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TED2008

Neil Turok: My wish: Find the next Einstein in Africa

Neil Turok zbog TED nagrade, iznosi svoju želju

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Primajući svoju TED nagradu za 2008. godinu, fizičar Neil Turok govori za talentirane mlade Afrikance gladne mogućnosti. Otključavanjem i hranjenjem kreativnoga potencijala kontinenta, možemo stvoriti promjenu u budućnosti Afrike.

- Physicist, education activist
Neil Turok is working on a model of the universe that explains the big bang -- while, closer to home, he's founded a network of math and science academies across Africa. Full bio

It was an incredible surprise to me
Bilo mi je nevjerojatno iznenađenje
00:13
to find out that there was actually an organization that cared about both parts of my life.
saznati da stvarno postoji organizacija koja se bavi dvama dijelovima moga života.
00:16
Because, basically,
Zato što u osnovi
00:22
I work as a theoretical physicist.
radim kao teoretski fizičar.
00:23
I develop and test models of the Big Bang,
Razvijam i testiram modele velikog praska
00:25
using observational data.
koristeći podatke dobivene opažanjima.
00:28
And I've been moonlighting for the last five years
Uz to, posljednjih pet godina
00:31
helping with a project in Africa.
pomažem na jednom projektu u Africi.
00:34
And, I get a lot of flak for this at Cambridge.
I zbog toga me često kritiziraju u Cambridgeu.
00:37
People wonder, you know, "How do you have time to do this?" And so on.
Ljudi se pitaju kako imam vremena za to. I tako dalje.
00:41
And so it was simply astonishing to me
I zato mi je bilo naprosto zapanjujuće
00:45
to find an organization that actually appreciated both those sides.
pronaći organizaciju koja cijeni obje moje strane.
00:48
So I thought I'd start off by just telling you a little bit about myself
Mislio sam početi s tim da vam kažem malo o sebi
00:52
and why I lead this schizophrenic life.
i zašto vodim ovaj shizofrenični život.
00:55
Well, I was born in South Africa and my parents were imprisoned
Pa, rodio sam se u Južnoafričkoj Republici i moji su roditelji bili zatvoreni
00:59
for resisting the racist regime.
zbog otpora rasističkom režimu.
01:04
When they were released, we left and we went as refugees to Kenya and Tanzania.
Kada su bili oslobođeni, otišli smo kao izbjeglice u Keniju i Tanzaniju.
01:06
Both were very young countries then,
Obje su bile vrlo mlade države tada
01:13
and full of hope for the future.
i pune nade u budućnost.
01:15
We had an amazing childhood. We didn't have any money,
Imali smo nevjerojatno djetinjstvo. Nismo imali nimalo novca,
01:18
but we were outdoors most of the time.
ali smo bili vani većinu vremena.
01:20
We had fantastic friends and we saw the wonders of the world,
Imali smo fantastične prijatelje i vidjeli smo čuda svijeta,
01:23
like Kilimanjaro, Serengeti and the Olduvai Gorge.
poput Kilimandžara, Serengetija i klanca Olduvaija.
01:28
Well, then we moved to London for high school.
Onda smo se preselili u London zbog srednje škole.
01:34
And after that -- there's nothing much to say about that.
I poslije toga, nemam mnogo za reći o tome.
01:36
It was rather dull. But I came back to Africa
Bilo je prilično dosadno. Ali sam se vratio u Afriku
01:41
at the age of 17, as a volunteer teacher
sa sedamnaest godina, kao učitelj volonter
01:45
to Lesotho, which is a tiny country,
u Lesotho, to je mala država,
01:49
surrounded at that time by apartheid South Africa.
tada je bila okružena apartheidnom Južnom Afrikom.
01:52
Well, 80 percent of the men in Lesotho
80 posto muškaraca u Lesothu
01:57
worked in the mines over the border,
radilo je u rudnicima preko granice,
02:00
in brutal conditions.
u brutalnim uvjetima.
02:04
Nevertheless, I -- as I'm sure -- as a rather irritating young, white man
Ipak sam -- u što sam uvjeren -- kao prilično iritantan bijelac
02:07
coming into their village, I was welcomed with incredible hospitality and warmth.
koji je došao u njihovo selo, bio primljen s iznimnom gostoljubivosti i toplinom.
02:13
But the kids were the best part.
Ali djeca su bila najbolji dio.
02:19
The kids were amazing: extremely eager and often very bright.
Bili su odlični, izuzetno željni znanja i često vrlo bistri.
02:21
And I'm just going to tell you one story,
Ispričat ću vam samo jednu priču
02:26
which got through to me.
koja me dirnula.
02:28
I used to try to take the kids outside as often as possible,
Nastojao sam izvoditi djecu van što je češće moguće
02:31
to try to connect the academic stuff with the real world.
kako bih povezao teoriju sa stvarnim svijetom.
02:33
And they weren't used to that.
I nisu bili naviknuti na to.
02:38
But I took them outside one day and I said,
Izveo sam ih van jednom i rekao:
02:41
"I want you to estimate the height of the building."
„Želim da procijenite visinu ove zgrade.“
02:43
And I expected them to put a ruler next to the wall,
Očekivao sam da stave ravnalo uz zid,
02:46
size it up with a finger, and make an estimate of the height.
naprave omjer u odnosu na prst i tako odrede visinu.
02:49
But there was one little boy, very small for his age.
Ali bio je jedan mali dječak, vrlo malen za svoju dob.
02:54
He was the son of one of the poorest families in the village.
Bio je sin jedne od najsiromašnijih obitelji u selu.
02:58
And he wasn't doing that. He was scribbling with chalk on the pavement.
I on to nije radio. Šarao je kredom po pločniku.
03:01
And so, I said -- I was annoyed -- I said, "What are you doing?
Rekao sam mu, bio sam naživciran, rekao sam: „Što radiš?
03:06
I want you to estimate the height of the building."
Želim da procijeniš visinu zgrade.“
03:09
He said, "OK. I measured the height of a brick.
Rekao mi je: „OK. Izmjerio sam visinu cigle.
03:11
I counted the number of bricks and now I'm multiplying."
Izbrojao sam koliko ima cigala i sada množim.“
03:14
Well -- (Laughter) -- I hadn't thought of that one.
Pa -- (Smijeh) -- ja se nisam toga sjetio.
03:19
And many experiences like this happened to me.
Imao sam mnoga takva iskustva.
03:24
Another one is that I met a miner. He was home on his three-month leave from the mines.
Drugo mi je bilo kad sam upoznao jednog rudara. Bio je kod kuće na tromjesečnom godišnjem odmoru iz rudnika.
03:28
Sitting next to him one day, he said, "There's only one thing that I really loved at school.
Kada sam jednog dana sjedio pored njega, rekao mi je: „Ima samo jedna stvar koju sam doista volio u školi.
03:36
And you know what it was? Shakespeare." And he recited some to me.
Znaš koja? Shakespeare.“ I recitirao mi je malo.
03:42
And these and many similar experiences convinced me
Ova i mnoga slična iskustva uvjerila su me
03:49
that there are just tons of bright kids in Africa
da postoji mnogo bistre djece u Africi
03:53
-- inventive kids, intellectual kids --
-- kreativne djece, djece intelektualaca –
03:57
and starved of opportunity.
željni prilike.
04:01
And if Africa is going to get fixed, it's by them, not by us.
I ako će se Afrika popraviti, oni će ju popraviti, ne mi.
04:02
Well, after -- (Applause) -- that's the truth.
To je -- (Pljesak) -- istina.
04:08
Well, after Lesotho, I traveled across Africa
Poslije Lesotha, putovao sam po Africi
04:14
before returning to England
prije povratka u Englesku,
04:17
-- so gray and depressing, in comparison.
tako sivu i deprimirajuću u usporedbi s njim.
04:20
And I went to Cambridge. And there, I fell for theoretical physics.
Otišao sam na Cambridge. I ondje sam se zaljubio u teoretsku fiziku.
04:23
Well, I'm not going to explain this equation,
Neću vam objašnjavati ovu jednadžbu,
04:30
but theoretical physics is really an amazing subject.
ali teoretska fizika je stvarno odličan predmet.
04:32
We can write down all the laws of physics we know in one line.
Možemo zapisati sve zakone fizike koje znamo u jednom redu.
04:36
And, admittedly, it's in a very shorthand notation.
I, priznajem, vrlo je sažeta.
04:42
And it contains 18 free parameters,
Sadrži 18 nezavisnih parametara.
04:47
OK, which we have to fit to the data.
OK, koje moramo pridružiti podatcima.
04:51
So it's not the final story,
To, dakle, nije konačna priča,
04:54
but it's an incredibly powerful summary of everything we know
ali je to nevjerojatno snažan sažetak svega što znamo
04:56
about nature at the most basic level.
o prirodi na najosnovnijoj razini.
05:01
And apart from a few very important loose ends, which you've heard about here --
I izuzev nekoliko važnih neriješenih problema o kojima ste slušali ovdje --
05:05
like dark energy and dark matter --
poput tamne energije i tamne tvari --
05:09
this equation describes,
ova jednadžba opisuje --
05:12
seems to describe everything about the universe and what's in it.
ili se čini da opisuje, sve o svemiru i onome što je u njemu.
05:14
But there's one big puzzle remaining,
Ali postoji još jedna zagonetka
05:19
and this was most succinctly put to me by my primary school math teacher in
koja ostaje, i nju mi je predstavila moja učiteljica matematike
05:21
Tanzania, who's a wonderful Scottish lady
iz Tanzanije, koja je jedna prekrasna Škotkinja
05:26
who I still stay in touch with.
s kojom se i dalje čujem.
05:29
And she's now in her 80s.
Sada je u osamdesetima.
05:32
And when I try to explain my work to her, she waved away all the details, and she said,
Kada joj pokušam objasniti svoj rad, odmahne i kaže:
05:34
"Neil, there's only one question that really matters.
„Neil, samo je jedno pitanje doista važno.
05:39
What banged?" (Laughter)
Što je prasnulo?" (Smijeh)
05:44
"Everyone talks about the Big Bang. What banged?"
"Svi pričaju o velikom prasku. Što je prasnulo?“
05:48
And she's right. It's a question we've all been avoiding.
I u pravu je. To je pitanje koje svi izbjegavamo.
05:53
The standard explanation is that the universe somehow sprang into existence,
Standardno objašnjenje je da je svemir nekako iskočio u postojanje,
05:58
full of a strange kind of energy
puno neobične vrste energije
06:03
-- inflationary energy -- which blew it up.
– rastuće energije -- koja ga je raznijela.
06:05
But the puzzle of why the universe emerged in that peculiar state
Ali pitanje zašto je svemir proizašao u takvom neobičnom stanju
06:10
is completely unsolved.
je potpuno nerazjašnjeno.
06:14
Now, I worked on that theory for a while, with Stephen Hawking and others.
Radio sam na toj teoriji jedno vrijeme, sa Stevenom Hawkingom i drugima.
06:18
But then I began to explore another alternative.
Ali tada sam počeo istraživati drugu mogućnost.
06:22
The alternative is that the Big Bang wasn't the beginning.
Alternativa je da veliki prasak nije bio početak.
06:25
Perhaps the universe existed before the bang,
Možda je svemir postojao prije praska
06:28
and the bang was just a violent event in a pre-existing universe.
i prasak je bio samo nasilan događaj u prethodno postojećem svemiru.
06:31
Well, this possibility is actually suggested
Ova se mogućnost sugerira
06:36
by the latest theories, the unified theories,
u najnovijim teorijama, ujedinjenim teorijama
06:39
which try to explain all those 18 free parameters
koje nastoje objasniti svih onih 18 parametara
06:42
in a single framework, which will hopefully predict all of them.
u jednom radu koji bi ih sve predvidio.
06:45
And I'll just share a cartoon of this idea here.
Pokazat ću vam animaciju ove ideje.
06:52
It's all I can convey. According to these theories,
To je sve što vam mogu prenijeti. Prema ovim teorijama,
06:55
there are extra dimensions of space, not just the three we're familiar with,
postoje dodatne dimenzije u svemiru, ne samo tri na koje smo navikli,
06:58
but at every point in the room there are more dimensions.
nego u svakoj točki u ovoj sobi postoji više dimenzija.
07:01
And in particular, there's one rather strange one,
Posebice, postoji jedna prilično neobična
07:05
in the most elegant unified theories we have.
u najelegantnijoj ujedinjenoj teoriji koju imamo.
07:07
The strange one looks likes this:
Ta neobična izgleda ovako:
07:10
that we live in a three-dimensional world.
živimo u trodimenzionalnom svijetu.
07:12
We live in one of these worlds, and I can only show it as a sheet,
Živimo u jednom od ovih svjetova, mogu vam ga samo pokazati kao plahtu,
07:15
but it's really three-dimensional.
ali je doista trodimenzionalno.
07:19
And a tiny distance away, there's another sheet,
I na maloj udaljenosti od njega postoji druga plahta,
07:22
also three-dimensional, and they're separated by a gap.
također trodimenzionalna i odvojene su prazninom.
07:26
The gap is very tiny, and I've blown it up so you can see it.
Praznina je vrlo mala i povećao sam ju da ju možete vidjeti.
07:28
But it's really a tiny fraction of the size of an atomic nucleus.
Ali ona je doista velika kao samo mali dio jezgre atoma.
07:31
I won't go into the details of why we think the universe is like this,
Neću ulaziti u detalje zašto mislimo da je svijet ovakav,
07:36
but it comes out of the math and trying to explain the physics that we know.
ali to proizlazi iz matematike i pokušaja objašnjavanja fizike koju znamo.
07:39
Well, I got interested in this because it seemed to me that it was an obvious question.
Počeo sam se zanimati za to jer mi se to učinilo kao očito pitanje.
07:43
Which is, what happens if these two, three-dimensional worlds
A to je, što bi se dogodilo ako bi se ova dva trodimenzionalna svijeta
07:47
should actually collide?
sudarila?
07:50
And if they collide, it would look a lot like the Big Bang.
I kad bi se sudarili, to bi uvelike izgledalo kao veliki prasak.
07:54
But it's slightly different than in the conventional picture.
Ali malo je drugačije nego u konvencionalnom prikazu.
07:57
The conventional picture of the Big Bang is a point.
Konvencionalni prikaz velikog praska je točka.
08:00
Everything comes out of a point;
Sve proizlazi iz točke;
08:02
you have infinite density. And all the equations break down.
imate beskrajnu gustoću. I sve jednadžbe prestanu vrijediti.
08:04
No hope of describing that.
Nema nade da bismo to mogli opisati.
08:08
In this picture, you'll notice,
U ovom prikazu, primijetit ćete,
08:10
the bang is extended. It's not a point.
prasak je proširen. Nije točka.
08:12
The density of matter is finite, and we have a chance
Gustoća tvari je krajnja i imamo mogućnost
08:14
of a consistent set of equations that can describe the whole process.
da s nizom jednadžbi opišemo cijeli proces.
08:17
So, to cut a long story short, we've explored this alternative.
Da skratim priču, istražili smo alternativu.
08:22
We've shown that it can fit
Pokazali smo da može pristajati
08:25
all of the data that we have about the formation of galaxies,
u sve podatke koje imamo o formiranju galaksija,
08:27
the fluctuations in the microwave background.
fluktuacija u mikrovalnoj pozadini.
08:31
Furthermore, there's an experimental way
Nadalje, postoji eksperimentalan način
08:34
to tell this theory, apart from the inflationary explanation that I told you before.
koji će odvojiti ovu teoriju od rastućeg objašnjenja kojeg sam vam prije iznio.
08:36
It involves gravitational waves.
Uključuje gravitacijske valove.
08:43
And in this scenario, not only was the Big Bang not the beginning,
U ovom modelu, ne samo da veliki prasak nije bio početak,
08:46
as you can see from the picture,
kao što možete vidjeti na slici,
08:49
it can happen over and over again.
nego se može dogoditi ponovno i ponovno.
08:52
It may be that we live in an endless universe,
Moguće je da živimo u beskrajnom svemiru,
08:54
both in space and in time.
i u prostoru i u vremenu.
08:57
And there've been bangs in the past, and there will be bangs in the future.
Bilo je prasaka u prošlosti i bit će prasaka u budućnosti.
09:01
And maybe we live in an endless universe.
I možda živimo u beskrajnom svemiru.
09:04
Well, making and testing models of the universe
Pravljenje je i testiranje modela svemira
09:08
is, for me, the best way I have of enjoying and appreciating the universe.
za mene najbolji način za uživanje i cijenjenje svemira.
09:13
We need to make the best mathematical models we can,
Moramo napraviti najbolje matematičke modele koje možemo,
09:20
the most consistent ones.
najdosljednije.
09:22
And then we scrutinize them, logically and with data.
I zatim ih temeljito proučimo, logički i s podatcima.
09:24
And we try to convince ourselves --
I pokušamo se uvjeriti,
09:28
we really try to convince ourselves they're wrong.
zaista se pokušamo uvjeriti da nisu točni.
09:31
That's progress: when we prove things wrong.
Napredak je kada dokažemo za nešto da nije točno.
09:33
And gradually, we hopefully move closer and closer to understanding the world.
I postupno se, nadamo se, bližimo razumijevanju svijeta.
09:36
As I pursued my career, something was always gnawing away inside me.
Dok sam se bavio karijerom, nešto me uvijek izjedalo.
09:42
What about Africa?
Što s Afrikom?
09:47
What about those kids I'd left behind?
Što je s djecom koju sam ostavio za sobom?
09:50
Instead of developing, as we'd all hoped in the '60s,
Umjesto razvitka kojem smo se svi nadali u 60-ima,
09:55
things had gotten worse.
stvari su se pogoršale.
09:58
Africa was gripped by poverty, disease and war.
Afriku je stisnulo siromaštvo, bolest i rat.
10:00
This is very graphically shown by the Worldmapper website and project.
To je grafički pokazano na Worldmapper stranici i projektu.
10:04
And so the idea is to represent each country
Cilj je da se svaka zemlja prikaže
10:10
on a map, but scale the area according to some quantity.
na karti, ali da se omjeri naprave s obzirom na neku veličinu.
10:13
So here's just the standard area map of the world.
Evo samo standardna karta svijeta.
10:19
By the way, Africa is very large.
Usput, Afrika je prilično velika.
10:21
And the next map now shows Africa's GDP in 1960,
I sljedeća karta pokazuje Afrički BDP 1960.,
10:23
around the time of independence for many African states.
u vrijeme uspostavljanja nezavisnosti mnogih afričkih zemalja.
10:28
Now, this is 1990, and then 2002. And here's a projection for 2015.
Ovo je 1990. i zatim 2002. Evo predviđanja za 2015.
10:33
Big changes are happening in the world,
Velike se promjene događaju u svijetu,
10:44
but they're not helping Africa.
ali one ne pomažu Africi.
10:45
What about Africa's population? The population isn't out of proportion to its area,
Što s afričkom populacijom? Populacija nije izvan omjera u odnosu na prostor,
10:48
but Africa leads the world in deaths from often preventable causes:
ali Afrika vodi u broju smrti koje se inače mogu spriječiti:
10:52
malnutrition, simple infections and birth complications.
loša prehrana, jednostavne infekcije i komplikacije u porodu.
10:57
Then there's HIV/AIDS. And then there are deaths from war.
I onda imamo HIV/AIDS. I onda evo smrti zbog rata.
11:04
OK, currently there are 45,000 people a month dying in the Congo,
Trenutno 45.000 ljudi mjesečno umire u Kongu
11:09
as a consequence of the war
kao posljedica rata
11:14
there over coltan and diamonds and other things.
zbog koltana, dijamanata i drugih stvari.
11:16
It's still going on.
Još uvijek traje.
11:20
What about Africa's capacity to do something about these problems?
Što je s mogućnošću Afrike da nešto učini oko ovih problema?
11:24
Well, here's the number of physicians in Africa.
Evo broj liječnika u Africi.
11:27
Here's the number of people in higher education.
Evo broj ljudi u visokom obrazovanju.
11:32
And here -- most shocking to me --
I evo -- najšokantnije za mene --
11:37
the number of scientific research papers coming out of Africa.
broj znanstvenih radova koji proizlaze iz Afrike.
11:39
It just doesn't exist scientifically.
Jednostavno znanstveno ne postoji.
11:43
And this was very eloquently argued at TED Africa:
O svemu se ovome vrlo rječito raspravljalo na TED-u Africa:
11:48
that all of the aid that's been given
o tome kako je sva pomoć koja je bila dana
11:51
has completely failed to put Africa onto its own two feet.
potpuno zakazala u postavljanju Afrike na vlastite noge.
11:53
Well, the transition to democracy in South Africa in 1994
Prijelaz na demokraciju u Južnoj Africi u 1994.
12:01
was literally a dream come true for many of us.
bio je kao ostvarenje sna za mnoge od nas.
12:04
My parents were both elected to the first parliament,
Oba su moja roditelja bila izabrana za prvi parlament,
12:08
alongside Nelson and Winnie Mandela. They were the only other couple.
uz Nelsona i Winnie Mandelu bili su jedini par.
12:11
And in 2001, I took a research leave to visit them.
2001. godine uzeo sam znanstveni dopust da ih posjetim.
12:16
And while I was busy working -- I was working on these colliding worlds, in the day.
I dok sam bio zauzet radom -- radio sam na ovim sudarajućim svjetovima po danu.
12:20
But I learned that there was a desperate shortage of skills,
I naučio sam da postoji očajan manjak vještina,
12:27
especially mathematical skills, in industry, in government, in education.
posebice matematičkih vještina u industriji, vladi i obrazovanju.
12:30
The ability to make and test models has become essential,
Sposobnost pravljenja i testiranja modela postala je nužna,
12:38
not only to every single area of science today,
ne samo u svakom području znanosti,
12:42
but also to modern society itself.
nego i u samom modernom društvu.
12:45
And if you don't have math, you're not going to enter the modern age.
I ako nemate matematiku, nećete ući u moderno doba.
12:49
So I had an idea. And the idea was very simple.
Zato sam dobio ideju. I bila je vrlo jednostavna.
12:55
The idea was to set up an African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, or AIMS.
Ideja je bila da osnujem Afrički institut za matematičke znanosti, ili AIMS.
12:58
And let's recruit students from the whole of Africa,
I da „unovačimo“ studente iz cijele Afrike,
13:04
bring them together with lecturers from all over the world,
spojimo ih s predavačima iz cijelog svijeta
13:08
and we'll try to give them a fantastic education.
i pokušamo im dati izvrsno obrazovanje.
13:12
Well, as a Cambridge professor, I had many contacts.
Kao profesor s Cambridgea imao sam mnogo kontakata.
13:17
And to my astonishment, they backed me 100 percent.
I na moje čuđenje, podržali su me 100 posto.
13:20
They said, "Go and do it,
Rekli su: „Napravi to
13:23
and we'll come and lecture."
i doći ćemo predavati.“
13:25
And I knew it would be amazing fun to bring brilliant students
I znao sam da će biti vrlo zabavno dovesti izvrsne studente
13:29
from these countries -- where they don't have any opportunities -- together
iz ovih zemalja gdje nemaju nikakve mogućnosti i spojiti
13:33
with the best lecturers in the world --
ih s najboljim predavačima na svijetu
13:37
who I knew would come, because of the interest in Africa --
za koje sam znao da će doći zbog zanimanja za Afriku.
13:39
and put them together and just let the sparks fly.
Spojiti ih i pustiti da iskre lete.
13:42
So we bought a derelict hotel near Cape Town.
Kupili smo zapušteni hotel blizu Cape Towna.
13:49
It's an 80-room Art Deco hotel from the 1920s.
To je Art Deco hotel s 80 soba iz 1920-ih.
13:53
The area was kind of seedy, so we got an 80-room hotel for 100,000 dollars.
To je područje bilo neugledno pa smo dobili hotel sa 80 soba za 100.000 dolara.
13:56
It's a beautiful building. We decided we would refurbish it
To je prekrasna zgrada. Odlučili smo da ćemo ga obnoviti
14:02
and then put out the word:
i onda razglasiti
14:06
we're going to start the best math institute in Africa
da u ovom hotelu otvaramo najbolji matematički institut
14:08
in this hotel.
u Africi.
14:12
Well, the new South Africa is a very exciting country.
Nova Južna Afrika vrlo je zanimljiva država.
14:13
And those of you who haven't been there, you should go.
I oni koji nisu bili ondje trebaju otići.
14:16
It's very, very interesting what's happening.
Vrlo je zanimljivo to što se događa.
14:19
And we recruited wonderful staff,
Zaposlili smo prekrasno osoblje,
14:22
highly motivated staff.
vrlo motivirano.
14:25
The other thing that's happened, which was good for us, is the Internet.
Druga stvar koja se dogodila, a dobra je za nas, je internet.
14:27
Even though the Internet is very expensive all over Africa,
Iako je internet prilično skup diljem Afrike,
14:31
there are Internet cafes everywhere.
postoje internet kafići posvuda.
14:34
And bright young Africans are desperate to join the global community,
I bistri mladi Afrikanci očajnički se žele uključiti u globalnu zajednicu,
14:36
to be successful -- and they're very ambitious.
biti uspješni -- i prilično su ambiciozni.
14:41
They want to be the next Einstein.
Žele biti budući Einstein.
14:44
And so when word came out that AIMS was opening,
I kad se pročulo da se AIMS otvara,
14:50
it spread very quickly via e-mail and our website.
vijest se proširila vrlo brzo putem e-maila i naše stranice.
14:53
And we got lots of applicants.
I dobili smo mnogo kandidata.
14:57
Well, we designed AIMS as a 24-hour learning environment,
Osmislili smo AIMS kao 24-satno okružje učenja,
14:59
and it was fantastic to start a university from the beginning.
i bilo je fantastično pokrenuti sveučilište iz početka.
15:02
You have to rethink, what is the university for?
Morate se zamisliti, za što služi sveučilište?
15:06
And that's really exciting.
I to je vrlo uzbudljivo.
15:10
So we designed it to have interactive teaching.
Osmislili smo ga da ima interaktivno učenje.
15:12
No droning on at the chalkboard.
Bez monotonog govora pred pločom.
15:15
We emphasize problem-solving, working in groups,
Stavljamo naglasak na rješavanje problema, rad u grupama,
15:19
every student discovering and maximizing their own potential
svaki student otkriva i maksimalizira svoj potencijal,
15:23
and not chasing grades.
i ne lovi ocjene.
15:27
Everyone lives together in this hotel -- lecturers and students --
Svi žive zajedno u ovom hotelu, predavači i studenti
15:30
and it's not surprising at all to find an impromptu tutorial at 1 a.m.
i nije neobično naići na improvizirano predavanje u 1:00 sat ujutro.
15:32
The students don't usually leave the computer lab till 2 or 3 a.m.
Studenti obično ne napuštaju informatičku učionicu do 2:00 ili 3:00 ujutro.
15:38
And then they're up again at eight in the morning.
I onda se ustaju u osam ujutro.
15:42
Lectures, problem-solving and so on. It's an extraordinary place.
Zbog predavanja, rješavanja problema i tako dalje. To je izuzetno mjesto.
15:44
We especially emphasize areas of great relevance to Africa's development,
Posebice naglašavamo područja izuzetno važna za razvoj Afrike,
15:51
because, in those areas, scientists working in Africa will have a competitive advantage.
jer će upravo u tim područjima znanstvenici koji budu radili u Africi imati konkurentsku prednost.
15:56
They'll publish, be invited to conferences.
Objavljivat će, biti pozivani na konferencije.
16:02
They'll do well. They'll have successful careers.
Dobro će uspjeti; imat će uspješne karijere.
16:04
And AIMS has done extremely well.
I AIMS je izvrsno napredovao.
16:10
Here is a list of last year's graduates, graduated in June,
Evo popisa prošlogodišnjih diplomiranih studenata koji su diplomirali u lipnju
16:12
and what they're currently doing -- 48 of them.
i onoga što trenutno rade, njih 48.
16:16
And where they are is indicated over here.
I ono gdje su sada je prikazano ovdje.
16:19
And where they've gone. So these are all postgraduate students.
I kamo su otišli. Svi su oni postdiplomci.
16:23
And they've all gone on to master's and Ph.D. degrees in excellent places.
I svi su otišli na magistarske i doktorske studije na izvrsnim mjestima.
16:27
Five students can be educated at AIMS
Pet se studenata može obrazovati u AIMS-u
16:34
for the cost of educating one in the U.S. or Europe.
za cijenu jednog studenta u SAD-u ili Europi.
16:36
But more important, the pan-African student body
Ali još je važnije da je pan-Afričko studentsko tijelo
16:40
is a continual source of strength, pride and commitment to Africa.
kontinuiran izvor snage, ponosa i vezanosti za Afriku.
16:43
We illustrate AIMS' progress by coloring in the countries of Africa.
Ilustriramo napredak AIMS-a bojenjem zemalja Afrike.
16:49
So here you can see behind this list.
Možete vidjeti iza popisa.
16:54
When a county is colored yellow, we've received an application;
Kada je zemlja obojana žuto: primili smo prijavnicu;
16:56
orange, we've accepted an application; and green,
narančasto: prihvatili smo prijavu; i zeleno:
17:00
a student has graduated.
student je diplomirao.
17:05
So here is where we were after the first graduation in 2004.
Evo gdje smo nakon prve generacije koja je diplomirala 2004.
17:07
And we set ourselves a goal of turning the continent green.
I zadali smo si cilj bojenja cijelog kontinenta u zeleno.
17:11
So there's 2005, -6, -7, -8.
Evo 2005., -6., -7., -8.
17:15
(Applause)
(Pljesak)
17:19
We're well on the way to achieving our initial goal.
Na putu smo postizanja svog inicijalnog cilja.
17:29
We had some of the students filmed at home before they came to AIMS.
Snimili smo neke studente doma prije nego što su došli u AIMS.
17:33
And I'll just show you one.
Pokazat ću vam jedan film.
17:37
Tendai Mugwagwa: My name is Tendai Mugwagwa.
Tendai Mugwagwa: Moje je ime Tendai Mugwagwa.
17:40
I have a Bachelor of Science with an education degree.
Prvostupnica sam Znanosti s edukacijom.
17:44
I will be attending AIMS.
Pohađat ću AIMS.
17:47
My understanding of the course is that it covers quite a lot.
Moje shvaćanje ovog studija je da pokriva prilično mnogo toga.
17:49
You know, from physics to medicine,
Od fizike do medicine,
17:53
in particular, epidemiology and also mathematical modeling.
posebno epidemiologije i matematičkog modeliranja.
17:57
Neil Turok: So Tendai came to AIMS and did very well.
Neil Turok: Tendai je došla na AIMS i išlo joj je vrlo dobro.
18:03
And I'll let her take it from there.
Dopustit ću da ona nastavi.
18:08
TM: My name is Tendai Mugwagwa
TM: Moje ime je Tendei Mugwagwa
18:16
and I was a student at AIMS in 2003 and 2004.
i bila sam student na AIMS-u 2003. i 2004.
18:18
After leaving AIMS, I went on to do a master's in applied mathematics
Nakon odlaska s AIMS-a, otišla sam na magisterij iz primijenjene matematike
18:22
at the University of Cape Town in South Africa.
na Sveučilištu Cape Towna u Južnoj Africi.
18:27
After that, I came to the Netherlands
Nakon toga došla sam u Nizozemsku
18:30
where I'm now doing a Ph.D. in theoretical immunology.
gdje sada radim na doktoratu iz teoretske imunologije.
18:32
Professor: Tendai is working very independently.
Profesor: Tendai radi vrlo samostalno.
18:35
She communicates well with the immunologists at the hospital.
Komunicira vrlo dobro s imunolozima u bolnici.
18:38
So all in all I have a very good Ph.D. student from South Africa.
Sve u svemu, imam jako dobrog studenta doktorskog studija iz Južne Afrike.
18:42
So I'm happy she's here.
Sretan sam što je ovdje.
18:46
NT: Another student in the first year of AIMS was Shehu.
NT: Još jedan student prve generacije na AIMS-u je Shehu.
18:49
And he's shown here with his favorite high school teacher.
Ovdje je prikazan sa svojim omiljenim srednjoškolskim profesorom.
18:53
And then entering university in northern Nigeria.
I zatim na upisu na sveučilište u sjevernoj Nigeriji.
18:58
And after AIMS, Shehu wanted to do high-energy physics,
I nakon AIMS-a, Shehu je poželio raditi visoko-energijsku fiziku
19:04
and he came to Cambridge.
pa je došao na Cambridge.
19:09
He's about to finish his Ph.D.,
Uskoro će završiti svoj doktorat
19:11
and he was filmed recently with someone you all know.
i nedavno je snimljen s nekim koga svi poznajete.
19:14
Shehu: And from there we will be able to,
Shehu: I odatle ćemo moći,
19:18
hopefully, make better predictions and then we compare it
nadajmo se, napraviti bolja predviđanja i onda ćemo ih usporediti
19:20
to the graph and also make some predictions.
s grafom i opet napraviti neka predviđanja.
19:23
Stephen Hawking: That is nice.
Stephen Hawking: To je lijepo.
19:28
NT: Here are the current students at AIMS. There are 53 of them
NT: Evo trenutnih studenata na AIMS-u. Ima ih 53
19:31
from 20 different countries, including 20 women.
iz 20 zemalja, uključujući 20 žena.
19:34
So now I'm going to get to my TED business.
Sada ću početi s TED poslom.
19:38
Well, we had a party. This is Africa --
Imali smo zabavu. Ovo je Afrika,
19:41
we have good parties in Africa. And last month, they threw a surprise party for me.
imamo dobre zabave u Africi. I prošli mjesec, napravili su mi zabavu iznenađenja.
19:44
Here's somebody you've seen already.
Evo nekoga koga ste već vidjeli.
19:48
(Applause)
(Pljesak)
19:50
I want to point out a few other exceptional people in this picture.
Istaknuo bih još nekoliko iznimnih ljudi na ovoj slici.
20:14
So, we were having a party,
Imali smo zabavu,
20:18
as you can see they're completely eclipsing me at this point.
kao što možete vidjeti, kruže oko mene ovdje.
20:19
This is Ezra. She's from Darfur.
Ovo je Ezra. Ona je iz Darfura.
20:23
She's a physicist, and somehow stays smiling,
Fizičarka je i nekako se uspijeva smješkati
20:26
in spite of everything going on back home.
usprkos svemu što se događa kod kuće.
20:30
But she wants to continue in physics, and she's doing extremely well.
Ali želi nastaviti bavit se fizikom i ide joj vrlo dobro.
20:32
This is Lydia. Lydia is the first ever woman
Ovo je Lydia. Lydia je prva žena koja je
20:36
to graduate in mathematics in the Central African Republic.
diplomirala matematiku u Centralnoj Afričkoj Republici.
20:40
And she's now at AIMS. (Applause)
Sada je na AIMS-u. (Pljesak)
20:43
So now let me get to our TED wish.
Dopustite mi da sad dođem do svoje TED želje.
20:49
Well, it's not my TED wish; it's our wish, as you've already gathered.
To nije moja TED želja; to je naša želja kao što ste već zaključili.
20:53
And our wish has two parts:
Naša želja ima dva dijela:
20:58
one is a dream and the other's a plan. OK.
jedan je san, a drugi je plan. OK.
21:01
Our TED dream is that the next Einstein will be African. (Applause)
Naš TED san je da sljedeći Einstein bude Afrikanac. (Pljesak)
21:06
In striving for the heights of creative genius,
U težnji za visinama kreativnih genija,
21:25
we want to give thousands of people the motivation,
želimo tisućama ljudi dati motivaciju,
21:26
the encouragement and the courage
poticaj i hrabrost da dobiju vještine
21:31
to obtain the high-level skills they need to help Africa.
na visokoj razini koje su potrebne da pomognu Africi.
21:33
Among them will be not only brilliant scientists --
Među njima neće biti samo briljantni znanstvenici,
21:38
I'm sure of that from what we've seen at AIMS --
siguran sam u to zbog onog što smo vidjeli u AIMS-u,
21:41
they'll also be the African Gates, Brins and Pages of the future.
bit će i afrička vrata, stupovi i stranice budućnosti.
21:44
Well, I said we also have a plan. And our plan is quite simple.
Rekao sam da imamo i plan. Naš je plan prilično jednostavan.
21:50
AIMS is now a proven model.
AIMS je dokazan model.
21:54
And what we need to do is to replicate it.
Sada ga trebamo replicirati.
21:56
We want to roll out 15 AIMS centers in the next five years, all over Africa.
Želimo napraviti 15 AIMS centara u sljedećih pet godina po cijeloj Africi.
22:00
Each will have a pan-African student body,
Svaki će imati pan-Afričko studentsko tijelo,
22:04
but specialize in a different area of science.
ali će se specijalizirati za drugo znanstveno područje.
22:09
We want to use science to overcome the national and cultural barriers,
Želimo uz znanost nadvladati nacionalne i kulturne prepreke,
22:11
as it does at AIMS.
što se i događa na AIMS-u.
22:16
And we want to add elements to the curriculum.
I želimo dodati nove dijelove u program.
22:17
We want to add entrepreneurship and policy skills.
Želimo dodati poduzetništvo i političke vještine.
22:19
The expanded AIMS will be a coherent pan-African institution,
Prošireni AIMS bit će koherentna pan-Afrička institucija
22:24
and its graduates will form a powerful network,
i njeni će diplomirani studenti činiti moćnu mrežu
22:27
working together for peace and progress across the continent.
radeći zajedno za mir i napredak po cijelom kontinentu.
22:31
Over the last year,
Tijekom prošle godine
22:37
we've been visiting sites in Africa,
posjećivali smo lokacije u Africi
22:39
looking at potential sites for new AIMS centers.
tražeći potencijalna mjesta za nove AIMS centre.
22:41
And here are the ones we've selected.
I evo onih koje smo odabrali.
22:44
And each of these centers has a strong local team,
Svaki od ovih centara ima jaku lokalnu ekipu,
22:46
each is in a beautiful place, an interesting place,
svaki je na lijepom mjestu, zanimljivom mjestu,
22:50
which international lecturers will be happy to visit.
koje će međunarodni predavači rado posjećivati.
22:52
And our partners across Africa are extremely enthusiastic about this.
I naši su partneri diljem Afrike iznimno entuzijastični zbog ovoga.
22:55
Everyone wants an AIMS center in their country.
Svi žele AIMS centar u svojoj državi.
23:00
And last November,
Prošlog studenog,
23:04
the conference of all the African ministers of science and technology,
konferencija svih Afričkih ministara obrazovanja i tehnologije
23:06
held in Mombasa, called for a comprehensive plan to roll out AIMS.
koja se održala u Mombasi, tražila je sveobuhvatan plan za pokretanje AIMS-a.
23:10
So we have political support right across the continent.
Dakle, imamo političku potporu po cijelom kontinentu.
23:15
It won't be easy.
Neće biti lagano.
23:18
At every site there will be huge challenges.
Na svakom će mjestu biti mnogo izazova.
23:21
Local scientists must play leading roles
Lokalni znanstvenici moraju imati glavnu ulogu
23:23
and governments must be persuaded to buy in.
i moramo nagovoriti vlade da kupe udjele.
23:26
Conditions are very difficult,
Uvjeti su vrlo teški,
23:30
but we cannot afford to compromise on those principles which made AIMS work.
ali ne možemo si priuštiti narušavanje onih principa zbog kojih je AIMS uspio.
23:32
And we summarize them this way:
Sažimamo ih ovako:
23:39
the institutes have got to be relevant, innovative,
instituti moraju biti važni, inovativni,
23:41
cost-effective and high quality. Why?
imati dobar omjer cijene i kvalitete i visoku kvalitetu. Zašto?
23:44
Because we want Africa to be rich.
Zato što želimo da Afrika bude bogata.
23:46
Easy to remember the basic rules we need.
Lako se pamte osnovna pravila koja trebamo.
23:49
So, just in ending, let me say the only people who can fix Africa
Za kraj, rekao bih da su jedini ljudi koji mogu popraviti Afriku
23:56
are talented young Africans.
talentirani mladi Afrikanci.
23:59
By unlocking and nurturing their creative potential,
Otključavši i hraneći njihov kreativni potencijal
24:02
we can create a step change in Africa's future.
možemo napraviti korak unaprijed u budućnosti Afrike.
24:05
Over time, they will contribute to African development
Tijekom vremena oni će doprinijeti razvoju Afrike
24:09
and to science in ways we can only imagine.
i znanosti na načine koje možemo samo zamisliti.
24:13
Thank you.
Hvala vam.
24:16
(Applause)
(Pljesak)
24:18
Translated by Senzos Osijek
Reviewed by Tilen Pigac - EFZG

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About the speaker:

Neil Turok - Physicist, education activist
Neil Turok is working on a model of the universe that explains the big bang -- while, closer to home, he's founded a network of math and science academies across Africa.

Why you should listen

Neil Turok works on understanding the universe's very beginnings. With Stephen Hawking, he developed the Hawking-Turok instanton solutions, describing the birth of an inflationary universe -- positing that, big bang or no, the universe came from something, not from utter nothingness.

Recently, with Paul Steinhardt at Princeton, Turok has been working on a cyclic model for the universe in which the big bang is explained as a collision between two “brane-worlds.” The two physicists cowrote the popular-science book Endless Universe.

In 2003, Turok, who was born in South Africa, founded the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) in Muizenberg, a postgraduate center supporting math and science. His TED Prize wish: Help him grow AIMS and promote the study and math and science in Africa, so that the world's next Einstein may be African.

Turok is the Director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, in Ontario, Canada. In 2010, the Canadian government funded a $20million expansion of the AIMS schools, working with the Perimeter Institute to start five new AIMS schools in different African nations.

In 2016, he won the Tate Medal for International Leadership in Physics

More profile about the speaker
Neil Turok | Speaker | TED.com