435 stranica.
09:32
And they're nice big pages too.
I to su lijepe velike stranice takođe.
09:36
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
09:39
A friend of mine complained
Jedan od mojih prijatelja se požalio
09:47
that this was too big and too pretty to go in the kitchen,
da je prevelika i prelijepa da bi ju držali u kuhinji,
09:49
so there's a sixth volume
tako da postoji i šesti tom
09:51
that has washable, waterproof paper.
koji je napravljen od vodootpornog papira koji možete prati.
09:53
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
09:55

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About the speaker:

Nathan Myhrvold - Polymath
Nathan Myhrvold is a professional jack-of-all-trades. After leaving Microsoft in 1999, he's been a world barbecue champion, a wildlife photographer, a chef, a contributor to SETI, and a volcano explorer.

Why you should listen

Since leaving his post as Microsoft's Chief Technology Officer in 1999 (with fortune in tow), Nathan Myhrvold has been a professional exemplar of the spirit of the "Renaissance Man," proudly following his interests wherever they've led. His dispersed passions have triggered an impressive list of accomplishments, including world barbecue championships, major archeological finds (several Tyrannosaurus rex skeletons), prize-winning wildlife photography, building a section of Babbage's Difference Engine #2, s, and a new and consuming interest in the sous-vide cooking technique.

Malcolm Gladwell's 2008 New Yorker profile of him revealed an impish but truly inspired character whose latest company, Intellectual Ventures -- which brainstorms and patents a wide array of inventions --  has been accused in some quarters of acting like a 'patent troll' but is described by Myhrvold as "a disruptive organization providing  an efficient way for patent holders to get paid for the inventions they own, and... for technology companies to gain easy access to the invention rights they need." After funding big-vision projects such as the Allen Telescope Array, exploring active volcanoes and investigating penguin digestion, Myhrvold insists that his hobbies aren't as discursive as they seem. They do have a common denominator, after all: him.

More profile about the speaker
Nathan Myhrvold | Speaker | TED.com