ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Julia Bacha - Filmmaker
Julia Bacha is the creative director at Just Vision, an organization that uses film and multimedia storytelling to foster constructive conversations on some of the most divisive issues of our times.

Why you should listen

Bacha started her filmmaking career writing and editing Control Room (2004), a documentary about the inner workings of the Arab satellite television channel Al Jazeera. She then wrote and co-directed Encounter Point (2006) and directed Budrus (2009), both stories of courageous bridge-building between Palestinians and Israelis in a highly volatile environment. Her most recent film, My Neighborhood (2012), follows a Palestinian teenager struggling to reclaim his home in East Jerusalem from Jewish settlers. She is now directing a film about the Palestinian women who secretly led the First Intifada, for which she was awarded a 2016 Guggenheim Fellowship.

More profile about the speaker
Julia Bacha | Speaker | TED.com
TEDGlobal 2011

Julia Bacha: Pay attention to nonviolence

Julia Bacha: Obratite pažnju na nenasilje

Filmed:
786,349 views

Palestinsko selo, Budrus, je 2003. godine pokrenulo desetomjesečni nenasilni protest kako bi zaustavili izgradnju barijere preko njihovih maslinjaka. Da li ste čuli za to? Nisam ni mislila da jeste. Brazilska redateljica Julia Bacha pita zbog čega u izraelsko-palestinskom sukobu obraćamo pažnju samo na nasilje -- umjesto na nenasilne vođe koji bi jednoga dana mogli donijeti mir.
- Filmmaker
Julia Bacha is the creative director at Just Vision, an organization that uses film and multimedia storytelling to foster constructive conversations on some of the most divisive issues of our times. Full bio

Double-click the English transcript below to play the video.

00:15
I'm a filmmaker.
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Ja sam filmska redateljica.
00:17
For the last 8 years,
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Poslednjih 8 godina
00:19
I have dedicated my life
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svoj život sam posvetila
00:21
to documenting the work
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dokumentovanju napora
00:23
of Israelis and Palestinians
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onih Izraelaca i Palestinaca
00:25
who are trying to end the conflict
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koji pokušavaju zaustaviti konflikt
00:27
using peaceful means.
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pomoću miroljubivih sredstava.
00:29
When I travel with my work
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Kada zbog posla putujem
00:31
across Europe and the United States,
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kroz Evropu i Sjedinjene Države
00:33
one question always comes up:
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uvijek se pojavi jedno pitanje:
00:38
Where is the Palestinian Gandhi?
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Gdje je palestinski Gandhi?
00:40
Why aren't Palestinians
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Zbog čega palestinci
00:42
using nonviolent resistance?
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ne koriste nenasilan otpor?
00:45
The challenge I face when I hear this question
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Izazov sa kojim se suočim kada čujem ovo pitanje
00:48
is that often I have just returned from the Middle East
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jeste da često bude upravo po mom povratku sa Bliskog istoka
00:51
where I spent my time
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gdje provodim vrijeme
00:53
filming dozens of Palestinians
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snimajući na desetine Palestinaca
00:55
who are using nonviolence
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koji nenasiljem
00:57
to defend their lands
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pokušavaju odbraniti svoju zemlju
00:59
and water resources
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i izvore vode
01:01
from Israeli soldiers and settlers.
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od izraelskih vojnika i naseljenika.
01:04
These leaders are trying to forge
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Ove vođe pokušavaju uspostaviti
01:07
a massive national nonviolent movement
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masivan nacionalni nenasilni pokret
01:10
to end the occupation
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kako bi okončali okupaciju
01:12
and build peace in the region.
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i izgradili mir u regionu.
01:14
Yet, most of you
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Ipak, većina vas
01:16
have probably never heard about them.
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vjerovatno nikada nije čula za njih.
01:19
This divide between what's happening on the ground
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Ta podjela između onoga što se dešava na terenu
01:21
and perceptions abroad
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i percepcije izvana
01:23
is one of the key reasons
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jedan je od ključnih razloga
01:25
why we don't have yet
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zbog kojih do sada
01:27
a Palestinian peaceful resistance movement
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nismo imali palestinski mirovni pokret otpora
01:30
that has been successful.
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koji bi bio uspješan.
01:33
So I'm here today
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Zbog toga sam ja danas ovdje,
01:35
to talk about the power of attention,
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da pričam o moći pažnje,
01:37
the power of your attention,
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moći vaše pažnje,
01:40
and the emergence and development
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te nastajanju i razvoju
01:42
of nonviolent movements
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nenasilnih pokreta
01:44
in the West Bank, Gaza and elsewhere --
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na Zapadnoj obali, u Gazi i drugdje --
01:47
but today, my case study is going to be Palestine.
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međutim, danas ću se posebno pozabaviti Palestinom.
01:51
I believe that what's mostly missing
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Smatram da ono što najviše nedostaje
01:53
for nonviolence to grow
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kako bi pokret nenasilja rastao
01:55
is not for Palestinians
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nije da palestinci
01:57
to start adopting nonviolence,
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počnu prihvatati nenasilje,
02:00
but for us to start paying attention
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već da mi počnemo obraćati pažnju
02:03
to those who already are.
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na one koji su nenasilje već prihvatili.
02:07
Allow me to illustrate this point
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Dopustite mi da vam ovo prikažem na ilustrativan način
02:09
by taking you to this village
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tako što ću vas odvesti u selo
02:11
called Budrus.
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po imenu Budrus.
02:13
About seven years ago,
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Otprilike prije nekih sedam godina,
02:15
they faced extinction,
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stanovništvo ovog sela je bilo suočeno sa istrjebljenjem
02:17
because Israel announced it would build a separation barrier,
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jer je Izrael najavio da će izgraditi liniju odvajanja,
02:19
and part of this barrier
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a dio te linije
02:21
would be built on top of the village.
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trebao je biti izgrađen na samom vrhu sela.
02:23
They would lose 40 percent of their land
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Oni bi time izgubili 40% svoje zemlje
02:25
and be surrounded,
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i bili bi potpuno okruženi,
02:27
so they would lose free access
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te bi tako izgubili slobodan pristup
02:29
to the rest of the West Bank.
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ostatku Zapadne obale.
02:31
Through inspired local leadership,
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Putem inspirisanog lokalnog vodstva
02:33
they launched a peaceful resistance campaign
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pokrenuli su mirnu kampanju otpora
02:36
to stop that from happening.
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kako bi onemogućili da do toga dođe.
02:38
Let me show you some brief clips,
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Dajte da vam pokažem kratke snimke
02:40
so you have a sense
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kako biste imali osjećaj
02:42
for what that actually looked like on the ground.
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kako je to zapravo izgledalo na terenu.
02:45
(Music)
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(Muzika)
02:51
Palestinian Woman: We were told the wall
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Palestinka: Rečeno nam je da će zid
02:54
would separate Palestine from Israel.
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odvojiti Palestinu od Izraela.
02:57
Here in Budrus,
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Ovdje u Budrusu
02:59
we realized the wall would steal our land.
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smo shvatili da bi zid ukrao našu zemlju.
03:01
Israeli Man: The fence has, in fact,
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Izraelac: Ograda je, zapravo,
03:03
created a solution to terror.
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stvorila rješenje za teror.
03:06
Man: Today you're invited
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Čovjek: Danas ste pozvani
03:09
to a peaceful march.
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na mirovni marš.
03:15
You are joined
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Pridružiće vam se
03:18
by dozens of your Israeli brothers and sisters.
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na desetine vaših braća i sestara izraelaca.
03:20
Israeli Activist: Nothing scares the army
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Izraelski aktivist: Vojsku ništa tako ne plaši
03:23
more than nonviolent opposition.
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kao nenasilan otpor.
03:28
Woman: We saw the men
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Žena: Vidjeli smo kako muškarci
03:30
trying to push the soldiers,
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pokušavaju pogurati vojnike,
03:32
but none of them could do that.
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no nijedan od njih nije uspio u tome.
03:35
But I think the girls could do it.
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Ali ja mislim da bi čak i djevojke to mogle uraditi.
03:42
Fatah Party Member: We must empty our minds
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Član Fataha: Moramo osloboditi naše umove
03:45
of traditional thinking.
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od tradicionalnog razmišljanja.
03:50
Hamas Party Member: We were in complete harmony,
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Član Hamasa: Mi smo u potpunoj harmoniji
03:53
and we wanted to spread it to all of Palestine.
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koju želimo proširiti na cijelu Palestinu.
03:56
Chanting: One united nation.
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Pjesma: Jedna ujedinjena nacija.
03:58
Fatah, Hamas and the Popular Front!
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Fatah, Hamas i Narodni front!
04:02
News Anchor: The clashes over the fence continue.
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Novinar-spiker: Sukobi oko ograde se nastavljaju.
04:04
Reporter: Israeli border police were sent to disperse the crowd.
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Izvještač: Izraelska granična policija je poslana kako bi razbila masu.
04:08
They were allowed to use any force necessary.
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Dopušteno im je da primjene svu potrebnu silu.
04:10
(Gunshots)
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(Pucnji)
04:12
Man: These are live bullets.
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Muškarac: Ovo su pravi meci.
04:14
It's like Fallujah. Shooting everywhere.
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Ovo je poput Falluje. Pucanje po svuda.
04:17
Israeli Activist: I was sure we were all going to die.
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Izraelski aktivist: Bio sam siguran da ćemo umrijeti.
04:20
But there were others around me who weren't even cowering.
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No, oko mene su bili drugi koji nisu čak ni ustuknuli.
04:28
Israeli Soldier: A nonviolent protest
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Izraelski vojnik: Nenasilni protesti
04:30
is not going to stop the [unclear].
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neće zaustaviti [nejasno].
04:33
Protester: This is a peaceful march.
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Protestant: Ovo je miroljubiv marš.
04:35
There is no need to use violence.
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Nema potrebe za upotrebom sile.
04:38
Chanting: We can do it! We can do it!
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Pjesma: Mi to možemo. Mi to možemo.
04:42
We can do it!
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Mi to možemo!
04:46
Julia Bacha: When I first heard
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Julia Bacha: Kada sam prvi put čula
04:48
about the story of Budrus,
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priču o Budrusu
04:50
I was surprised
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bila sam iznenađena
04:52
that the international media had failed to cover
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da međunarodni mediji nisu izvještavali
04:55
the extraordinary set of events
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o takvom nevjerovatnom nizu događaja
04:57
that happened seven years ago,
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koji su se desili prije sedam godina,
04:59
in 2003.
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2003. godine.
05:01
What was even more surprising
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Ono što je bilo još iznenađujuće
05:03
was the fact that Budrus was successful.
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jeste činjenica da je Budrus bio uspješan.
05:06
The residents, after 10 months of peaceful resistance,
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Stanovnici su, nakon 10 mjeseci mirnog otpora,
05:09
convinced the Israeli government
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ubijedili izraelsku vladu
05:12
to move the route of the barrier off their lands
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da pomjeri pravac barijere sa njihove zemlje
05:15
and to the green line,
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ka zelenoj liniji,
05:17
which is the internationally recognized boundary
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koja predstavlja međunarodno priznatu granicu
05:20
between Israel and the Palestinian Territories.
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između izraelskih i palestinskih teritorija.
05:23
The resistance in Budrus
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Otpor u Budrusu
05:25
has since spread
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se od tada prenio
05:27
to villages across the West Bank
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na sela širom Zapadne obale
05:29
and to Palestinian neighborhoods in Jerusalem.
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i na palestinske četvrti u Jerusalemu.
05:33
Yet the media remains mostly silent
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No, mediji su ipak uglavnom ostali nijemi
05:36
on these stories.
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na ove priče.
05:39
This silence carries profound consequences
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Ova tišina nosi duboke posljedice
05:42
for the likelihood
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za vjerovatnoću
05:44
that nonviolence can grow,
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da bi nenasilje moglo porasti,
05:46
or even survive,
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ili čak preživjeti
05:48
in Palestine.
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u Palestini.
05:50
Violent resistance
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Nasilan otpor
05:52
and nonviolent resistance
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i nenasilan otpor
05:54
share one very important thing in common;
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imaju zajedničku jednu jako važnu stvar;
05:58
they are both a form of theater
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i jedan i drugi su neka vrsta teatra
06:01
seeking an audience to their cause.
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kojemu je potrebna publika da bi odbranio svoj slučaj.
06:04
If violent actors
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Ako su akteri koji koriste nasilje
06:06
are the only ones constantly getting front-page covers
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jedini koji su stalno na naslovnicama novina
06:09
and attracting international attention
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i koji privlače međunarodnu pažnju
06:11
to the Palestinian issue,
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na palestinsko pitanje,
06:13
it becomes very hard
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postaće jako teško
06:15
for nonviolent leaders
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vođama koji zagovaraju nenasilje
06:17
to make the case to their communities
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da uvjere svoje zajednice
06:19
that civil disobedience
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da je građanska neposlušnost
06:21
is a viable option
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održiva opcija
06:23
in addressing their plight.
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u rješavanju njihovog teškog položaja.
06:25
The power of attention
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Moć pažnje
06:27
is probably going to come as no surprise
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vjerovatno nije nikakvo iznenađenje
06:29
to the parents in the room.
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onima među vama koji ste roditelji.
06:32
The surest way
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Najsigurniji način
06:34
to make your child throw increasingly louder tantrums
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da vaše dijete sve glasnije pokazuje bijes
06:37
is by giving him attention
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jeste ako mu date pažnju
06:39
the first time he throws a fit.
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prvoga puta kada počne sa tim.
06:41
The tantrum will become
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Bijes će postati
06:43
what childhood psychologists call
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ono što psiholozi koji se bave razdobljem djetinjstva nazivaju
06:45
a functional behavior,
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funkcionalnim ponašanjem,
06:47
since the child has learned
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jer je dijete naučilo
06:49
that he can get parental attention out of it.
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da na taj način može pridobiti roditeljsku pažnju.
06:53
Parents can incentivize or disincentivize behavior
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Roditelji mogu podstaći ili obeshrabriti takvo ponašanje
06:57
simply by giving or withdrawing
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jednostavnim davanjem ili uzdržavanjem
06:59
attention to their children.
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pažnje prema svojoj djeci.
07:02
But that's true for adults too.
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No, ovo je podjednako tačno i za odrasle.
07:05
In fact, the behavior
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Zapravo, na ponašanje
07:07
of entire communities and countries
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cijelih zajednica i zemalja
07:09
can be influenced,
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može se uticati,
07:11
depending on where
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u ovisnosti gdje
07:13
the international community chooses
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međunarodna zajednica odabere
07:15
to focus its attention.
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da usmjeri svoju pažnju.
07:18
I believe that at the core of ending the conflict in the Middle East
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Vjerujem da je u samoj srži okončanja sukoba na Bliskom istoku
07:22
and bringing peace
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i uspostavljanja mira
07:24
is for us
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da
07:26
to transform nonviolence
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transformišemo nenasilje
07:28
into a functional behavior
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u funkcionalno ponašanje
07:30
by giving a lot more attention
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davanjem mnogo više pažnje
07:32
to the nonviolent leaders on the ground today.
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nenasilnim vođama koji su danas na terenu.
07:36
In the course of taking my film to villages
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Tokom snimanja filma u selima
07:39
in the West Bank, in Gaza and in East Jerusalem,
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na Zapadnoj obali, u Gazi i istočnom Jerusalemu,
07:42
I have seen the impact
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vidjela sam kakav uticaj
07:44
that even one documentary film can have
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samo jedan dokumentarni film može imati
07:47
in influencing the transformation.
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na podsticanje transformacije.
07:51
In a village called Wallajeh,
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U selu po imenu Wallajeh,
07:53
which sits very close to Jerusalem,
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koje je smješteno nedaleko od Jerusalema,
07:56
the community was facing
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zajednica je bila suočena
07:58
a very similar plight to Budrus.
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sa sličnim problemom kao u Budrusu.
08:00
They were going to be surrounded, lose a lot of their lands
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I oni su se našli pred situacijom da budu okruženi, da izgube svoju zemlju,
08:03
and not have freedom of access,
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i da nemaju pristup
08:05
either to the West Bank or Jerusalem.
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ni Zapadnoj obali niti Jerusalemu.
08:08
They had been using nonviolence for about two years
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Otprilike dvije godine su koristili nenasilje
08:11
but had grown disenchanted
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ali su se postepeno razočarali
08:13
since nobody was paying attention.
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jer niko nije obraćao pažnju na njih.
08:16
So we organized a screening.
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Stoga smo organizovali snimanje.
08:19
A week later,
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Sedam dana kasnije,
08:21
they held the most well-attended
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održali su najposjećeniji
08:23
and disciplined
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i najdisciplinovaniji
08:25
demonstration to date.
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protest do sada.
08:28
The organizers say
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Organizatori kažu
08:30
that the villagers, upon seeing the story of Budrus
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da su stanovnici sela, kada su vidjeli priču o Budrusu
08:32
documented in a film,
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dokumentovanu kroz film,
08:34
felt that there were indeed people
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osjetili da zaista postoje ljudi
08:36
following what they were doing,
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koji prate ono što su oni radili,
08:38
that people cared.
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i da postoje ljudi kojima je stalo.
08:40
So they kept on going.
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I tako su nastavili.
08:42
On the Israeli side,
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Na izraelskoj strani
08:44
there is a new peace movement called Solidariot,
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se pojavio novi mirovni pokret po imenu Solidariot,
08:47
which means solidarity in Hebrew.
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što znači solidarnost na hebrejskom.
08:50
The leaders of this movement have been using Budrus
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Vođe ovog pokreta koristili su Budrus
08:53
as one of their primary recruiting tools.
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kao jedno od osnovnih oruđa za regrutovanje svojih članova.
08:56
They report
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Oni svjedoče
08:58
that Israelis who had never been active before,
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da su Izraelci koji nikada prije nisu bili aktivni,
09:00
upon seeing the film,
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nakon što bi vidjeli film,
09:02
understand the power of nonviolence
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shvatali moć nenasilja
09:04
and start joining their activities.
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i da su otpočeli da se pridružuju njihovim aktivnostima.
09:06
The examples of Wallajeh
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Primjer sela Wallajeh
09:08
and the Solidariot movement
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i pokreta Solidariot
09:10
show that even a small-budget independent film
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pokazuju da čak i niskobudžetni nezavisni film
09:14
can play a role
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može imati ulogu
09:16
in transforming nonviolence
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u transformisanju nenasilja
09:18
into a functional behavior.
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u funkcionalno ponašanje.
09:21
Now imagine the power
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Zamislite uticaj
09:23
that big media players could have
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koji bi veliki mediji mogli imati
09:26
if they started covering
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kada bi počeli izvještavati
09:28
the weekly nonviolent demonstrations
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o sedmičnim nenasilnim protestima
09:30
happening in villages
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koji se organizuju u selima
09:32
like Bil'in, Ni'lin,
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poput Bil'in, Ni'lin,
09:34
Wallajeh,
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Wallajeh,
09:36
in Jerusalem neighborhoods
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u susjedstvima Jerusalema
09:38
like Sheikh Jarrah and Silwan --
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kao što su Sheikh Jarrah i Silwan --
09:41
the nonviolent leaders
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tako bi vođe nenasilnih akcija
09:43
would become more visible,
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postale vidljivije,
09:45
valued and effective
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te više vrijednovane i efikasne
09:47
in their work.
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u svojim naporima.
09:50
I believe
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Vjerujem
09:52
that the most important thing
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da je najbitnije
09:54
is to understand
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shvatiti
09:56
that if we don't pay attention to these efforts,
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da ukoliko ne obratimo pažnju na ove napore,
09:59
they are invisible,
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oni će ostati nevidljivima
10:01
and it's as if they never happened.
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i biće kao da ovih protesta nikada nije ni bilo.
10:03
But I have seen first hand
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Međutim, ja sam imala priliku da neposredno vidim
10:05
that if we do,
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da ukoliko im damo pažnju,
10:07
they will multiply.
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oni će se umnožiti.
10:09
If they multiply,
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Ako se umnože,
10:11
their influence will grow
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njihov uticaj će rasti
10:13
in the overall Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
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na cjelokupan izraelsko-palestinski sukob.
10:15
And theirs is the kind of influence
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A uticaj kakav bi oni imali
10:18
that can finally
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konačno bi mogao
10:20
unblock the situation.
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odblokirati situaciju.
10:22
These leaders have proven that nonviolence works
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Ove vođe su dokazale da je nenasilje efikasno
10:25
in places like Budrus.
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u mjestima poput Budrusa.
10:27
Let's give them attention
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Dajmo im pažnju
10:29
so they can prove it works everywhere.
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kako bi dokazali da može biti uspješno i drugdje.
10:32
Thank you.
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Hvala vam.
10:34
(Applause)
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(Aplauz)
Translated by Mirjana Kosic
Reviewed by Tilen Pigac - EFZG

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ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Julia Bacha - Filmmaker
Julia Bacha is the creative director at Just Vision, an organization that uses film and multimedia storytelling to foster constructive conversations on some of the most divisive issues of our times.

Why you should listen

Bacha started her filmmaking career writing and editing Control Room (2004), a documentary about the inner workings of the Arab satellite television channel Al Jazeera. She then wrote and co-directed Encounter Point (2006) and directed Budrus (2009), both stories of courageous bridge-building between Palestinians and Israelis in a highly volatile environment. Her most recent film, My Neighborhood (2012), follows a Palestinian teenager struggling to reclaim his home in East Jerusalem from Jewish settlers. She is now directing a film about the Palestinian women who secretly led the First Intifada, for which she was awarded a 2016 Guggenheim Fellowship.

More profile about the speaker
Julia Bacha | Speaker | TED.com