Sara Valencia Botto: When do kids start to care about other people's opinions?
Sara Valencia Botto investigates when and how humans develop a concern for reputation. Full bio
Double-click the English transcript below to play the video.
you are wearing right now.
question for you.
comfortable pajamas right now?
and not a mind reader,
that's the same thing.
is somewhere along the lines of,
to think I am a slob."
chose to wear business casual clothing,
pair of sweatpants,
defining human characteristics.
of what other people value,
or disapprove of,
to these sorts of settings.
this information to guide our behavior.
in the presence of others
and Instagram filter,
that will undoubtedly change the world
with how other people will evaluate us
a big human trait, however,
about when and how
about the opinion of others.
that requires many studies.
to uncovering this question
to others' evaluations.
at Emory University
around the grocery store in her onesie,
that fears public speaking
when people ask me,
this question, exactly?
were up here right now,
that his wife experiments on children.
experiments for children,
Dr. Philippe Rochat and I
would begin to be sensitive
captures when children, like adults,
when others are watching.
14 to 24-month-old infants
我们向 14 到 24 个月大的婴儿
assigned a positive value,
"Oh, oh. Oops, oh no,"
to play with the remote,
to read a magazine.
如果在 24 个月大的时候，
to the evaluation of others,
should be influenced
they're being watched
that the experimenter expressed
the positive remote significantly more
the negative remote
we did three variations of the study.
would engage with a novel toy
or instructions provided.
how to activate the toy robot,
that they could play with the remote,
a positive and a negative.
we had two experimenters and one remote.
value towards pressing the remote,
expressed a positive value, saying,
to these three different scenarios.
in pressing the remote.
and one with the negative value.
is a negative remote.
looking at me, hanging out.
that side-eyed glance, right?
experimenters, one remote.
towards pressing the remote
doesn't know what to do, relying on Mom.
a positive response is watching.
and the instructions of the experimenter.
children did not know
or negatively evaluated,
to press the remote.
significantly more when I was watching,
and started playing with it.
the different values of the remotes --
after pressing either of the remotes --
no longer differed across conditions,
the values that we gave the two remotes
in the previous study.
a remote significantly more
a positive value was watching,
that had expressed a negative value.
that children begin to show embarrassment
a negative evaluation,
at themselves in the mirror
in your teeth, for adults.
based on these findings?
are actually really, really sneaky.
that we place on objects and behaviors.
to guide their behavior.
to those around us.
"be kind" or "don't steal,"
showing others, specifically our children,
and praiseworthy, and what is not.
without even noticing it.
to explore the contents of the mind,
often reflects our beliefs,
we all believe the same thing.
that Coke was invented in Atlanta.
that most people will chose to drink Coke.
or their pretty dress,
as opposed to nutritious food,
are incredibly effective
from these subtle behaviors.
shaping their own behavior.
emerges very early in development,
a complete sentence
of who we grow up to be.
to contemplate on the values
in day-to-day interactions,
the behavior of those around you.
is being broadcasted
smiling at our phone
has been shaped by those around you,
have considered before.
by what others around you valued?
certainly have the privilege
in simple day-to-day interactions,
the behavior of those around us.
ABOUT THE SPEAKERSara Valencia Botto - Psychologist
Sara Valencia Botto investigates when and how humans develop a concern for reputation.
Why you should listen
Sara Valencia Botto is a PhD candidate in the cognition and development program at Emory University, where she researches social-cognitive development in early childhood. Her recent publication on sensitivity to evaluation in toddlers has been featured in various outlets, including ABC News, the Huffington Post and other major international newspapers.
By exploring the developmental origins of reputation, Botto's research investigates when and how humans, unlike many other animals, care about what other people think. She designs experiments for children of 14 months to five years and studies when and how they begin to alter their behavior to garner positive evaluations from others. Her goal is to understand why humans come to care about their reputation as well as the factors that contribute to inter-individual differences.
Sara Valencia Botto | Speaker | TED.com