ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Neil Turok - Physicist, education activist
Neil Turok is working on a model of the universe that explains the big bang -- while, closer to home, he's founded a network of math and science academies across Africa.

Why you should listen

Neil Turok works on understanding the universe's very beginnings. With Stephen Hawking, he developed the Hawking-Turok instanton solutions, describing the birth of an inflationary universe -- positing that, big bang or no, the universe came from something, not from utter nothingness.

Recently, with Paul Steinhardt at Princeton, Turok has been working on a cyclic model for the universe in which the big bang is explained as a collision between two “brane-worlds.” The two physicists cowrote the popular-science book Endless Universe.

In 2003, Turok, who was born in South Africa, founded the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) in Muizenberg, a postgraduate center supporting math and science. His TED Prize wish: Help him grow AIMS and promote the study and math and science in Africa, so that the world's next Einstein may be African.

Turok is the Director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, in Ontario, Canada. In 2010, the Canadian government funded a $20million expansion of the AIMS schools, working with the Perimeter Institute to start five new AIMS schools in different African nations.

In 2016, he won the Tate Medal for International Leadership in Physics

More profile about the speaker
Neil Turok | Speaker | TED.com
TED2008

Neil Turok: My wish: Find the next Einstein in Africa

尼爾.圖洛克的TED願望

Filmed:
537,379 views

在獲頒2008 TED大獎之後,物理學家尼爾.圖洛克發聲為天資聰穎的非洲年輕人爭取機會,他希望藉由解放並滋養這塊土地上的創造潛能,改變非洲的未來。
- Physicist, education activist
Neil Turok is working on a model of the universe that explains the big bang -- while, closer to home, he's founded a network of math and science academies across Africa. Full bio

Double-click the English transcript below to play the video.

00:13
It was an incredible難以置信 surprise to me
0
1000
3000
我很驚訝地發現,
00:16
to find out that there was actually其實 an organization組織 that cared照顧 about both parts部分 of my life.
1
4000
6000
有一個組織同時關注在我人生的二個面向上。
00:22
Because, basically基本上,
2
10000
1000
我是一個
00:23
I work as a theoretical理論 physicist物理學家.
3
11000
2000
理論物理學家,
00:25
I develop發展 and test測試 models楷模 of the Big Bang,
4
13000
3000
我用觀察得到的資料,針對宇宙生成的大爆炸理論
00:28
using運用 observational觀察 data數據.
5
16000
3000
設計模型並加以測試,
00:31
And I've been moonlighting走穴 for the last five years年份
6
19000
3000
最近五年來,我也參與了
00:34
helping幫助 with a project項目 in Africa非洲.
7
22000
3000
某個援助非洲的計畫。
00:37
And, I get a lot of flak高射砲 for this at Cambridge劍橋.
8
25000
4000
為此,我在劍橋遭受不少攻擊,
00:41
People wonder奇蹟, you know, "How do you have time to do this?" And so on.
9
29000
4000
人們總是問我:「你哪兒來的時間做這個?」
00:45
And so it was simply只是 astonishing驚人 to me
10
33000
3000
所以當我發現有一個組織
00:48
to find an organization組織 that actually其實 appreciated讚賞 both those sides雙方.
11
36000
4000
同時在關懷這二方面時,我真的很驚訝。
00:52
So I thought I'd start開始 off by just telling告訴 you a little bit about myself
12
40000
3000
我想我應該先告訴各位一些我的事情,
00:55
and why I lead this schizophrenic精神分裂症 life.
13
43000
4000
好讓你們瞭解我這種人格分裂是怎麼來的。
00:59
Well, I was born天生 in South Africa非洲 and my parents父母 were imprisoned囚禁
14
47000
5000
嗯,我在南非出生,我的父母因為反抗種族主義政權
01:04
for resisting抵制 the racist種族主義者 regime政權.
15
52000
2000
而被捕入獄。
01:06
When they were released發布, we left and we went as refugees難民 to Kenya肯尼亞 and Tanzania坦桑尼亞.
16
54000
7000
他們出獄之後,我們就離開南非去到肯亞和坦尚尼亞的難民營,
01:13
Both were very young年輕 countries國家 then,
17
61000
2000
肯亞和坦尚尼亞那時都還是剛獨立的國家,
01:15
and full充分 of hope希望 for the future未來.
18
63000
3000
人民對未來充滿了希望。
01:18
We had an amazing驚人 childhood童年. We didn't have any money,
19
66000
2000
我的童年很精彩,雖然沒有錢,
01:20
but we were outdoors在戶外 most of the time.
20
68000
3000
但我大部分時間都在戶外玩,
01:23
We had fantastic奇妙 friends朋友 and we saw the wonders奇蹟 of the world世界,
21
71000
5000
我的朋友都很棒,我們一起探索了這個神奇的世界,
01:28
like Kilimanjaro乞力馬扎羅山, Serengeti塞倫蓋蒂 and the Olduvai奧杜威 Gorge峽谷.
22
76000
6000
像是吉力馬札羅山、塞倫蓋蒂國家公園和奧度瓦伊狹谷。
01:34
Well, then we moved移動 to London倫敦 for high school學校.
23
82000
2000
我在高中的時候搬到了倫敦,
01:36
And after that -- there's nothing much to say about that.
24
84000
5000
在那之後就沒什麼好說的了,
01:41
It was rather dull平淡. But I came來了 back to Africa非洲
25
89000
4000
很無聊,但我在17歲的時候,
01:45
at the age年齡 of 17, as a volunteer志願者 teacher老師
26
93000
4000
回到了非洲,我志願到賴索托
01:49
to Lesotho萊索托, which哪一個 is a tiny country國家,
27
97000
3000
擔任老師,賴索托很小,
01:52
surrounded包圍 at that time by apartheid種族隔離 South Africa非洲.
28
100000
5000
幾乎被那時還採種族隔離政策的南非包圍住。
01:57
Well, 80 percent百分 of the men男人 in Lesotho萊索托
29
105000
3000
在賴索托,有80%的男人
02:00
worked工作 in the mines礦山 over the border邊境,
30
108000
4000
在邊境附近的礦場工作,
02:04
in brutal野蠻 conditions條件.
31
112000
3000
環境很惡劣。
02:07
Nevertheless雖然, I -- as I'm sure -- as a rather irritating刺激性 young年輕, white白色 man
32
115000
6000
不管怎樣,我很確定,當我這個憤世嫉俗的年輕白人
02:13
coming未來 into their village, I was welcomed歡迎 with incredible難以置信 hospitality待客 and warmth熱情.
33
121000
6000
來到他們的村子裡時,他們是以無以倫比的熱忱來歡迎我的。
02:19
But the kids孩子 were the best最好 part部分.
34
127000
2000
小孩子們更棒,
02:21
The kids孩子 were amazing驚人: extremely非常 eager急於 and often經常 very bright.
35
129000
5000
那些小孩都很棒,非常願意學習,也很機靈。
02:26
And I'm just going to tell you one story故事,
36
134000
2000
我要告訴各位
02:28
which哪一個 got through通過 to me.
37
136000
3000
一個發生在我身上的故事,
02:31
I used to try to take the kids孩子 outside as often經常 as possible可能,
38
139000
2000
我那時總是盡可能將孩子們帶到戶外,
02:33
to try to connect the academic學術的 stuff東東 with the real真實 world世界.
39
141000
5000
讓他們將書本上的學問應用到現實世界,
02:38
And they weren't used to that.
40
146000
3000
但他們並不習慣這麼做。
02:41
But I took them outside one day and I said,
41
149000
2000
有一天,我把他們帶到戶外說:
02:43
"I want you to estimate估計 the height高度 of the building建造."
42
151000
3000
「我要你們估計一下這個建築的高度。」
02:46
And I expected預期 them to put a ruler統治者 next下一個 to the wall,
43
154000
3000
我本來以為他們會把尺放在牆上量,
02:49
size尺寸 it up with a finger手指, and make an estimate估計 of the height高度.
44
157000
5000
用手指大約比出有幾倍,再估計出高度。
02:54
But there was one little boy男孩, very small for his age年齡.
45
162000
4000
但其中有一個小男孩,身材比同齡小孩要小,
02:58
He was the son兒子 of one of the poorest最窮 families家庭 in the village.
46
166000
3000
他家是村子裡最窮的家庭之一,
03:01
And he wasn't doing that. He was scribbling塗鴉 with chalk粉筆 on the pavement路面.
47
169000
5000
他沒有這麼做,他只是用粉筆潦草地在路面上寫著東西,
03:06
And so, I said -- I was annoyed懊惱 -- I said, "What are you doing?
48
174000
3000
我有點生氣,所以我說:「你在做什麼?
03:09
I want you to estimate估計 the height高度 of the building建造."
49
177000
2000
我是要你估計這棟建築的高度耶...」
03:11
He said, "OK. I measured測量 the height高度 of a brick.
50
179000
3000
他回說:「對啊!我量了一塊磚頭的高度,
03:14
I counted the number of bricks磚塊 and now I'm multiplying乘以."
51
182000
5000
然後數了有幾塊磚頭,現在把他們乘起來就是了啊!」
03:19
Well -- (Laughter笑聲) -- I hadn't有沒有 thought of that one.
52
187000
5000
(笑聲)...我以前沒有想過這個方法耶...
03:24
And many許多 experiences經驗 like this happened發生 to me.
53
192000
4000
後來還有許多這一類的例子,
03:28
Another另一個 one is that I met會見 a miner礦工. He was home on his three-month三個月 leave離開 from the mines礦山.
54
196000
8000
像是有天我去找一位礦工,他因為有三個月的休假而待在家裡,
03:36
Sitting坐在 next下一個 to him one day, he said, "There's only one thing that I really loved喜愛 at school學校.
55
204000
6000
我坐在他旁邊,他說:「我在學校裡只喜歡一樣,
03:42
And you know what it was? Shakespeare莎士比亞." And he recited引用 some to me.
56
210000
7000
你知道是什麼嗎?莎士比亞!」接著他背出了一些句子。
03:49
And these and many許多 similar類似 experiences經驗 convinced相信 me
57
217000
4000
這些類似的經驗告訴我,
03:53
that there are just tons of bright kids孩子 in Africa非洲
58
221000
4000
非洲有無數個聰明的孩子,
03:57
-- inventive發明的 kids孩子, intellectual知識分子 kids孩子 --
59
225000
4000
有具發明天份的孩子,也有天資聰穎的孩子,
04:01
and starved飢餓 of opportunity機會.
60
229000
1000
他們只差沒有機會表現而已。
04:02
And if Africa非洲 is going to get fixed固定, it's by them, not by us.
61
230000
6000
如果有天非洲能強大起來,那一定是靠非洲人,而不是我們。
04:08
Well, after -- (Applause掌聲) -- that's the truth真相.
62
236000
6000
(掌聲)...這是事實!
04:14
Well, after Lesotho萊索托, I traveled旅行 across橫過 Africa非洲
63
242000
3000
在賴索托之後,我在回英國之前
04:17
before returning回國 to England英國
64
245000
2000
又做了一趟橫越非洲之旅,
04:20
-- so gray灰色 and depressing壓抑, in comparison對照.
65
248000
3000
對比起來,英國是相對灰暗與壓抑許多的。
04:23
And I went to Cambridge劍橋. And there, I fell下跌 for theoretical理論 physics物理.
66
251000
7000
我回到劍橋,投入理論物理的研究,
04:30
Well, I'm not going to explain說明 this equation方程,
67
258000
2000
我不打算講解這個方程式,
04:32
but theoretical理論 physics物理 is really an amazing驚人 subject學科.
68
260000
4000
但理論物理學確實是一個很神奇的學科,
04:36
We can write down all the laws法律 of physics物理 we know in one line.
69
264000
6000
我們可以把已知的所有物理定律寫在一條方程式裡,
04:42
And, admittedly固然, it's in a very shorthand速記 notation符號.
70
270000
5000
雖然這個方程式很簡潔,
04:47
And it contains包含 18 free自由 parameters參數,
71
275000
4000
其中包含了18個自由參數,
04:51
OK, which哪一個 we have to fit適合 to the data數據.
72
279000
3000
我們必須將資料代入。
04:54
So it's not the final最後 story故事,
73
282000
2000
這樣還不算完成,
04:56
but it's an incredibly令人難以置信 powerful強大 summary概要 of everything we know
74
284000
5000
這個方程式所代表的,是我們對自然界最基本的認識,
05:01
about nature性質 at the most basic基本 level水平.
75
289000
4000
也是最重要的彙總,
05:05
And apart距離 from a few少數 very important重要 loose疏鬆 ends結束, which哪一個 you've heard聽說 about here --
76
293000
4000
其中有一些重要事項我們尚未有頭緒,就像各位所聽過的,
05:09
like dark黑暗 energy能源 and dark黑暗 matter --
77
297000
3000
像是黑暗能量與黑暗物質這一類的。
05:12
this equation方程 describes介紹,
78
300000
2000
這個方程式代表的是...
05:14
seems似乎 to describe描述 everything about the universe宇宙 and what's in it.
79
302000
5000
它似乎代表了宇宙的一切,以及宇宙裡所含概的一切。
05:19
But there's one big puzzle難題 remaining其餘,
80
307000
2000
但我們還有一個疑問,
05:21
and this was most succinctly簡潔地 put to me by my primary school學校 math數學 teacher老師 in
81
309000
5000
一個再簡單不過的問題,那是我在坦尚尼亞中學的
05:26
Tanzania坦桑尼亞, who's誰是 a wonderful精彩 Scottish蘇格蘭的 lady淑女
82
314000
3000
數學老師問我的,她是個很棒的蘇格蘭女士,
05:29
who I still stay in touch觸摸 with.
83
317000
3000
我到現在都還持續和她聯絡,
05:32
And she's now in her 80s.
84
320000
2000
她現在已經80多歲了,
05:34
And when I try to explain說明 my work to her, she waved揮手 away all the details細節, and she said,
85
322000
5000
而當我試著要對她解釋我所做的工作時,她撇開所有繁瑣的細節,直接問我:
05:39
"Neil尼爾, there's only one question that really matters事項.
86
327000
5000
「尼爾,真正重要的問題是:
05:44
What banged拍著?" (Laughter笑聲)
87
332000
4000
到底什麼爆炸了?(笑聲)
05:48
"Everyone大家 talks會談 about the Big Bang. What banged拍著?"
88
336000
5000
「每個人都在談宇宙大爆炸,那到底是什麼爆炸了?」
05:53
And she's right. It's a question we've我們已經 all been avoiding避免.
89
341000
5000
她說得很對,那個問題是我們一直試圖迴避的問題,
05:58
The standard標準 explanation說明 is that the universe宇宙 somehow不知何故 sprang竄出 into existence存在,
90
346000
5000
我們總是向大眾解釋說宇宙是突然成型的,
06:03
full充分 of a strange奇怪 kind of energy能源
91
351000
2000
那時佈滿了各種奇異的能量,
06:05
-- inflationary通脹 energy能源 -- which哪一個 blew自爆 it up.
92
353000
5000
會膨脹的能量,因此就爆炸成型了。
06:10
But the puzzle難題 of why the universe宇宙 emerged出現 in that peculiar奇特 state
93
358000
4000
至於宇宙為什麼會成為這種特殊的狀態,
06:14
is completely全然 unsolved未解.
94
362000
4000
卻沒人能解。
06:18
Now, I worked工作 on that theory理論 for a while, with Stephen斯蒂芬 Hawking霍金 and others其他.
95
366000
4000
我已經和史蒂芬.霍金和其他人一起研究這個理論一段時間了,
06:22
But then I began開始 to explore探索 another另一個 alternative替代.
96
370000
3000
我開始探索其他的可能性,
06:25
The alternative替代 is that the Big Bang wasn't the beginning開始.
97
373000
3000
也就是或許宇宙大爆炸並不是宇宙的源起,
06:28
Perhaps也許 the universe宇宙 existed存在 before the bang,
98
376000
3000
宇宙可能在大爆炸之前就存在了,
06:31
and the bang was just a violent暴力 event事件 in a pre-existing預先存在的 universe宇宙.
99
379000
5000
大爆炸不過是先前那個宇宙所發生的一起劇烈變動而已。
06:36
Well, this possibility可能性 is actually其實 suggested建議
100
384000
3000
最近的統一理論
06:39
by the latest最新 theories理論, the unified統一 theories理論,
101
387000
3000
已經提出這個可能性,
06:42
which哪一個 try to explain說明 all those 18 free自由 parameters參數
102
390000
3000
統一理論試圖以單一架構
06:45
in a single framework骨架, which哪一個 will hopefully希望 predict預測 all of them.
103
393000
7000
來解釋這18個自由參數,並希望能加以預測。
06:52
And I'll just share分享 a cartoon動畫片 of this idea理念 here.
104
400000
3000
我想用卡通畫面來解釋這個理論,
06:55
It's all I can convey傳達. According根據 to these theories理論,
105
403000
3000
這是我能想到最好的方式。根據這些理論,
06:58
there are extra額外 dimensions尺寸 of space空間, not just the three we're familiar with,
106
406000
3000
在太空裡,除了我們所熟知的三度空間外,還有其他維度,
07:01
but at every一切 point in the room房間 there are more dimensions尺寸.
107
409000
4000
在這個房間裡的每一個點上,也都還有更多維度存在。
07:05
And in particular特定, there's one rather strange奇怪 one,
108
413000
2000
最特別的是,在最美好的統一理論裡,
07:07
in the most elegant優雅 unified統一 theories理論 we have.
109
415000
3000
我們也可以觀察到一個最奇特的維度,
07:10
The strange奇怪 one looks容貌 likes喜歡 this:
110
418000
2000
這個奇特的維度是像這樣的:
07:12
that we live生活 in a three-dimensional三維 world世界.
111
420000
3000
我們的世界是三度空間,
07:15
We live生活 in one of these worlds世界, and I can only show顯示 it as a sheet,
112
423000
4000
宇宙中還有其他類似的空間,我現在只能用紙張呈現,
07:19
but it's really three-dimensional三維.
113
427000
3000
但這其實是三度空間。
07:22
And a tiny distance距離 away, there's another另一個 sheet,
114
430000
4000
而在鄰近這個空間之外,又有另一張紙,
07:26
also three-dimensional三維, and they're separated分離 by a gap間隙.
115
434000
2000
上面也有個三度空間,他們中間有條小小的縫隙,
07:28
The gap間隙 is very tiny, and I've blown it up so you can see it.
116
436000
3000
縫隙很小,我得把它放大你們才看得到。
07:31
But it's really a tiny fraction分數 of the size尺寸 of an atomic原子 nucleus.
117
439000
5000
這個縫隙其實只有原子核的幾分之一大而已,
07:36
I won't慣於 go into the details細節 of why we think the universe宇宙 is like this,
118
444000
3000
我不打算詳細說明為什麼我們覺得宇宙是長這個樣子,
07:39
but it comes out of the math數學 and trying to explain說明 the physics物理 that we know.
119
447000
4000
但這是我們以數學計算出來的,用以解釋我們所知的物理現象。
07:43
Well, I got interested有興趣 in this because it seemed似乎 to me that it was an obvious明顯 question.
120
451000
4000
我對這個現象很感興趣,因為裡頭有一個很明顯的問題,
07:47
Which哪一個 is, what happens發生 if these two, three-dimensional三維 worlds世界
121
455000
3000
就是當這二個三度空間的世界碰撞在一起時,
07:50
should actually其實 collide碰撞?
122
458000
3000
會發生什麼事?
07:54
And if they collide碰撞, it would look a lot like the Big Bang.
123
462000
3000
他們二個如果真的碰撞在一起,就會產生類似大爆炸的情形,
07:57
But it's slightly different不同 than in the conventional常規 picture圖片.
124
465000
3000
但和我們傳統上認知的大爆炸稍有不同,
08:00
The conventional常規 picture圖片 of the Big Bang is a point.
125
468000
2000
傳統上我們認為大爆炸是在一個點上,
08:02
Everything comes out of a point;
126
470000
2000
所有東西會從那個點上爆發出來,
08:04
you have infinite無窮 density密度. And all the equations方程 break打破 down.
127
472000
4000
產生無限大的密度,沒有方程式可以解釋這個現象,
08:08
No hope希望 of describing說明 that.
128
476000
2000
也無法具體描述。
08:10
In this picture圖片, you'll你會 notice注意,
129
478000
2000
但在這裡,你會看到,
08:12
the bang is extended擴展. It's not a point.
130
480000
2000
這個爆炸是延伸出來的,並不是在一個點上,
08:14
The density密度 of matter is finite有限, and we have a chance機會
131
482000
3000
密度是有限的,而且我們可以
08:17
of a consistent一貫 set of equations方程 that can describe描述 the whole整個 process處理.
132
485000
5000
用一組方程式來描述整個過程。
08:22
So, to cut a long story故事 short, we've我們已經 explored探討 this alternative替代.
133
490000
3000
簡單來說,我們找到了另一種宇宙源起的可能性,
08:25
We've我們已經 shown顯示 that it can fit適合
134
493000
2000
這個源起模型
08:27
all of the data數據 that we have about the formation編隊 of galaxies星系,
135
495000
4000
與目前我們所知銀河生成的所有數據都能契合,
08:31
the fluctuations波動 in the microwave微波 background背景.
136
499000
3000
也能與宇宙微波背景中的起伏變動相契合。
08:34
Furthermore此外, there's an experimental試驗 way
137
502000
2000
而且,在我先前所講到的膨脹能量理論之外,
08:36
to tell this theory理論, apart距離 from the inflationary通脹 explanation說明 that I told you before.
138
504000
7000
還可以用另一個實驗性質的方式來解釋這個理論,
08:43
It involves涉及 gravitational引力 waves波浪.
139
511000
3000
也就是用引力波來解釋。
08:46
And in this scenario腳本, not only was the Big Bang not the beginning開始,
140
514000
3000
如同你所看到的,在這個理論裡,
08:49
as you can see from the picture圖片,
141
517000
3000
大爆炸不是宇宙的起源,
08:52
it can happen發生 over and over again.
142
520000
2000
反而是一個週而復始的現象,
08:54
It may可能 be that we live生活 in an endless無窮 universe宇宙,
143
522000
3000
因為我們所存在的宇宙,是一個無邊無際的宇宙,
08:57
both in space空間 and in time.
144
525000
1000
不論是時間或空間,都是無邊無際。
09:01
And there've已經有 been bangs前劉海 in the past過去, and there will be bangs前劉海 in the future未來.
145
529000
3000
以前曾經發生過大爆炸,以後也會再發生,
09:04
And maybe we live生活 in an endless無窮 universe宇宙.
146
532000
4000
因此這是一個無邊無際的宇宙。
09:08
Well, making製造 and testing測試 models楷模 of the universe宇宙
147
536000
5000
對我來說,為宇宙源起建立一個模型,
09:13
is, for me, the best最好 way I have of enjoying享受 and appreciating欣賞 the universe宇宙.
148
541000
7000
再加以測試,這是我欣賞及讚嘆宇宙的最佳方式,
09:20
We need to make the best最好 mathematical數學的 models楷模 we can,
149
548000
2000
我們要盡全力打造出最好的數學模型,
09:22
the most consistent一貫 ones那些.
150
550000
2000
而且是最一致的模型。
09:24
And then we scrutinize細察 them, logically邏輯 and with data數據.
151
552000
4000
接下來我們以邏輯及數據詳加檢視,
09:28
And we try to convince說服 ourselves我們自己 --
152
556000
3000
試圖說服自己--
09:31
we really try to convince說服 ourselves我們自己 they're wrong錯誤.
153
559000
2000
我們真的試圖說服自己這個模型是錯的,
09:33
That's progress進展: when we prove證明 things wrong錯誤.
154
561000
3000
因為一旦我們證明某件事是錯的,
09:36
And gradually逐漸, we hopefully希望 move移動 closer接近 and closer接近 to understanding理解 the world世界.
155
564000
6000
我們才能更加釐清這個世界。
09:42
As I pursued追求的 my career事業, something was always gnawing away inside me.
156
570000
5000
當我在物理世界努力時,總有一件事縈繞在我心頭,
09:47
What about Africa非洲?
157
575000
3000
非洲現在怎麼樣了?
09:50
What about those kids孩子 I'd left behind背後?
158
578000
5000
我曾教導過的孩子現在怎麼樣了?
09:55
Instead代替 of developing發展, as we'd星期三 all hoped希望 in the '60s,
159
583000
3000
我們自1960年代就希望能發展非洲,但事與願違,
09:58
things had gotten得到 worse更差.
160
586000
2000
非洲變得更糟糕了,
10:00
Africa非洲 was gripped抓住 by poverty貧窮, disease疾病 and war戰爭.
161
588000
4000
整個非洲被貧窮、疾病及戰爭拖垮了。
10:04
This is very graphically圖形 shown顯示 by the WorldmapperWorldmapper website網站 and project項目.
162
592000
6000
Worldmapper網站有一個專案可以用圖形表達這個狀況,
10:10
And so the idea理念 is to represent代表 each country國家
163
598000
3000
他們是以某些數據來衡量國家的大小,
10:13
on a map地圖, but scale規模 the area according根據 to some quantity數量.
164
601000
6000
並將每個國家畫在地圖上。
10:19
So here's這裡的 just the standard標準 area map地圖 of the world世界.
165
607000
2000
這一幅是標準的世界地圖,
10:21
By the way, Africa非洲 is very large.
166
609000
2000
你可以看到非洲佔了非常大的面積。
10:23
And the next下一個 map地圖 now shows節目 Africa's非洲 GDPGDP in 1960,
167
611000
5000
這一幅地圖則顯示了1960年代非洲的國內生產毛額GDP,
10:28
around the time of independence獨立 for many許多 African非洲人 states狀態.
168
616000
5000
那時許多非洲國家才剛剛獨立。
10:33
Now, this is 1990, and then 2002. And here's這裡的 a projection投影 for 2015.
169
621000
10000
接下來是1990及2002年的地點,這一幅則是2015年的預測圖。
10:44
Big changes變化 are happening事件 in the world世界,
170
632000
1000
整個世界變化很大,
10:45
but they're not helping幫助 Africa非洲.
171
633000
3000
但對非洲一點幫助也沒有。
10:48
What about Africa's非洲 population人口? The population人口 isn't out of proportion比例 to its area,
172
636000
4000
非洲的人口怎麼樣?他們的人口與土地不成比例,
10:52
but Africa非洲 leads引線 the world世界 in deaths死亡 from often經常 preventable預防的 causes原因:
173
640000
5000
因為非洲的死亡率居世界最高,但其原因在其他地區都是可以預防的:
10:57
malnutrition營養不良, simple簡單 infections感染 and birth分娩 complications並發症.
174
645000
7000
營養不良、單純的感染與難產。
11:04
Then there's HIVHIV/AIDS艾滋病. And then there are deaths死亡 from war戰爭.
175
652000
5000
接下來則是愛滋病死亡人數,還有因戰爭而死亡的人數。
11:09
OK, currently目前 there are 45,000 people a month dying垂死 in the Congo剛果,
176
657000
5000
現在,剛果每個月都有4萬5千人
11:14
as a consequence後果 of the war戰爭
177
662000
2000
因戰爭而死亡,
11:16
there over coltan鈳鉭鐵礦 and diamonds鑽石 and other things.
178
664000
4000
這些戰爭都是為了爭奪鈳鉭鐵礦、鑽石和其他礦石所引發的,
11:20
It's still going on.
179
668000
4000
現在還在打仗。
11:24
What about Africa's非洲 capacity容量 to do something about these problems問題?
180
672000
3000
非洲有沒有能力自行處理這些問題呢?
11:27
Well, here's這裡的 the number of physicians醫師 in Africa非洲.
181
675000
5000
這是非洲醫生的總人數,
11:32
Here's這裡的 the number of people in higher更高 education教育.
182
680000
5000
還有非洲受過高等教育的人數,
11:37
And here -- most shocking觸目驚心 to me --
183
685000
2000
還有...這真的很令人驚訝...
11:39
the number of scientific科學 research研究 papers文件 coming未來 out of Africa非洲.
184
687000
4000
非洲發表的科學研究論文數量,
11:43
It just doesn't exist存在 scientifically科學.
185
691000
5000
就科學上來說,這個數量可以說是零。
11:48
And this was very eloquently雄辯地 argued爭論 at TEDTED Africa非洲:
186
696000
3000
在TED針對非洲的演講中,各位早已聽過這種論調:
11:51
that all of the aid援助 that's been given特定
187
699000
2000
世界各國對非洲所提供的各式援助,
11:53
has completely全然 failed失敗 to put Africa非洲 onto its own擁有 two feet.
188
701000
8000
都無法使非洲振作,自食其力。
12:01
Well, the transition過渡 to democracy民主 in South Africa非洲 in 1994
189
709000
3000
南非1994年的民主轉變,
12:04
was literally按照字面 a dream夢想 come true真正 for many許多 of us.
190
712000
4000
對我們許多人來說可算是美夢成真,
12:08
My parents父母 were both elected當選 to the first parliament議會,
191
716000
3000
我的雙親都獲選擔任第一屆的國會議員,
12:11
alongside並肩 Nelson納爾遜 and Winnie小熊 Mandela曼德拉. They were the only other couple一對.
192
719000
5000
和曼德拉夫婦一樣,他們是唯二的夫妻檔。
12:16
And in 2001, I took a research研究 leave離開 to visit訪問 them.
193
724000
4000
2001年時,我趁研究之便去拜訪他們,
12:20
And while I was busy working加工 -- I was working加工 on these colliding碰撞 worlds世界, in the day.
194
728000
7000
那時我在研究這些互相碰撞的世界,而當我埋首研究之時,
12:27
But I learned學到了 that there was a desperate殊死 shortage短缺 of skills技能,
195
735000
3000
我突然發現非洲人民所欠缺的是技巧,
12:30
especially特別 mathematical數學的 skills技能, in industry行業, in government政府, in education教育.
196
738000
8000
尤其是數學演算的技巧,不管是在工業界、政界或是教育界都一樣。
12:38
The ability能力 to make and test測試 models楷模 has become成為 essential必要,
197
746000
4000
建立及測試模型的能力是最基本的,
12:42
not only to every一切 single area of science科學 today今天,
198
750000
3000
不只科學領域重視這個能力,
12:45
but also to modern現代 society社會 itself本身.
199
753000
4000
就連現代社會也重視這個能力。
12:49
And if you don't have math數學, you're not going to enter輸入 the modern現代 age年齡.
200
757000
6000
如果不懂數學,就無法邁進現代社會。
12:55
So I had an idea理念. And the idea理念 was very simple簡單.
201
763000
3000
所以我有一個想法,非常簡單的想法,
12:58
The idea理念 was to set up an African非洲人 Institute研究所 for Mathematical數學的 Sciences科學, or AIMSAIMS.
202
766000
6000
就是設立非洲數學科學研究院,簡稱AIMS。
13:04
And let's recruit students學生們 from the whole整個 of Africa非洲,
203
772000
4000
我打算對全非洲進行招生,
13:08
bring帶來 them together一起 with lecturers講師 from all over the world世界,
204
776000
4000
再從世界各地邀請老師來這裡教學,
13:12
and we'll try to give them a fantastic奇妙 education教育.
205
780000
5000
我希望能給他們一流的教育。
13:17
Well, as a Cambridge劍橋 professor教授, I had many許多 contacts往來.
206
785000
3000
我本身是劍橋的教授,我認識很多人,
13:20
And to my astonishment驚愕, they backed已備份 me 100 percent百分.
207
788000
3000
但出乎我意料之外,每一個人都很支持這個計畫,
13:23
They said, "Go and do it,
208
791000
2000
大家都說:「你就去做吧!
13:25
and we'll come and lecture演講."
209
793000
4000
我們會去非洲教課的!」
13:29
And I knew知道 it would be amazing驚人 fun開玩笑 to bring帶來 brilliant輝煌 students學生們
210
797000
4000
我知道這一切會很有趣,把各國最聰明的學生聚集起來,
13:33
from these countries國家 -- where they don't have any opportunities機會 -- together一起
211
801000
4000
他們原來是沒有機會受教育的,
13:37
with the best最好 lecturers講師 in the world世界 --
212
805000
2000
再把世界上最好的老師
13:39
who I knew知道 would come, because of the interest利益 in Africa非洲 --
213
807000
3000
也邀請到這裡,他們都是為了非洲的發展而來。
13:42
and put them together一起 and just let the sparks火花 fly.
214
810000
7000
把他們集合在一起,自然就會有火花激盪出來。
13:49
So we bought a derelict被遺棄 hotel旅館 near Cape Town.
215
817000
4000
我們買下開普敦附近一家廢棄的旅館,
13:53
It's an 80-room-房間 Art藝術 Deco德科 hotel旅館 from the 1920s.
216
821000
3000
那是一間1920年代興建的裝飾藝術旅館,有80個房間,
13:56
The area was kind of seedy襤褸的, so we got an 80-room-房間 hotel旅館 for 100,000 dollars美元.
217
824000
6000
旅館所在地區發展得並不是很好,所以我們只花了10萬美金就買到了,
14:02
It's a beautiful美麗 building建造. We decided決定 we would refurbish翻新 it
218
830000
4000
那是一棟漂亮的建築物,我們打算重新整修一番,
14:06
and then put out the word:
219
834000
2000
對外公告:
14:08
we're going to start開始 the best最好 math數學 institute研究所 in Africa非洲
220
836000
4000
我們打算在這間旅館裡開設全非洲最好的
14:12
in this hotel旅館.
221
840000
1000
數學研究院。
14:13
Well, the new South Africa非洲 is a very exciting扣人心弦 country國家.
222
841000
3000
新的南非是一個很棒的國家,
14:16
And those of you who haven't沒有 been there, you should go.
223
844000
3000
還沒有去過南非的人,應該去一趟,
14:19
It's very, very interesting有趣 what's happening事件.
224
847000
3000
那裡真的很有趣。
14:22
And we recruited應徵 wonderful精彩 staff員工,
225
850000
3000
我們招募了很棒的員工,
14:25
highly高度 motivated動機 staff員工.
226
853000
2000
全都自動自發。
14:27
The other thing that's happened發生, which哪一個 was good for us, is the Internet互聯網.
227
855000
4000
另一件很不錯的事,就是網路,
14:31
Even though雖然 the Internet互聯網 is very expensive昂貴 all over Africa非洲,
228
859000
3000
雖然在非洲使用網路很昂貴,
14:34
there are Internet互聯網 cafes咖啡館 everywhere到處.
229
862000
2000
但網咖還是在街頭林立。
14:36
And bright young年輕 Africans非洲人 are desperate殊死 to join加入 the global全球 community社區,
230
864000
5000
聰明的非洲年輕人迫不及待想要加入全球社群,
14:41
to be successful成功 -- and they're very ambitious有雄心.
231
869000
3000
他們非常想出人頭地,每一個人都很有野心,
14:44
They want to be the next下一個 Einstein愛因斯坦.
232
872000
4000
他們想成為下一個愛因斯坦。
14:50
And so when word came來了 out that AIMSAIMS was opening開盤,
233
878000
3000
當AIMS對外宣佈開始招生時,
14:53
it spread傳播 very quickly很快 via通過 e-mail電子郵件 and our website網站.
234
881000
4000
很快就透過電子郵件及我們的網站傳開了,
14:57
And we got lots of applicants申請人.
235
885000
2000
我們收到許多申請表。
14:59
Well, we designed設計 AIMSAIMS as a 24-hour-小時 learning學習 environment環境,
236
887000
3000
我們把AIMS打造成一個24小時的學習環境,
15:02
and it was fantastic奇妙 to start開始 a university大學 from the beginning開始.
237
890000
4000
從頭開始成立一間大學真是很棒的經驗,
15:06
You have to rethink反思, what is the university大學 for?
238
894000
4000
你得要思考這間大學成立的目的是什麼?
15:10
And that's really exciting扣人心弦.
239
898000
2000
那真的很棒!
15:12
So we designed設計 it to have interactive互動 teaching教學.
240
900000
3000
所以我們把它設計成互動式的教學環境,
15:15
No droning嗡嗡 on at the chalkboard黑板.
241
903000
4000
而不是在黑板上寫下密密麻麻的算式,
15:19
We emphasize注重 problem-solving解決問題, working加工 in groups,
242
907000
4000
我們的重點是解決問題、團隊合作,
15:23
every一切 student學生 discovering發現 and maximizing最大化 their own擁有 potential潛在
243
911000
4000
每一個學生都可以發掘出自己的潛能,並將之發揮到極致,
15:27
and not chasing grades等級.
244
915000
3000
而不單單只追求分數的高低。
15:30
Everyone大家 lives生活 together一起 in this hotel旅館 -- lecturers講師 and students學生們 --
245
918000
2000
不管是學生還是講師,都住在這間旅館裡,
15:32
and it's not surprising奇怪 at all to find an impromptu即興 tutorial教程 at 1 a.m.
246
920000
6000
你甚至可以在凌晨1:00臨時找到個別指導你的老師。
15:38
The students學生們 don't usually平時 leave離開 the computer電腦 lab實驗室 till直到 2 or 3 a.m.
247
926000
4000
學生們通常在電腦室裡待到凌晨2:00或3:00,
15:42
And then they're up again at eight in the morning早上.
248
930000
2000
早上8:00又起床開始新的一天,
15:44
Lectures講座, problem-solving解決問題 and so on. It's an extraordinary非凡 place地點.
249
932000
7000
聽課、解決問題等,這是一個很特別的地方。
15:51
We especially特別 emphasize注重 areas of great relevance關聯 to Africa's非洲 development發展,
250
939000
5000
我們特別重視和非洲發展息息相關的學科領域,
15:56
because, in those areas, scientists科學家們 working加工 in Africa非洲 will have a competitive競爭的 advantage優點.
251
944000
6000
因為在這個領域研究的人,在非洲將具有極佳的競爭優勢。
16:02
They'll他們會 publish發布, be invited邀請 to conferences會議.
252
950000
2000
他們的作品將被出版,並應邀發表演講;
16:04
They'll他們會 do well. They'll他們會 have successful成功 careers職業生涯.
253
952000
6000
他們會表現得很好,在這一行領先群倫。
16:10
And AIMSAIMS has doneDONE extremely非常 well.
254
958000
2000
AIMS很成功,
16:12
Here is a list名單 of last year's年份 graduates畢業生, graduated畢業 in June六月,
255
960000
4000
這是去年的畢業生名單,他們在六月畢業,
16:16
and what they're currently目前 doing -- 48 of them.
256
964000
3000
這是他們現在從事的工作,總共有48個人,
16:19
And where they are is indicated指示 over here.
257
967000
4000
他們現在所在的位置標註在這裡,
16:23
And where they've他們已經 gone走了. So these are all postgraduate研究生 students學生們.
258
971000
4000
還有他們去過的地方,這些都是畢業後的學生,
16:27
And they've他們已經 all gone走了 on to master's碩士 and Ph博士.D. degrees in excellent優秀 places地方.
259
975000
7000
他們全都在很棒的學校繼續攻讀碩士和博士。
16:34
Five students學生們 can be educated博學 at AIMSAIMS
260
982000
2000
教育美國或歐洲的一個大學生的經費,
16:36
for the cost成本 of educating教育 one in the U.S. or Europe歐洲.
261
984000
4000
在AIMS可以教育五個大學生,
16:40
But more important重要, the pan-African泛非 student學生 body身體
262
988000
3000
更重要的是,非洲自己教育出來的學生,
16:43
is a continual持續 source資源 of strength強度, pride自豪 and commitment承諾 to Africa非洲.
263
991000
6000
將為非洲持續帶來一股力量,讓非洲自豪,並全心奉獻給非洲。
16:49
We illustrate說明 AIMS'AIMS“ progress進展 by coloring染色 in the countries國家 of Africa非洲.
264
997000
5000
我們依照AIMS的進程,將非洲各個國家以不同顏色標註,
16:54
So here you can see behind背後 this list名單.
265
1002000
2000
所以在這張表的後面,
16:56
When a county is colored有色 yellow黃色, we've我們已經 received收到 an application應用;
266
1004000
4000
你會看到某些國家是標成黃色,因為我們收到一張申請表;
17:00
orange橙子, we've我們已經 accepted公認 an application應用; and green綠色,
267
1008000
5000
橘色就表示我們核准一張申請表;
17:05
a student學生 has graduated畢業.
268
1013000
2000
綠色就表示有學生畢業了。
17:07
So here is where we were after the first graduation畢業 in 2004.
269
1015000
4000
這是我們在2004年首屆畢業生離校後的狀況,
17:11
And we set ourselves我們自己 a goal目標 of turning車削 the continent大陸 green綠色.
270
1019000
4000
我們希望能把整個非洲都變成綠色的,
17:15
So there's 2005, -6, -7, -8.
271
1023000
4000
接下來是2005、6、7、8。
17:19
(Applause掌聲)
272
1027000
10000
(掌聲)
17:29
We're well on the way to achieving實現 our initial初始 goal目標.
273
1037000
4000
我們正朝最初設定的目標前進,
17:33
We had some of the students學生們 filmed拍攝 at home before they came來了 to AIMSAIMS.
274
1041000
4000
在學生們來到AIMS之前,我們幫一些人在家鄉拍了一些短片,
17:37
And I'll just show顯示 you one.
275
1045000
3000
我想要給各位看其中一支影片。
17:40
Tendai天台 MugwagwaMugwagwa: My name名稱 is Tendai天台 MugwagwaMugwagwa.
276
1048000
4000
天代:我的名字是天代.穆格瓦格瓦,
17:44
I have a Bachelor單身漢 of Science科學 with an education教育 degree.
277
1052000
3000
我有科學學士學位,
17:47
I will be attending出席 AIMSAIMS.
278
1055000
2000
我要加入AIMS。
17:49
My understanding理解 of the course課程 is that it covers蓋子 quite相當 a lot.
279
1057000
4000
就我所知,那裡的課程涵蓋範圍很廣,
17:53
You know, from physics物理 to medicine醫學,
280
1061000
4000
從物理到醫學都有,
17:57
in particular特定, epidemiology流行病學 and also mathematical數學的 modeling造型.
281
1065000
6000
特別還有流行病學和數學模型學。
18:03
Neil尼爾 Turok圖羅克: So Tendai天台 came來了 to AIMSAIMS and did very well.
282
1071000
5000
尼爾:天代來AIMS上課後表現得很好,
18:08
And I'll let her take it from there.
283
1076000
4000
接下來就由她來演說。
18:16
TMTM值: My name名稱 is Tendai天台 MugwagwaMugwagwa
284
1084000
2000
天代:我的名字是天代.穆格瓦格瓦,
18:18
and I was a student學生 at AIMSAIMS in 2003 and 2004.
285
1086000
4000
我在2003年到2004年間在AIMS就讀。
18:22
After leaving離開 AIMSAIMS, I went on to do a master's碩士 in applied應用的 mathematics數學
286
1090000
5000
畢業之後,我則到南非開普敦大學
18:27
at the University大學 of Cape Town in South Africa非洲.
287
1095000
3000
繼續應用數學的碩士研究。
18:30
After that, I came來了 to the Netherlands荷蘭
288
1098000
2000
之後,我則到荷蘭
18:32
where I'm now doing a Ph博士.D. in theoretical理論 immunology免疫學.
289
1100000
3000
攻讀理論免疫學的博士學位。
18:35
Professor教授: Tendai天台 is working加工 very independently獨立地.
290
1103000
3000
教授:天代具有獨立研究的能力,
18:38
She communicates相通 well with the immunologists免疫學家 at the hospital醫院.
291
1106000
4000
她和醫院裡的免疫學家溝通無礙,
18:42
So all in all I have a very good Ph博士.D. student學生 from South Africa非洲.
292
1110000
4000
她是一個來自南非、很棒的博士生,
18:46
So I'm happy快樂 she's here.
293
1114000
3000
我很高興她能來這裡。
18:49
NTNT: Another另一個 student學生 in the first year of AIMSAIMS was Shehu謝胡.
294
1117000
4000
尼爾:席胡也是AIMS的首屆畢業生,
18:53
And he's shown顯示 here with his favorite喜愛 high school學校 teacher老師.
295
1121000
5000
他和他最敬愛的高中老師一起拍了這張照片,
18:58
And then entering進入 university大學 in northern北方 Nigeria尼日利亞.
296
1126000
6000
後來他在北奈及利亞就讀大學。
19:04
And after AIMSAIMS, Shehu謝胡 wanted to do high-energy高能量 physics物理,
297
1132000
5000
在AIMS畢業之後,席胡想要研究高能量物理學,
19:09
and he came來了 to Cambridge劍橋.
298
1137000
2000
所以他去了劍橋,
19:11
He's about to finish his Ph博士.D.,
299
1139000
3000
現在快要完成博士學位了,
19:14
and he was filmed拍攝 recently最近 with someone有人 you all know.
300
1142000
4000
他和一位各位都熟知的人一起拍了一段影片。
19:18
Shehu謝胡: And from there we will be able能夠 to,
301
1146000
2000
席胡:從這裡我們就可以
19:20
hopefully希望, make better predictions預測 and then we compare比較 it
302
1148000
3000
做出更好的預測,然後我們可以和這張圖比較,
19:23
to the graph圖形 and also make some predictions預測.
303
1151000
5000
再做出另一些預測。
19:28
Stephen斯蒂芬 Hawking霍金: That is nice不錯.
304
1156000
3000
史蒂芬.霍金:很好。
19:31
NTNT: Here are the current當前 students學生們 at AIMSAIMS. There are 53 of them
305
1159000
3000
尼爾:這是目前在AIMS就讀的學生,總共有53人,
19:34
from 20 different不同 countries國家, including包含 20 women婦女.
306
1162000
4000
他們來自20個不同的國家,包含20位女士。
19:38
So now I'm going to get to my TEDTED business商業.
307
1166000
3000
現在我要來談談TED的事了,
19:41
Well, we had a party派對. This is Africa非洲 --
308
1169000
3000
我們舉辦了一個派對,那是在非洲,
19:44
we have good parties派對 in Africa非洲. And last month, they threw a surprise party派對 for me.
309
1172000
4000
我們有許多很棒的派對,上個月,他們為我舉辦了一個驚喜派對,
19:48
Here's這裡的 somebody you've seen看到 already已經.
310
1176000
2000
其中有一個人你們已經認識了。
19:50
(Applause掌聲)
311
1178000
24000
(掌聲)
20:14
I want to point out a few少數 other exceptional優秀 people in this picture圖片.
312
1202000
4000
我要來介紹照片上的幾位傑出人士。
20:18
So, we were having a party派對,
313
1206000
1000
那時我們在派對狂歡,
20:19
as you can see they're completely全然 eclipsing遮蔽的 me at this point.
314
1207000
4000
你們看,他們把我完全擋住了,
20:23
This is Ezra以斯拉. She's from Darfur達爾富爾.
315
1211000
3000
這是伊茲拉,她來自蘇丹的達佛,
20:26
She's a physicist物理學家, and somehow不知何故 stays入住 smiling微笑,
316
1214000
4000
她是個物理學家,儘管家鄉發生了許多事,
20:30
in spite儘管 of everything going on back home.
317
1218000
2000
她永遠面帶微笑,
20:32
But she wants to continue繼續 in physics物理, and she's doing extremely非常 well.
318
1220000
4000
她希望繼續攻讀物理,她的表現真的很棒!
20:36
This is Lydia莉迪亞. Lydia莉迪亞 is the first ever woman女人
319
1224000
4000
這位是莉迪亞,莉迪亞是中非共和國
20:40
to graduate畢業 in mathematics數學 in the Central中央 African非洲人 Republic共和國.
320
1228000
3000
有史以來的第一位女性數學家,
20:43
And she's now at AIMSAIMS. (Applause掌聲)
321
1231000
5000
她現在在AIMS就讀。(掌聲)
20:49
So now let me get to our TEDTED wish希望.
322
1237000
4000
現在我要來談談我們的TED願望,
20:53
Well, it's not my TEDTED wish希望; it's our wish希望, as you've already已經 gathered雲集.
323
1241000
5000
不是我的願望,而是我們的,各位應該都明白。
20:58
And our wish希望 has two parts部分:
324
1246000
3000
我們的願望有二個部分,
21:01
one is a dream夢想 and the other's其他 a plan計劃. OK.
325
1249000
5000
一個是個夢想,另一個則是個計畫。
21:06
Our TEDTED dream夢想 is that the next下一個 Einstein愛因斯坦 will be African非洲人. (Applause掌聲)
326
1254000
16000
我們的夢想是希望下一個愛因斯坦將會是非洲人。(掌聲)
21:25
In striving努力 for the heights高度 of creative創作的 genius天才,
327
1273000
1000
在培育有創造力的天才這條路上,
21:26
we want to give thousands數千 of people the motivation動機,
328
1274000
5000
我們希望為千萬人打氣,
21:31
the encouragement鼓勵 and the courage勇氣
329
1279000
2000
鼓勵他們,給他們勇氣,
21:33
to obtain獲得 the high-level高水平 skills技能 they need to help Africa非洲.
330
1281000
5000
讓他們培養出振興非洲所需的高水準技能。
21:38
Among其中 them will be not only brilliant輝煌 scientists科學家們 --
331
1286000
3000
他們不會只是優秀的科學家,
21:41
I'm sure of that from what we've我們已經 seen看到 at AIMSAIMS --
332
1289000
3000
AIMS裡的情形讓我確信,
21:44
they'll他們會 also be the African非洲人 Gates蓋茨, BrinsBrins and Pages網頁 of the future未來.
333
1292000
6000
他們將會是非洲未來的比爾.蓋茲、布林和佩吉。
21:50
Well, I said we also have a plan計劃. And our plan計劃 is quite相當 simple簡單.
334
1298000
4000
我們還有一個計畫,這個計畫很簡單,
21:54
AIMSAIMS is now a proven證明 model模型.
335
1302000
2000
由於AIMS已經很成功了,
21:56
And what we need to do is to replicate複製 it.
336
1304000
4000
我們希望能複製這個經驗,
22:00
We want to roll out 15 AIMSAIMS centers中心 in the next下一個 five years年份, all over Africa非洲.
337
1308000
4000
我們希望在未來的5年內,在非洲境內推廣15個AIMS中心,
22:04
Each will have a pan-African泛非 student學生 body身體,
338
1312000
5000
每一個都為非洲學生而設置,
22:09
but specialize專攻 in a different不同 area of science科學.
339
1317000
2000
但將專注在不同的科學領域。
22:11
We want to use science科學 to overcome克服 the national國民 and cultural文化 barriers障礙,
340
1319000
5000
我們要用科學來克服國家和文化上的障礙,
22:16
as it does at AIMSAIMS.
341
1324000
1000
就像AIMS所做的一樣。
22:17
And we want to add elements分子 to the curriculum課程.
342
1325000
2000
我們還要在課程表上新增一些課程,
22:19
We want to add entrepreneurship創業 and policy政策 skills技能.
343
1327000
5000
像是企業管理與政治學等,
22:24
The expanded擴大 AIMSAIMS will be a coherent相干 pan-African泛非 institution機構,
344
1332000
3000
擴張後的AIMS仍會是一個以非洲為主的學院,
22:27
and its graduates畢業生 will form形成 a powerful強大 network網絡,
345
1335000
4000
畢業生將形成一個強大的人際網路,
22:31
working加工 together一起 for peace和平 and progress進展 across橫過 the continent大陸.
346
1339000
6000
為非洲大陸的和平與發展一同努力。
22:37
Over the last year,
347
1345000
2000
在去年一整年,
22:39
we've我們已經 been visiting訪問 sites網站 in Africa非洲,
348
1347000
2000
我們造訪了非洲幾個地點,
22:41
looking at potential潛在 sites網站 for new AIMSAIMS centers中心.
349
1349000
3000
尋找適合興建新的AIMS中心的據點,
22:44
And here are the ones那些 we've我們已經 selected.
350
1352000
2000
這是我們評選出來的幾個地點,
22:46
And each of these centers中心 has a strong強大 local本地 team球隊,
351
1354000
4000
每一個中心背後都有一支堅強的當地團隊,
22:50
each is in a beautiful美麗 place地點, an interesting有趣 place地點,
352
1358000
2000
每一個地點都很美,也很有趣,
22:52
which哪一個 international國際 lecturers講師 will be happy快樂 to visit訪問.
353
1360000
3000
國際學者會很高興來造訪這些中心。
22:55
And our partners夥伴 across橫過 Africa非洲 are extremely非常 enthusiastic熱情 about this.
354
1363000
5000
我們在非洲的友人對此都很興奮,
23:00
Everyone大家 wants an AIMSAIMS center中央 in their country國家.
355
1368000
4000
每一個人都希望AIMS落腳在他們的國家裡。
23:04
And last November十一月,
356
1372000
2000
去年十一月,
23:06
the conference會議 of all the African非洲人 ministers部長 of science科學 and technology技術,
357
1374000
4000
非洲各國科學與科技官員的聚會在孟巴薩舉行,
23:10
held保持 in Mombasa蒙巴薩, called for a comprehensive全面 plan計劃 to roll out AIMSAIMS.
358
1378000
5000
他們希望能在非洲全面推展AIMS,
23:15
So we have political政治 support支持 right across橫過 the continent大陸.
359
1383000
3000
所以我們現在也有政治支援了。
23:18
It won't慣於 be easy簡單.
360
1386000
3000
這很不容易,
23:21
At every一切 site現場 there will be huge巨大 challenges挑戰.
361
1389000
2000
每一個地點都是一個艱鉅的挑戰,
23:23
Local本地 scientists科學家們 must必須 play leading領導 roles角色
362
1391000
3000
當地的科學家必須扮演領導者的角色,
23:26
and governments政府 must必須 be persuaded說服了 to buy購買 in.
363
1394000
4000
我們也必須說服政府配合。
23:30
Conditions條件 are very difficult,
364
1398000
2000
每一種狀況都不容易解決,
23:32
but we cannot不能 afford給予 to compromise妥協 on those principles原則 which哪一個 made製作 AIMSAIMS work.
365
1400000
7000
但我們不能對我們當初設立AIMS的宗旨有任何妥協。
23:39
And we summarize總結 them this way:
366
1407000
2000
這些宗旨是:
23:41
the institutes機構 have got to be relevant相應, innovative創新,
367
1409000
3000
相關(R)、創新(I)、
23:44
cost-effective經濟有效 and high quality質量. Why?
368
1412000
2000
成本效益(C)與高品質(H)。為什麼?
23:46
Because we want Africa非洲 to be rich豐富.
369
1414000
3000
因為我們希望非洲富強(RICH)起來,
23:49
Easy簡單 to remember記得 the basic基本 rules規則 we need.
370
1417000
7000
這是我們最基本的原則,很容易記住。
23:56
So, just in ending結尾, let me say the only people who can fix固定 Africa非洲
371
1424000
3000
最後,我要說,唯一能拯救非洲的人
23:59
are talented天才 young年輕 Africans非洲人.
372
1427000
3000
就是非洲天資聰慧的年輕人。
24:02
By unlocking解鎖 and nurturing培育 their creative創作的 potential潛在,
373
1430000
3000
讓我們解放並滋養他們創造的天份,
24:05
we can create創建 a step change更改 in Africa's非洲 future未來.
374
1433000
4000
我們可以一步一步改變非洲的未來,
24:09
Over time, they will contribute有助於 to African非洲人 development發展
375
1437000
4000
最終他們將為非洲的發展做出貢獻,
24:13
and to science科學 in ways方法 we can only imagine想像.
376
1441000
3000
他們未來在科學上的成就將令我們望塵莫及。
24:16
Thank you.
377
1444000
2000
謝謝!
24:18
(Applause掌聲)
378
1446000
21000
(掌聲)
Translated by Marie Wu
Reviewed by Adrienne Lin

▲Back to top

ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Neil Turok - Physicist, education activist
Neil Turok is working on a model of the universe that explains the big bang -- while, closer to home, he's founded a network of math and science academies across Africa.

Why you should listen

Neil Turok works on understanding the universe's very beginnings. With Stephen Hawking, he developed the Hawking-Turok instanton solutions, describing the birth of an inflationary universe -- positing that, big bang or no, the universe came from something, not from utter nothingness.

Recently, with Paul Steinhardt at Princeton, Turok has been working on a cyclic model for the universe in which the big bang is explained as a collision between two “brane-worlds.” The two physicists cowrote the popular-science book Endless Universe.

In 2003, Turok, who was born in South Africa, founded the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) in Muizenberg, a postgraduate center supporting math and science. His TED Prize wish: Help him grow AIMS and promote the study and math and science in Africa, so that the world's next Einstein may be African.

Turok is the Director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, in Ontario, Canada. In 2010, the Canadian government funded a $20million expansion of the AIMS schools, working with the Perimeter Institute to start five new AIMS schools in different African nations.

In 2016, he won the Tate Medal for International Leadership in Physics

More profile about the speaker
Neil Turok | Speaker | TED.com