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TEDxWarwick

Mustafa Akyol: Faith versus tradition in Islam

Mustafa Akyol: Vjera naspram tradicije u Islamu

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Na TEDx u Warwicku, novinar Mustafa Akyol govori o tome kako su neki lokalni kulturni običaji (kao što je nošenje marame), među ljudima postali povezani sa odredbama islamske vjere. Da li je opšta ideja islamske vjere u svijetu isuviše fokusirana na tradiciju, a nedovoljno na suštinska vjerovanja?

- Journalist
Mustafa Akyol is a columnist for Turkey's oldest English-language daily, Hurriyet Daily News. Full bio

A few weeks ago,
Prije nekoliko sedmica
00:15
I had a chance to go to Saudi Arabia.
dobio sam priliku
da posjetim Saudijsku Arabiju.
00:17
And the first thing I wanted to do as a Muslim
I prvo što sam kao Musliman
želio da uradim
00:20
was go to Mecca and visit the Kaaba,
bilo je da odem u Meccu i posjetim Kaabu,
00:23
the holiest shrine of Islam.
najsvetiji islamski hram.
00:25
And I did that; I put on my ritualistic dress;
I to sam i učinio; obukao sam svoju ritualnu odoru;
00:27
I went to the holy mosque;
otišao do svete džamije;
00:29
I did my prayers;
obavio svoju molitvu;
00:31
I observed all the rituals.
ispoštovao sve rituale.
00:33
And meanwhile,
U međuvremenu,
00:35
besides all the spirituality,
pored sve te duhovnosti,
00:37
there was one mundane detail in the Kaaba
jedan posve običan detalj u Kaabi
00:39
that was pretty interesting for me.
mi se učinio veoma zanimljivim.
00:41
There was no separation of sexes.
Nije bilo odvajanja među polovima.
00:43
In other words, men and women
Drugim riječima, muškarci i žene
00:45
were worshiping all together.
su se svi zajedno molili.
00:47
They were together while doing the tawaf,
Bili su zajedno tokom hodočašća,
00:49
the circular walk around the Kaaba.
hodanja u krug oko Kaabe.
00:51
They were together while praying.
Bili su zajedno dok se se molili.
00:54
And if you wonder why this is interesting at all,
I ako se pitate zbog čega je ovo uopšte zanimljivo,
00:56
you have to see the rest of Saudi Arabia
morali biste vidjeti ostatak Saudijske Arabije,
00:59
because it's a country
jer je to zemlja
01:02
which is strictly divided between the sexes.
koja je strogo podjeljena između polova.
01:04
In other words,
Drugim riječima,
01:07
as men, you are not simply supposed to be
od vas, kao muškaraca, se jednostavno ne očekuje
01:09
in the same physical space with women.
da budete u istom fizičkom prostoru sa ženama.
01:11
And I noticed this in a very funny way.
A to sam primijetio na jako smiješan način.
01:13
I left the Kaaba
Krenuo sam iz Kaabe
01:15
to eat something in downtown Mecca.
kako bih nešto pojeo u centru Mecce.
01:17
I headed to the nearest Burger King restaurant.
Uputio sam se ka najbližem Burger King restoranu.
01:19
And I went there --
I ušao sam --
01:21
I noticed that there was a male section,
i primijetio da postoji dio za muškarce,
01:23
which was carefully separated from the female section.
koji je pažljivo odvojen od ženskog dijela.
01:25
And I had to pay, order and eat at the male section.
Morao sam platiti, naručiti i jesti u muškom dijelu.
01:28
"It's funny," I said to myself,
"Ovo je ludo", rekao sam sâm sebi,
01:31
"You can mingle with the opposite sex at the holy Kaaba,
"možeš se miješati sa suprotnim polom u svetoj Kaabi,
01:33
but not at the Burger King."
ali ne u Burger King-u."
01:36
Quite ironic.
Prilično ironično.
01:38
Ironic, and it's also, I think, quite telling.
Ironično, no mislim da istovremeno nešto i kazuje.
01:40
Because the Kaaba and the rituals around it
Zbog toga što su Kaaba i rituali koji se vrše oko nje
01:43
are relics from the earliest phase of Islam,
relikti iz najranije faze Islama,
01:46
that of prophet Muhammad.
iz doba proroka Muhammada.
01:49
And if there was a big emphasis at the time
I da se u to vrijeme insistiralo
01:51
to separate men from women,
na odvajanju muškaraca od žena,
01:53
the rituals around the Kaaba could have been designed accordingly.
rituali oko Kaabe bi bili osmišljeni u skladu sa time.
01:55
But apparently that was not an issue at the time.
No, očigledno je da u to vrijeme to nije bio problem.
01:58
So the rituals came that way.
Tako su nastali i rituali.
02:00
This is also, I think, confirmed
Mislim da je to također potvrđeno
02:02
by the fact that the seclusion of women
činjenicom da je odvajanje žena
02:04
in creating a divided society
u stvaranju podijeljenog društva
02:06
is something that you also do not find in the Koran,
još jedna stvar koja se ne može naći u Kuranu,
02:08
the very core of Islam --
samoj srži Islama --
02:11
the divine core of Islam
božanskoj srži Islama
02:13
that all Muslims, and equally myself, believe.
u koju svi Muslimani, kao i ja sam, vjeruju.
02:15
And I think it's not an accident
I mislim da nije slučajnost
02:18
that you don't find this idea
da se ta ideja ne može naći
02:20
in the very origin of Islam.
u samom porijeklu Islama.
02:22
Because many scholars
Zbog toga što mnogi učeni ljudi
02:24
who study the history of Islamic thought --
koji izučavaju istoriju islamske misli --
02:26
Muslim scholars or Westerners --
Muslimani, kao i oni sa Zapada --
02:28
think that actually the practice
smatraju da je zapravo
02:30
of dividing men and women physically
fizička podjela muškaraca i žena .
02:32
came as a later development in Islam,
postala dio prakse u kasnijem razvoju Islama,
02:34
as Muslims adopted
kako su Muslimani usvajali
02:37
some preexisting cultures and traditions of the Middle East.
neke od postojećih kultura i tradicija Srednjeg istoka.
02:39
Seclusion of women was actually
Odvajanje žena se zapravo
02:42
a Byzantine and Persian practice,
praktikovalo u Vizantiji i Persiji,
02:44
and Muslims adopted that
a Muslimani su usvojili taj običaj
02:46
and made that a part of their religion.
i učinili ga dijelom svoje religije.
02:49
And actually this is just one example
A ovo je zapravo tek jedan od primjera
02:51
of a much larger phenomenon.
mnogo većeg fenomena.
02:53
What we call today Islamic Law, and especially Islamic culture --
Onog koji danas nazivamo islamskim zakonom, i naročito islamskom kulturom --
02:55
and there are many Islamic cultures actually;
iako ih zapravo ima više;
02:58
the one in Saudi Arabia is much different
islamska kultura u Saudijskoj Arabiji se značajno razlikuje
03:00
from where I come from in Istanbul or Turkey.
od kulture u Istanbulu, odakle ja dolazim, ili u Turskoj.
03:02
But still,
Pa ipak,
03:05
if you're going to speak about a Muslim culture,
ako ćemo govoriti o muslimanskoj kulturi,
03:07
this has a core, the divine message,
ona ima srž, božansku poruku,
03:09
which began the religion,
kojom je otpočela religija,
03:11
but then many traditions, perceptions,
no tada su mnoge tradicije, percepcije,
03:13
many practices were added on top of it.
kao i mnoge prakse pridodane na to.
03:15
And these were traditions of the Middle East -- medieval traditions.
A to su bili tradicije Srednjeg istoka – srednjovjekovne tradicije.
03:18
And there are two important messages, or two lessons,
Dvije značajne poruke, ili dvije lekcije,
03:22
to take from that reality.
se mogu izvući iz te realnosti .
03:25
First of all, Muslims --
Prije svega, Muslimani --
03:28
pious, conservative, believing Muslims who want to be loyal to their religion --
pobožni, konzervativni, vjernici Muslimani koji žele biti odani svojoj religiji --
03:30
should not cling onto everything in their culture,
ne bi se trebali držati svega u svojoj kulturi,
03:33
thinking that that's divinely mandated.
i misliti da je to određeno božanskom nakanom.
03:36
Maybe some things are bad traditions
Možda su neke od ovih tradicija loše
03:38
and they need to be changed.
i trebale bi se izmijeniti.
03:40
On the other hand, the Westerners
S druge strane, Zapadnjaci
03:42
who look at Islamic culture
koji posmatraju islamsku kulturu
03:44
and see some troubling aspects
i u njoj vide neke zabrinjavajuće aspekte
03:46
should not readily conclude that this is what Islam ordains.
ne bi trebali da isuviše olako zaključuju da je to nešto što Islam određuje.
03:48
Maybe it's a Middle Eastern culture
Možda je kultura Srednjeg istoka
03:51
that became confused with Islam.
pobrkana sa Islamom.
03:53
There is a practice called female circumcision.
Na primjer, praksa ženskog obrezivanja.
03:55
It's something terrible, horrible.
To je nešto što je užasno, prestrašno.
03:58
It is basically an operation
U suštini, to je operacija
04:01
to deprive women of sexual pleasure.
kojom se ženama oduzima sposobnost seksualnog užitka.
04:03
And Westerners, Europeans or Americans,
Zapadnjaci, Evropljani ili Amerikanci,
04:06
who didn't know about this before
koji nisu znali ništa o ovome
04:08
faced this practice
suočili su se sa tom praksom
04:11
within some of the Muslim communities
u nekima od muslimanskih zajednica
04:13
who migrated from North Africa.
koje se migrirale iz sjeverne Afrike.
04:15
And they've thought, "Oh, what a horrible religion that is
I pomislili su "Kakva užasna religija
04:17
which ordains something like that."
da propisuje nešto takvo."
04:20
But actually when you look at female circumcision,
No, zapravo, ako razmislite o ženskom obrezivanju,
04:22
you see that it has nothing to do with Islam,
vidite da ono nema nikakve veze sa Islamom,
04:24
it's just a North African practice,
to je običaj koji se praktikovao u sjevernoj Africi,
04:26
which predates Islam.
još prije Islama.
04:28
It was there for thousands of years.
Tu je praktikovan hiljadama godina.
04:30
And quite tellingly, some Muslims do practice that.
I sasvim sigurno, neki Muslimani praktikuju taj običaj.
04:32
The Muslims in North Africa, not in other places.
Muslimani u sjevernoj Africi, ali ne na drugim mjestima.
04:35
But also the non-Muslim communities of North Africa --
Međutim, poznato je da čak i ne-muslimanske zajednice u sjevernoj Africi --
04:38
the Animists, even some Christians
Animisti, pa čak i neki Hrišćani
04:41
and even a Jewish tribe in North Africa
i jedno jevrejsko pleme u sjevernoj Africi
04:43
is known to practice female circumcision.
vrše obrezivanje žena.
04:45
So what might look like a problem
Znači, moglo bi se ispostaviti da je ono što se posmatra kao problem
04:48
within Islamic faith
u islamskoj vjeri
04:51
might turn out to be a tradition
zapravo tradicija
04:53
that Muslims have subscribed to.
koju su Muslimani prihvatili.
04:55
The same thing can be said for honor killings,
Isto bi se moglo reći i za ubistva iz časti,
04:57
which is a recurrent theme in the Western media --
koja su vječna tema u Zapadnim medijima --
04:59
and which is, of course, a horrible tradition.
a koja, naravno, predstavljaju jednu strašnu tradiciju.
05:02
And we see truly in some Muslim communities that tradition.
I mi uistinu vidimo da ta tradicija postoji u nekima od muslimanskih zajednica.
05:05
But in the non-Muslim communities of the Middle East,
Ali i u ne-muslimanskim zajednicama Srednjeg istoka,
05:08
such as some Christian communities, Eastern communities,
kao i u nekim hrišćanskim zajednicama, istočnim zajednicama,
05:11
you see the same practice.
nailazimo na istu praksu.
05:13
We had a tragic case of an honor killing
Imali smo tragičan slučaj ubistva iz časti
05:15
within Turkey's Armenian community
unutar tursko-jermenske zajednice
05:17
just a few months ago.
prije svega nekoliko mjeseci.
05:19
Now these are things about general culture,
No, ovo su pitanja opšte kulture,
05:21
but I'm also very much interested in political culture
dok sam ja također veoma zainteresovan za političku kulturu
05:23
and whether liberty and democracy is appreciated,
i da li se sloboda i demokratija cijene,
05:26
or whether there's an authoritarian political culture
ili je prisutna autoritarna politička kultura
05:29
in which the state is supposed to impose things on the citizens.
u kojoj se od države očekuje da građanima sve nameće.
05:32
And it is no secret
Nije tajna
05:35
that many Islamic movements in the Middle East
da mnogi islamski pokreti na Srednjem istoku
05:37
tend to be authoritarian,
imaju sklonost ka autoritarizmu,
05:39
and some of the so-called "Islamic regimes"
a neki od takozvanih 'islamskih režima',
05:41
such as Saudi Arabia, Iran
poput Saudijske Arabije, Irana
05:44
and the worst case was the Taliban in Afghanistan --
i kao najgori primjer Talibana u Afganistanu,
05:46
they are pretty authoritarian. No doubt about that.
su poprilično autoritarni – u to nema sumnje.
05:49
For example, in Saudi Arabia
Na primjer, u Saudijskoj Arabiji
05:51
there is a phenomenon called the religious police.
postoji fenomen koji se zove policija za religiju.
05:53
And the religious police imposes
Ta policija nameće
05:56
the supposed Islamic way of life
tobožnji islamski način života,
05:58
on every citizen, by force --
svakome građaninu, silom --
06:00
like women are forced to cover their heads --
npr. žene su primorane da pokrivaju glave --
06:02
wear the hijab, the Islamic head cover.
nose hidžab, islamsko pokrivalo za glavu.
06:04
Now that is pretty authoritarian,
To je nešto što je prilično autoritarno
06:07
and that's something I'm very much critical of.
i prema čemu sam jako kritičan.
06:09
But when I realized
Međutim, kada sam uvidjeo
06:12
that the non-Muslim,
da se oni koji nisu Muslimani,
06:15
or the non-Islamic-minded actors in the same geography,
ili nisu istomišljenici Islama u istom geografskom okruženju,
06:17
sometimes behaved similarly,
ponekad ponašaju na sličan način,
06:20
I realized that the problem maybe
shvatio sam da je problem možda
06:22
lies in the political culture of the whole region, not just Islam.
u političkoj kulturi cijelog regiona, ne samo Islama.
06:24
Let me give you an example: in Turkey where I come from,
Daću vam jedan primjer: u Turskoj, odakle dolazim,
06:27
which is a very hyper-secular republic,
koja je jedna izuzetno sekularna republika,
06:30
until very recently
sve donedavno
06:32
we used to have what I call secularism police,
smo imali nešto što ja nazivam sekularističkom policijom
06:34
which would guard the universities
koja je čuvala univerzitete
06:37
against veiled students.
od pokrivenih studentkinja.
06:40
In other words, they would force students
Drugim riječima, oni bi primoravali studentkinje
06:42
to uncover their heads,
da otkriju glave.
06:45
and I think forcing people to uncover their head
A ja smatram da je prisiljavanje žena da otkriju glave
06:47
is as tyrannical as forcing them to cover it.
podjednako tiranski kao i prisiljavanje da ih pokriju.
06:49
It should be the citizen's decision.
To bi trebala biti odluka građana.
06:52
But when I saw that, I said,
No, kada sam to vidjeo, rekao sam,
06:54
"Maybe the problem
"Možda je problem
06:56
is just an authoritarian culture in the region,
naprosto u autoritarnoj kulturi ovog regiona,
06:58
and some Muslims have been influenced by that.
i neki Muslimani su bili pod tim uticajem."
07:00
But the secular-minded people can be influenced by that.
Ali i ljudi koji su po svojim ubjeđenjima sekularni se mogu naći pod tim uticajem.
07:02
Maybe it's a problem of the political culture,
Možda je to problem političke kulture
07:05
and we have to think about
i mi moramo razmisliti
07:07
how to change that political culture."
kako da promijenimo tu političku kulturu.
07:09
Now these are some of the questions
Ovo su neka od pitanja
07:11
I had in mind a few years ago
o kojima sam razmišljao prije nekoliko godina
07:13
when I sat down to write a book.
kada sam sjeo da napišem knjigu.
07:15
I said, "Well I will make a research
Rekao sam: "Pa dobro, sprovešću istraživanje
07:17
about how Islam actually came to be what it is today,
o tome kako je Islam zapravo postao ovo što je danas,
07:19
and what roads were taken
kojim putevima se išlo
07:24
and what roads could have been taken."
a kojima se moglo ići."
07:26
The name of the book is "Islam Without Extremes: A Muslim Case for Liberty."
Naslov knjige je 'Islam bez ekstrema: Borba Muslimana za slobodu.'
07:28
And as the subtitle suggests,
Kao što i sam podnaslov sugeriše,
07:33
I looked at Islamic tradition and the history of Islamic thought
posmatrao sam islamsku tradiciju i istoriju islamske misli
07:35
from the perspective of individual liberty,
iz perspektive pojedinačne slobode,
07:38
and I tried to find what are the strengths
i pokušao sam utvrditi koje su snažne strane
07:40
with regard to individual liberty.
u vezi sa pojedinačnom slobodom.
07:42
And there are strengths in Islamic tradition.
Postoje jake strane u islamskoj tradiciji.
07:44
Islam actually, as a monotheistic religion,
Islam zapravo, kao monoteistička religija,
07:46
which defined man as a responsible agent by itself,
koja definiše čovjeka kao odgovornog faktora samog po sebi,
07:49
created the idea of the individual in the Middle East
stvorila je ideju o pojedincu na Srednjem istoku
07:53
and saved it from the communitarianism, the collectivism
i spasila ga od komunitarizma,
07:55
of the tribe.
plemenskog kolektivizma.
07:58
You can derive many ideas from that.
Iz toga se može izvući mnogo ideja.
08:00
But besides that, I also saw problems within Islamic tradition.
No, pored toga, također sam uvidjeo probleme unutar islamske tradicije.
08:02
But one thing was curious:
Jedna stvar je bila neobična:
08:05
most of those problems turn out to be problems that emerged later,
ispostavilo se da većina ovih problema predstavlja probleme koji su se pojavili kasnije,
08:07
not from the very divine core of Islam, the Koran,
i to ne iz božanske srži Islama, Kurana,
08:10
but from, again, traditions and mentalities,
već opet iz tradicija i mentaliteta
08:13
or the interpretations of the Koran
ili tumačenja Kurana
08:16
that Muslims made in the Middle Ages.
od strane Muslimana u srednjem vijeku.
08:18
The Koran, for example,
Kuran, na primjer,
08:20
doesn't condone stoning.
ne osuđuje kamenovanje.
08:22
There is no punishment on apostasy.
Nema kazne za izdaju.
08:24
There is no punishment on personal things like drinking.
Nema kazne za stvari lične prirode, poput konzumiranja alkohola.
08:26
These things which make Islamic Law,
Ove stvari koji čine islamski Zakon,
08:29
the troubling aspects of Islamic Law,
zabrinjavajući aspekti islamskog Zakona,
08:33
were later developed into later interpretations of Islam.
kasnije su razvijeni u naknadna tumačenja Islama.
08:36
Which means that Muslims can, today,
Što znači da Muslimani danas mogu
08:39
look at those things and say,
pogledati na ove stvari i reći,
08:41
"Well, the core of our religion
"Pa dobro, suština naše religije
08:43
is here to stay with us.
će ostati nepromijenjena.
08:45
It's our faith, and we will be loyal to it.
To je naša vjera i mi ćemo joj biti odani."
08:47
But we can change how it was interpreted,
Ali mi možemo izmijeniti sâmo tumačenje,
08:49
because it was interpreted according to the time and milieu in the Middle Ages.
jer je vjera protumačena u skladu sa vremenom i miljeom srednjeg vijeka.
08:51
Now we are living in a different world
Sada živimo u drugačijem svijetu
08:54
with different values and different political systems."
sa drugačijim vrijednostima i drugačijim političkim sistemima.
08:56
That interpretation is quite possible and feasible.
Takvo tumačenje je sasvim moguće i ostvarivo.
08:58
Now if I were the only person thinking that way,
Kada bih ja bio jedina osoba koja razmišlja na takav način,
09:02
we would be in trouble.
imali bismo problem.
09:05
But that's not the case at all.
Međutim, to uopšte nije slučaj.
09:08
Actually, from the 19th century on,
Zapravo, od 19. vijeka naovamo,
09:10
there's a whole revisionist, reformist --
postoji cijela revizionistička, reformistička --
09:13
whatever you call it --
kako god da je nazovete --
09:16
tradition,
tradicija,
09:18
a trend in Islamic thinking.
trend u islamskoj misli.
09:20
And these were intellectuals or statesmen
To su bili intelektualci ili državnici
09:22
of the 19th century, and later, 20th century,
iz 19. vijeka, i kasnije 20. vijeka,
09:24
which looked at Europe basically
koji su zapravo posmatrali Evropu
09:27
and saw that Europe has many things to admire,
i shvatili da Evropa ima mnogo toga za divljenje,
09:29
like science and technology.
poput nauke i tehnologije.
09:31
But not just that; also democracy, parliament,
I ne samo to; također i demokratiju, parlament ,
09:33
the idea of representation,
ideju o predstavljanju,
09:35
the idea of equal citizenship.
ideju o jednakim pravima građana.
09:37
These Muslim thinkers and intellectuals and statesmen
Ti muslimanski mislioci i intelektualci i državnici
09:39
of the 19th century looked at Europe, saw these things.
iz 19. vijeka posmatrali su Evropu i vidjeli sve to.
09:42
They said, "Why don't we have these things?"
Rekli su: "Zašto mi to nemamo?"
09:45
And they looked back at Islamic tradition,
I potom su se osvrnuli na islamsku tradiciju,
09:47
they saw that there are problematic aspects,
vidjeli su da postoje problematični aspekti,
09:49
but they're not the core of the religion, so maybe they can be re-understood,
ali oni ne čine suštinu religije, što znači da se mogu iznova shvatiti,
09:52
and the Koran can be reread
i da Kuran može da se iznova izuči
09:55
in the modern world.
u suvremenom svijetu.
09:57
That trend
Taj trend
09:59
is generally called Islamic modernism,
se generalno naziva islamskim modernizmom,
10:01
and it was advanced by intellectuals and statesmen,
a unaprijedili su ga intelektualci i državnici,
10:04
not just as an intellectual idea though,
doduše ne samo kao intelektualnu ideju,
10:07
but also as a political program.
već i kao politički program.
10:09
And that's why actually in the 19th century
I upravo zbog toga je u 19. vijeku
10:11
the Ottoman Empire, which then covered the whole Middle East,
Otomansko carstvo, koje je u to vrijeme zauzimalo cijeli Srednji istok,
10:13
made very important reforms --
sprovelo izuzetno značajne reforme --
10:16
reforms like giving Christians and Jews
poput onih koje su Hrišćanima i Jevrejima
10:19
an equal citizenship status,
dale jednak status građana,
10:21
accepting a constitution,
prihvatanja ustava,
10:23
accepting a representative parliament,
prihvatanja reprezentativnog parlamenta,
10:25
advancing the idea of freedom of religion.
unaprjeđenje ideje slobode religije.
10:27
And that's why the Ottoman Empire in its last decades
I stoga se Otomansko carstvo u svojim poslednji decenijama
10:30
turned into a proto-democracy,
pretvorilo u proto-demokratiju,
10:33
a constitutional monarchy,
ustavnu monarhiju.
10:35
and freedom was a very important political value at the time.
A sloboda je u to vrijeme imala izuzetno značajnu političku vrijednost.
10:37
Similarly, in the Arab world,
Slično tome, u arapskom svijetu
10:40
there was what the great Arab historian Albert Hourani
je nastupilo ono što čuveni arapski istoričar Albert Hourani
10:42
defines as the Liberal Age.
definiše kao liberalno doba.
10:45
He has a book, "Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age,"
On je napisao knjigu "Arapska misao u liberalnom dobu".
10:47
and the Liberal Age, he defines
A kao liberalno doba on definiše
10:49
as 19th century and early 20th century.
19. vijek i početak 20. vijeka.
10:51
Quite notably, this was the dominant trend
Sasvim primjetno, ovo je bio trend koji je prevladavao
10:54
in the early 20th century
s početka 20. vijeka
10:57
among Islamic thinkers and statesmen and theologians.
među islamskim misliocima, državnicima i teolozima. .
10:59
But there is a very curious pattern
Međutim, postoji jako zanimljiv obrazac
11:03
in the rest of the 20th century,
tokom ostatka 20. vijeka,
11:05
because we see a sharp decline
gdje vidimo snažan pad
11:07
in this Islamic modernist line.
u toj islamskoj modernističkoj liniji.
11:09
And in place of that,
Umjesto toga,
11:11
what happens is that Islamism grows
došlo je do jačanja Islamizma
11:13
as an ideology which is authoritarian,
kao autoritarne ideologije,
11:16
which is quite strident,
koja je prilično prodorna,
11:19
which is quite anti-Western,
prilično anti-zapadna
11:21
and which wants to shape society
i koja želi oblikovati društvo
11:23
based on a utopian vision.
na osnovu utopističke vizije.
11:25
So Islamism is the problematic idea
Znači, Islamizam je problematična ideja
11:27
that really created a lot of problems
koja je zapravo stvorila mnogo problema
11:30
in the 20th century Islamic world.
u islamskom svijetu 20. vijeka.
11:32
And even the very extreme forms of Islamism
Čak su i veoma ekstremni vidovi Islamizma
11:35
led to terrorism in the name of Islam --
doveli do terorizma u ime Islama --
11:38
which is actually a practice that I think is against Islam,
koji je zapravo praksa za koju smatram da je protiv Islama,
11:41
but some, obviously, extremists did not think that way.
međutim neki očigledno ekstremisti nisu mislili na isti način.
11:44
But there is a curious question:
No, javlja se zanimljivo pitanje:
11:47
If Islamic modernism was so popular
ako je islamski modernizam bio toliko popularan
11:49
in the 19th and early 20th centuries,
u 19. i početkom 20. vijeka,
11:52
why did Islamism become so popular
zašto je Islamizam postao tako popularan
11:54
in the rest of the 20th century?
kasnije tokom ostatka 20. vijeka?
11:56
And this is a question, I think,
Ovo je pitanje o kojem je, smatram,
11:58
which needs to be discussed carefully.
potrebno pažljivo razgovarati.
12:00
And in my book, I went into that question as well.
U svojoj knjizi sam se takođe bavio tim pitanjem.
12:02
And actually you don't need to be a rocket scientist to understand that.
Zapravo ne morate biti pretjerano pametni da biste to shvatili.
12:04
You just look at the political history of the 20th century,
Pogledajte samo političku istoriju 20. vijeka
12:08
and you see things have changed a lot.
i vidjećete da se mnogo toga jako promijenilo.
12:10
The context has changed.
Kontekst je izmijenjen.
12:12
In the 19th century,
U 19. vijeku,
12:14
when Muslims were looking at Europe as an example,
kada su se Muslimani ugledali na Evropu kao primjer,
12:16
they were independent; they were more self-confident.
bili su nezavisni i imali su mnogo više samopouzdanja.
12:18
In the early 20th century, with the fall of the Ottoman Empire,
Početkom 20. vijeka, padom Otomanskog carstva,
12:21
the whole Middle East was colonized.
cijeli Srednji istok je bio kolonizovan.
12:24
And when you have colonization what do you have?
A kada imate kolonizaciju, šta se dešava?
12:27
You have anti-colonization.
Tada imate anti-kolonizaciju.
12:29
So Europe is not just an example now to emulate;
Znači, Evropa više nije uzor koji treba oponašati;
12:31
it's an enemy to fight and to resist.
već je neprijatelj protiv kojeg se treba boriti i kojemu se treba oduprijeti.
12:34
So there's a very sharp decline
Došlo je do izuzetno oštrog opadanja
12:37
in liberal ideas in the Muslim world,
liberalne ideje u muslimanskom svijetu,
12:39
and what you see is more of a defensive,
i ono što se vidi je defanzivnija,
12:41
rigid, reactionary strain,
kruća, reakcionistička crta,
12:44
which led to Arab socialism, Arab nationalism
koji je dovela do arapskog socijalizma, arapskog nacionalizma
12:47
and ultimately to the Islamist ideology.
i na koncu do islamske ideologije.
12:49
And when the colonial period ended,
Kada je kolonijalno doba okončalo,
12:52
what you had in place of that
njega su zamijenili
12:55
was, generally, secular dictators,
uglavnom sekularni diktatori,
12:57
which say they're a country,
koji kažu da su oni zemlja,
12:59
but did not bring democracy to the country,
ali koji nisu donijeli demokratiju u zemlju,
13:01
and established their own dictatorship.
već su uspostavili sopstveno diktatorstvo.
13:03
And I think the West, at least some powers in the West,
Mislim da je Zapad, ili barem neke zapadne sile,
13:05
particularly the United States,
naročito Sjedinjene Države,
13:08
made the mistake of supporting those secular dictators,
pogriješile time što su dale podršku tim sekularnim diktatorima,
13:10
thinking that they were more helpful for their interests.
misleći da će oni biti od veće pomoći njihovim interesima.
13:13
But the fact that those dictators
No, činjenica da su ti diktatori
13:16
suppressed democracy in their country
gušenjem demokratije u svojim zemljama
13:18
and suppressed Islamic groups in their country
i gušenjem islamskih grupa
13:20
actually made the Islamists much more strident.
zapravo učinili da Islamisti postanu mnogo glasniji.
13:22
So in the 20th century,
Tako smo u 20. vijeku
13:24
you had this vicious cycle in the Arab world
imali ovaj začarani krug u arapskom svijetu
13:26
where you have a dictatorship suppressing its own people
gdje su diktatorski režimi tlačili sopstveni narod,
13:28
including the Islamic-pious,
uključujući i one pobožne,
13:31
and they're reacting in reactionary ways.
koji reaguju reakcionistički.
13:33
There was one country, though,
Doduše, samo jedna zemlja je
13:36
which was able to escape or stay away
mogla pobjeći ili ostati izvan
13:38
from that vicious cycle.
tog začararanog kruga.
13:41
And that's the country where I come from; that's Turkey.
To je zemlja iz koje dolazim, Turska.
13:43
Turkey has never been colonized,
Turska nikada nije bila kolonizirana,
13:46
so it remained as an independent nation after the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
tako da se održala kao nezavisna nacija nakon pada Otomanskog carstva.
13:48
That's one thing to remember.
To je jedna stvar koju treba upamtiti.
13:51
They did not share the same anti-colonial hype
Oni nisu imali isto anti-kolonijalno ludilo
13:53
that you can find in some other countries in the region.
koje možete naći u nekima od zemalja tog regiona.
13:56
Secondly, and most importantly,
Kao drugo, i još značajnije,
13:59
Turkey became a democracy
Turska je postala demokratijom
14:01
earlier than any of the countries we are talking about.
prije svih ovih zemalja o kojima smo govorili.
14:03
In 1950, Turkey had the first free and fair elections,
Turska je 1950. godine imala prve slobodne i pravedne izbore
14:05
which ended the more autocratic secular regime,
kojima je okončan sekularni režim koji je bio više autokratski,
14:07
which was the beginning of Turkey.
što je označilo početak Turske.
14:10
And the pious Muslims in Turkey
Pobožni Muslimani u Turskoj
14:12
saw that they can change the political system by voting.
su vidjeli da glasanjem mogu izmijeniti politički sistem.
14:14
And they realize that democracy is something that is compatible with Islam,
I uvidjeli su da je demokratija nešto što je kompatibilno sa Islamom,
14:18
compatible with their values,
kompatibilno sa njihovim vrijednostima
14:21
and they've been supportive of democracy.
i stoga su snažno podržali demokratiju.
14:23
That's an experience
To je iskustvo
14:25
that not every other Muslim nation in the Middle East had
koje muslimanske zemlje Srednjeg istoka
14:27
until very recently.
nisu imale sve do nedavno.
14:29
Secondly, in the past two decades,
Kao drugo, tokom poslednje dvije decenije,
14:31
thanks to globalization, thanks to the market economy,
zahvaljujući globalizaciji, zahvaljujući tržišnoj ekonomiji,
14:33
thanks to the rise of a middle-class,
zahvaljujući usponu srednje klase,
14:36
we in Turkey see
mi u Turskoj vidimo
14:38
what I define as a rebirth of Islamic modernism.
ono što ja nazivam ponovnim rođenjem islamskog modernizma.
14:40
Now there's the more urban middle-class pious Muslims
Sada postoji urbanija srednja klasa pobožnih Muslimana
14:44
who, again, look at their tradition
koji, ponovo, posmatraju svoju tradiciju
14:47
and see that there are some problems in the tradition,
i vide da u njoj postoje izvjesni problemi.
14:49
and they understand that they need to be changed and questioned and reformed.
I oni shvataju da se isto moraju promijeniti, moraju se dovoditi u pitanje i reformirati.
14:52
And they look at Europe,
A kada pogledaju Evropu,
14:55
and they see an example, again, to follow.
i opet vide primjer koji bi trebali slijediti.
14:57
They see an example, at least, to take some inspiration from.
Vide primjer iz kojeg, barem, mogu izvući neku inspiraciju.
15:00
That's why the E.U. process,
Zbog toga proces EU,
15:02
Turkey's effort to join the E.U.,
napor Turske da se pridruži EU,
15:04
has been supported inside Turkey
u Turskoj ima podršku
15:06
by the Islamic-pious,
tih pobožnih sljedbenika Islama,
15:08
while some secular nations were against that.
dok su neke od sekularnih nacija protiv toga.
15:10
Well that process has been a little bit blurred
No, taj proces je malo zamagljen
15:13
by the fact that not all Europeans are that welcoming --
činjenicom da ni svi Evropljani ne pozdravljaju ulazak novih zemalja --
15:15
but that's another discussion.
no to je tema za drugu diskusiju.
15:17
But the pro-E.U. sentiment in Turkey in the past decade
Ali pro-EU osjećanja u Turskoj su u poslednjoj deceniji
15:20
has become almost an Islamic cause
postala gotovo islamski slučaj,
15:23
and supported by the Islamic liberals
koji podržavaju islamski liberali,
15:25
and the secular liberals as well, of course.
kao i sekularni liberali, naravno.
15:27
And thanks to that,
I zahvaljujući tome,
15:30
Turkey has been able to reasonably create a success story
Turska je je uspjela da na razuman način izgradi uspješnu priču
15:32
in which Islam and the most pious understandings of Islam
u kojoj su Islam i najpobožnija razumijevanja Islama
15:35
have become part of the democratic game,
postali dijelom demokratske igre,
15:40
and even contributes to the democratic and economic
i čak doprinose demokratskom i ekonomskom
15:42
advance of the country.
napretku zemlje.
15:44
And this has been an inspiring example right now
I to je sada nadahnjujući primjer
15:46
for some of the Islamic movements
za neke od islamskih pokreta
15:49
or some of the countries in the Arab world.
ili neke od zemalja arapskog svijeta.
15:51
You must have all seen the Arab Spring,
Svi ste morali vidjeti arapsko proljeće
15:54
which began in Tunis and in Egypt.
koje je otpočelo u Tunisu i Egiptu.
15:56
And Arab masses
I arapske mase koje su se pobunile protiv svojih diktatora.
15:59
just revolted against their dictators.
koje su se pobunile protiv svojih diktatora.
16:01
They were asking for democracy; they were asking for freedom.
Tražili su demokratiju, tražili su slobodu.
16:03
And they did not turn out to be the Islamist boogyman
I nisu se pretvorili u islamske babaroge
16:06
that the dictators were always using
koje su diktatori koristili
16:09
to justify their regime.
kako bi opravdali svoje režime.
16:11
They said that "we want freedom; we want democracy.
Rekli su „mi želimo slobodu, želimo demokratiju.
16:14
We are Muslim believers,
Mi smo muslimanski vjernici,
16:17
but we want to be living as free people in free societies."
ali želimo živjeti kao slobodni ljudi u slobodnim društvima.“
16:19
Of course, this is a long road.
Naravno, put će biti dug.
16:22
Democracy is not an overnight achievement;
Demokratija nije ostvarenje do kojeg se dolazi preko noći; .
16:24
it's a process.
ona je proces.
16:26
But this is a promising era
No, ovo je epoha koja obećava
16:28
in the Muslim world.
u muslimanskom svijetu.
16:30
And I believe that the Islamic modernism
I ja vjerujem da islamski modernizam
16:32
which began in the 19th century,
koji je otpočeo u 19. vijeku,
16:34
but which had a setback in the 20th century
ali koji je doživjeo zastoj u 20. vijeku
16:36
because of the political troubles of the Muslim world,
usljed političkih nevolja u muslimanskom svijetu,
16:38
is having a rebirth.
sada doživljava preporod.
16:40
And I think the getaway message from that
I mislim da je poruka koja proizilazi iz toga
16:42
would be that Islam,
da Islam,
16:45
despite some of the skeptics in the West,
uprkos nekim zapadnim skepticima,
16:47
has the potential in itself
ima potencijal u sebi
16:50
to create its own way to democracy, create its own way to liberalism,
da stvori sopstveni put ka demokratiji, da stvori sopstveni put ka liberalizmu,
16:52
create its own way to freedom.
sopstveni put ka slobodi.
16:55
They just should be allowed to work for that.
Samo im treba dopustiti da to i urade.
16:57
Thanks so much.
Hvala Vam mnogo.
16:59
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
17:01
Translated by Mirjana Kosic
Reviewed by Mislav Ante Omazić - EFZG

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About the speaker:

Mustafa Akyol - Journalist
Mustafa Akyol is a columnist for Turkey's oldest English-language daily, Hurriyet Daily News.

Why you should listen
Mustafa Akyol is a Turkish political commentator and author based in Istanbul. He thinks and writes on issues relating to Islam and modernity, and dissects Turkish politics as a columnist for the English-language Hurriyet Daily News and the website Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East. He also writes a monthly opinion piece for The International New York Times.

Akyol's book, Islam Without Extremes, was published in July 2011 and calls for "an interpretation of Islam that synthesizes liberal ideas and respect for the Islamic tradition."
More profile about the speaker
Mustafa Akyol | Speaker | TED.com