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TEDGlobal 2017

Tania Douglas: To design better tech, understand context

塔尼亚·道格拉斯: 设计更好的科技,理解周围的环境

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如果一套先进的医疗设备在非洲不能适应当地的环境,它还能提供相应的服务吗?生物医学工程师 塔尼亚·道格拉斯分享了一系列故事,即我们如何在追求科技发展的同时却忽视了真正的需求—— 以及更深入思考实际的环境会如何引领我们得到更好的解决方案。

- Biomedical engineering professor
Tania Douglas imagines how biomedical engineering can help address some of Africa's health challenges. Full bio

This is an equipment设备 graveyard墓地.
这是一座设备的墓地。
00:12
It's a typical典型 final最后 resting休息 place地点
是为非洲医院中的
00:15
for medical equipment设备
from hospitals医院 in Africa非洲.
医疗器械提供的
一个典型的最终归宿地。
00:17
Now, why is this?
为什么会有这样一番景象?
00:20
Most of the medical devices设备
used in Africa非洲 are imported进口,
大多数在非洲使用的
医疗设备都是进口的,
00:22
and quite相当 often经常, they're not suitable适当
for local本地 conditions条件.
很多情况下,
它们并不适用于当地的条件。
00:26
They may可能 require要求 trained熟练 staff员工
它们可能要求
训练有素的医护人员,
00:31
that aren't available可得到 to operate操作
and maintain保持 and repair修理 them;
然而现实中这些人并没有能力
去操作、保养或者维修这些设备;
00:34
they may可能 not be able能够 to withstand经受
high temperatures温度 and humidity湿度;
这些设备可能无法
承受高温和潮湿的环境;
00:38
and they usually平时 require要求 a constant不变
and reliable可靠 supply供应 of electricity电力.
并且它们需要持续
可靠的供给电源。
00:42
An example of a medical device设备
一个医疗设备在某个时间
00:48
that may可能 have ended结束 up
in an equipment设备 graveyard墓地 at some point
可能被弃置于设备墓地的例子是,
00:50
is an ultrasound超声 monitor监控
to track跟踪 the heart rate of unborn腹中 babies婴儿.
一个用于实时跟踪胎儿
心跳的超声波监测仪。
00:55
This is the standard标准 of care关心
in rich丰富 countries国家.
在发达国家,它是
孕检的标准配置。
01:00
In low-resource低资源 settings设置,
the standard标准 of care关心 is often经常
然而在低配置的环境中,
孕检的标准常常是
01:03
a midwife助产士 listening
to the baby's宝宝 heart rate
一位助产士用角状听诊器
01:07
through通过 a horn喇叭.
去听宝宝的心跳。
01:10
Now, this approach途径 has been around
for more than a century世纪.
至今,这种方法已经
沿用了超过一个世纪。
01:12
It's very much dependent依赖的 on the skill技能
and the experience经验 of the midwife助产士.
这种方法很依赖于
助产士的技术和经验。
01:16
Two young年轻 inventors发明家 from Uganda乌干达
几年前,两位年轻的乌干达发明家
01:22
visited参观 an antenatal产前 clinic诊所
at a local本地 hospital醫院 a few少数 years年份 ago,
来到了一家当地医院的
附属产前诊所,
01:25
when they were students学生们
in information信息 technology技术.
他们当时还是信息技术专业的学生。
01:29
They noticed注意到 that quite相当 often经常,
他们注意到,很多情况下,
01:33
the midwife助产士 was not able能够
to hear any heart rate
当那里的助产士
尝试用角状听诊器去听的时候,
01:36
when trying to listen to it
through通过 this horn喇叭.
其实根本听不到任何心跳的声音。
01:39
So they invented发明 their own拥有
fetal heart rate monitor监控.
因此,他们发明了
自己的一套胎儿心跳监视器。
01:42
They adapted适应 the horn喇叭
and connected连接的 it to a smartphone手机.
他们改造了角状听诊器,
并将它和智能手机相连接。
01:48
An app应用 on the smartphone手机
records记录 the heart rate, analyzes分析 it
在手机上有一个应用
可实时记录心跳、分析数据,
01:52
and provides提供 the midwife助产士
with a range范围 of information信息
并且提供给助产士
一系列关于宝宝
01:57
on the status状态 of the baby宝宝.
当前状况的信息。
02:00
These inventors发明家 --
这两位发明家——
02:03
(Applause掌声)
(鼓掌)
02:04
are called Aaron亚伦 TushabeTushabe
and Joshua约书亚 Okello奥凯洛.
是亚伦·杜尚别(Aaron Tushabe)
和约书亚·奥凯洛(Joshua Okello)。
02:06
Another另一个 inventor发明者, TendekayiTendekayi KatsigaKatsiga,
另一位发明家,
滕德卡伊·卡特西戈(Tendekayi Katsiga),
02:10
was working加工 for an NGO非政府组织 in Botswana博茨瓦纳
that manufactured制成的 hearing听力 aids艾滋病.
是博兹瓦纳一个民间组织的成员,
这个组织是制造助听设备的。
02:14
Now, he noticed注意到 that
these hearing听力 aids艾滋病 needed需要 batteries电池
当时,他注意到这些助听设备
02:20
that needed需要 replacement替代,
需要经常更换电池,
02:25
very often经常 at a cost成本
that was not affordable实惠
而这样的花费是许多使用者
02:27
for most of the users用户 that he knew知道.
负担不起的。
02:29
In response响应, and being存在 an engineer工程师,
TendekayiTendekayi invented发明
为此,作为一名工程师的滕德卡伊
02:32
a solar-powered太阳能 battery电池 charger充电器
with rechargeable充电 batteries电池,
针对这些助听设备,
发明了一款带可充电电池的
02:37
that could be used in these hearing听力 aids艾滋病.
太阳能电池充电器。
02:40
He cofounded共同创立 a company公司 called DeaftronicsDeaftronics,
他与别人共同创立了一家名叫
“Deaftronics”的公司。
02:43
which哪一个 now manufactures制成品 the Solar太阳能 Ear,
这家公司如今
在生产“太阳能耳(Solar Ear)”,
02:47
which哪一个 is a hearing听力 aid援助 powered动力
by his invention发明.
这是一种由他发明的电池
供能的助听装置。
02:50
My colleague同事, SudeshSudesh SivarasuSivarasu,
invented发明 a smart聪明 glove手套
我有一个同事名叫
苏德什·思沃苏(Sudesh Sivarasu),
02:55
for people who have suffered遭遇 from leprosy麻风.
他发明了智能手套来帮助麻风病人。
03:01
Even though虽然 their disease疾病
may可能 have been cured治愈,
即使他们的疾病可以被治愈,
03:03
the resulting造成 nerve神经 damage损伤
will have left many许多 of them
但是麻风对神经的伤害会导致
03:06
without a sense of touch触摸 in their hands.
他们手部的触觉丧失。
03:10
This puts看跌期权 them at risk风险 of injury.
这会使他们很容易受伤。
03:12
The glove手套 has sensors传感器
to detect检测 temperature温度 and pressure压力
这款手套拥有温度和压力传感器,
03:16
and warn警告 the user用户.
可以帮助使用者(远离潜在的伤害)。
03:20
It effectively有效 serves供应
as an artificial人造 sense of touch触摸
它有效的提供了
一种人造的触觉感受,
03:22
and prevents防止 injury.
从而避免使用者受伤。
03:26
SudeshSudesh invented发明 this glove手套
after observing观察 former前任的 leprosy麻风 patients耐心
苏德什在仔细观察了之前的
麻风病人每天要做的事情,
03:28
as they carried携带的 out
their day-to-day日复一日 activities活动,
而且在得知这些病人
03:32
and he learned学到了 about the risks风险
and the hazards危害 in their environment环境.
时刻面临受伤的风险之后,
发明了这款手套。
03:35
Now, the inventors发明家 that I've mentioned提到
上述提到的这些发明者
03:41
integrated集成 engineering工程 with healthcare卫生保健.
结合了电子工程和健康管理的知识。
03:43
This is what biomedical生物医药 engineers工程师 do.
这也是许多生物医学
工程师做的事情。
03:47
At the University大学 of Cape Town,
在开普敦大学,
03:50
we run a course课程 called
Health健康 Innovation革新 and Design设计.
我们开设了一门名叫
“健康的创新设计”的课程。
03:52
It's taken采取 by many许多 of our graduate毕业
students学生们 in biomedical生物医药 engineering工程.
主修这门课程的是
生物医学工程的研究生。
03:55
The aim目标 of the course课程
is to introduce介绍 these students学生们
这门课程的目标是
为学生们介绍
04:00
to the philosophy哲学 of the design设计 world世界.
设计世界中的哲学。
04:03
The students学生们 are encouraged鼓励
to engage从事 with communities社区
他们鼓励学生加入一些团体,
04:06
as they search搜索 for solutions解决方案
to health-related健康相关 problems问题.
寻找与健康相关问题的解决方案。
04:09
One of the communities社区 that we work with
is a group of elderly老年 people
其中一个我们工作的社区是
04:13
in Cape Town.
一个开普敦的老年团体。
04:16
A recent最近 class project项目 had the task任务
of addressing解决 hearing听力 loss失利
一个最近的课程项目任务是
04:17
in these elderly老年 people.
去登记丧失听力的老人。
04:21
The students学生们, many许多 of them
being存在 engineers工程师,
这些学生,大部分是工程师,
04:23
set out believing相信 that they
would design设计 a better hearing听力 aid援助.
他们很自信自己
会设计出更好的助听器。
04:26
They spent花费 time with the elderly老年,
他们跟那些老人相处了一段时间,
04:31
chatted to their healthcare卫生保健 providers供应商
and their caregivers护理人员.
与老人们的卫生保健人员
和看护人聊天。
04:33
They soon不久 realized实现 that, actually其实,
adequate充足 hearing听力 aids艾滋病 already已经 existed存在,
他们不久就意识到,
事实上,合适的助听器早已存在,
04:37
but many许多 of the elderly老年 who needed需要 them
and had access访问 to them
但是很多需要并使用这些设备的老人,
04:42
didn't have them.
却并不拥有这些设备。
04:46
And many许多 of those who had hearing听力 aids艾滋病
并且很多有助听器的人,
04:47
wouldn't不会 wear穿 them.
却不会佩戴它们。
04:50
The students学生们 realized实现
这些学生意识到,
04:52
that many许多 of these elderly老年 people
were in denial否认 of their hearing听力 loss失利.
很多的老年人拒绝接受
他们有听力障碍的现状。
04:54
There's a stigma柱头 attached
to wearing穿着 a hearing听力 aid援助.
戴助听器会与耻辱联系到一起。
04:58
They also discovered发现 that the environment环境
in which哪一个 these elderly老年 people lived生活
他们还发现这些
老年人居住的环境,
05:01
did not accommodate容纳 their hearing听力 loss失利.
十分不利于有听力障碍的人。
05:06
For example, their homes家园
and their community社区 center中央
比如说,他们的家和社区中心
05:08
were filled填充 with echoes回声
that interfered干扰 with their hearing听力.
充斥着干扰他们听力的回声。
05:12
So instead代替 of developing发展 and designing设计
a new and better hearing听力 aid援助,
因此,这些学生把工作重心从开发
并设计出全新且更好的助听设备,
05:15
the students学生们 did an audit审计
of the environment环境,
改为在该环境中进行一项调查,
05:21
with a view视图 to improving提高 the acoustics声学.
以此制定出提高传声效果的计划。
05:23
They also devised设计 a campaign运动
to raise提高 awareness意识 of hearing听力 loss失利
他们还设计出一个活动计划,
来提高人们对于听力丧失群体的关注,
05:27
and to counter计数器 the stigma柱头
attached to wearing穿着 a hearing听力 aid援助.
从而消除戴助听器与耻辱之间的关系。
05:31
Now, this often经常 happens发生
when one pays支付 attention注意 to the user用户 --
当一个人开始关注使用者,
这种情况常常发生——
05:35
in this case案件, the elderly老年 --
这里是指那些老年人——
05:39
and their needs需求 and their context上下文.
他们的需要和环境。
05:40
One often经常 has to move移动 away
from the focus焦点 of technology技术
一个人常常不得不
离开科技的聚光灯,
05:43
and reformulate重新制定 the problem问题.
纠正这个问题。
05:46
This approach途径 to understanding理解 a problem问题
through通过 listening and engaging
去理解一个问题的方法是
去倾听并且参与它,
05:48
is not new,
虽然这个方法已经是老生常谈,
05:52
but it often经常 isn't followed其次 by engineers工程师,
但是它并不经常被那些
05:54
who are intent意图 on developing发展 technology技术.
一心想发展科技的工程师们所采用。
05:57
One of our students学生们 has a background背景
in software软件 engineering工程.
我们有一个学生
有软件工程方面的背景。
06:01
He had often经常 created创建 products制品 for clients客户
他曾经为顾客发明产品,
06:05
that the client客户 ultimately最终 did not like.
但那些产品顾客根本就不喜欢。
06:07
When a client客户 would reject拒绝 a product产品,
当有顾客想去
拒绝一件产品的时候,
06:10
it was common共同 at his company公司
他的公司经常表明的是
06:13
to proclaim宣布 that the client客户
just didn't know what they wanted.
顾客只是不知道
他们自己想要的是什么。
06:15
Having completed完成 the course课程,
the student学生 fed美联储 back to us
在完成课程学习之后,
那个学生给我们的反馈是,
06:19
that he now realized实现
that it was he who hadn't有没有 understood了解
现在他意识到
不知道顾客想要什么的
06:22
what the client客户 wanted.
是他自己。
06:26
Another另一个 student学生 gave us feedback反馈
另一个学生给我们的反馈是,
06:28
that she had learned学到了
to design设计 with empathy同情,
她曾经怀揣着同理心学设计,
06:30
as opposed反对 to designing设计 for functionality功能,
反对单纯的实用性设计,
06:33
which哪一个 is what her engineering工程
education教育 had taught her.
这是她的专业教育教给她的。
06:36
So what all of this illustrates说明 is that
we're often经常 blinded失明 to real真实 needs需求
我上述所有的举例说明了
我们在盲目追求科技过程中
06:39
in our pursuit追求 of technology技术.
忽视了真正的需求。
06:43
But we need technology技术.
但是我们需要科技。
06:45
We need hearing听力 aids艾滋病.
We need fetal heart rate monitors显示器.
我们需要助听器,
我们需要胎儿心跳监视器。
06:47
So how do we create创建 more medical device设备
success成功 stories故事 from Africa非洲?
那么我们如何去创造更多的
医疗设备在非洲成功的案例呢?
06:51
How do we create创建 more inventors发明家,
我们如何去培养出更多的发明者,
06:56
rather than relying依托 on
a few少数 exceptional优秀 individuals个人
而不是依赖于
一小部分有杰出能力的人,
06:58
who are able能够 to perceive感知 real真实 needs需求
那些有能力去感知
真正被需要的东西,
07:02
and respond响应 in ways方法 that work?
并且在他们的工作中做出对策的人?
07:04
Well, we focus焦点 on needs需求
and people and context上下文.
我们关注具体的需求、人群和环境。
07:06
"But this is obvious明显," you might威力 say,
“但这不是很明显的吗,”你可能会说,
07:10
"Of course课程 context上下文 is important重要."
”环境当然是很重要的因素啊。”
07:12
But Africa非洲 is a diverse多种 continent大陆,
但是非洲是一块多元化的陆地,
07:15
with vast广大 disparities差距 in health健康 and wealth财富
and income收入 and education教育.
在健康、财富、收入
和教育方面有很大的差异。
07:17
If we assume承担 that our engineers工程师
and inventors发明家 already已经 know enough足够
如果我们假定我们的
工程师和发明家足够了解
07:22
about the different不同 African非洲人 contexts上下文
非洲多元化的环境特点,
07:27
to be able能够 to solve解决 the problems问题
of our different不同 communities社区
从而有能力去解决不同社区
07:30
and our most marginalized边缘化 communities社区,
和我们最边缘化的社区问题,
07:34
then we might威力 get it wrong错误.
我们就有可能会向错误的方向发展。
07:36
But then, if we on the African非洲人 continent大陆
但是,如果我们在非洲大陆上
07:38
don't necessarily一定 know enough足够 about it,
得知了超出计划的环境信息,
07:41
then perhaps也许 anybody任何人 with the right level水平
of skill技能 and commitment承诺 could fly in,
然后也许有一定技术水平和
责任感的人都会飞到非洲,
07:44
spend some time listening and engaging
花一些时间来聆听、参与,
07:48
and fly out knowing会心 enough足够
to invent发明 for Africa非洲.
并在了解了足够信息之后
回到自己的国家开始为非洲打造新发明。
07:51
But understanding理解 context上下文 is not about
a superficial interaction相互作用.
但是对非洲环境的理解
并不仅限于浅层次的互动。
07:55
It's about deep engagement订婚
这是一种深度的参与,
08:00
and an immersion浸没 in the realities现实
and the complexities复杂性 of our context上下文.
需要深入了解现实情况
以及环境的复杂性。
08:02
And we in Africa非洲 are already已经 immersed沉浸.
我们早就深入了非洲的环境之中。
08:07
We already已经 have a strong强大 and rich丰富
base基础 of knowledge知识
我们早已拥有一个
强大且丰富的知识储备,
08:11
from which哪一个 to start开始 finding发现 solutions解决方案
to our own拥有 problems问题.
并且开始寻找我们
自身问题的解决方案。
08:15
So let's not rely依靠 too much on others其他
所以,我们不需要过分依赖他人,
08:19
when we live生活 on a continent大陆
that is filled填充 with untapped未开发 talent天赋.
特别是当我们正身处一个
拥有众多潜力人才的陆地上。
08:23
Thank you.
谢谢。
08:28
(Applause掌声)
(鼓掌)
08:29
Translated by Mingxi Cai
Reviewed by Yanyan Hong

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About the speaker:

Tania Douglas - Biomedical engineering professor
Tania Douglas imagines how biomedical engineering can help address some of Africa's health challenges.

Why you should listen

Tania Douglas's research interests include medical imaging and image analysis, the development of contextually appropriate technology to improve health and health innovation management, particularly the mechanisms of medical device innovation in South Africa.

Douglas is engaged in capacity building for biomedical engineering and needs-based health technology innovation at universities across the African continent; two such projects are "Developing Innovative Interdisciplinary Biomedical Engineering Programs in Africa," in collaboration with Northwestern University and the Universities of Lagos and Ibadan, and "African Biomedical Engineering Mobility," in collaboration with Kenyatta University, Cairo University, Addis Ababa University, the Mbarara University of Science and Technology, the University of Lagos, and the University of Pisa. 

Douglas is the founding Editor-in-Chief of Global Health Innovation, an electronic open-access journal focusing on social and technological innovation for improved health, which launches in 2018. The journal aims to serve as a platform for disseminating research on health innovation in developing settings. 

Douglas has been a Humboldt Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research in Cologne and at the Free University of Berlin, an Honorary Senior Research Fellow at University College London, a Visiting Professor at Kenyatta University, and a Visiting Scholar at Northwestern University. She is a fellow of the South African Academy of Engineering, a member of the Academy of Science of South Africa, and a Fellow of the International Academy for Medical and Biological Engineering.

 

 

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Tania Douglas | Speaker | TED.com