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Knut Haanaes: Two reasons companies fail -- and how to avoid them

Knuts Hānaess: Divi uzņēmumu neveiksmju cēloņi un kā no tiem izvairīties

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Vai ir iespējams vienlaikus gan vadīt uzņēmumu, gan atjaunot to? Biznesa stratēģis Knuts Hānaess uzskata, ka spēja ieviest jauninājumus pelnošā uzņēmumā ir lieliskas organizācijas pazīme. Viņš stāsta, kā saglabāt līdzsvaru starp esošo produktu uzlabojumiem un jaunu ideju radīšanu, un kā izvairīties no diviem galvenajiem stratēģiskajiem slazdiem.

- Strategist
IMD's Knut Haanaes believes that the secret to creating lasting, impactful companies is to find a balance between doing what you're good at and looking for new challenges to take on. Full bio

Here are two reasons companies fail:
Ir divi iemesli,
kādēļ uzņēmumi cieš neveiksmes:
00:13
they only do more of the same,
vai nu dara vienu un to pašu,
00:17
or they only do what's new.
vai arī tikai izgudro kaut ko jaunu.
00:20
To me the real, real
solution to quality growth
Man šķiet, ka īstais risinājums
kvalitatīvai izaugsmei
00:23
is figuring out the balance
between two activities:
ir līdzsvara atrašana starp divām lietām:
00:28
exploration and exploitation.
izpēti un izmantošanu.
00:32
Both are necessary,
Abas ir nepieciešamas,
00:35
but it can be too much of a good thing.
bet labs var būt par daudz.
00:36
Consider Facit.
Piemēram, Facit.
00:41
I'm actually old enough to remember them.
Es tiešām esmu tik vecs, lai to atcerētos.
00:43
Facit was a fantastic company.
Facit bija fantastisks uzņēmums.
00:45
They were born deep in the Swedish forest,
Tas dzima dziļos Zviedrijas mežos,
00:47
and they made the best
mechanical calculators in the world.
un ražoja labākos
mehāniskos kalkulatorus pasaulē.
00:50
Everybody used them.
Visi tos lietoja.
00:54
And what did Facit do when
the electronic calculator came along?
Un ko Facit darīja,
kad parādījās elektroniskie kalkulatori?
00:56
They continued doing exactly the same.
Viņi turpināja darīt tieši to pašu.
01:01
In six months, they went
from maximum revenue ...
Sešus mēnešus
kopš maksimālo ieņēmumu sasniegšanas...
01:04
and they were gone.
viņi bija pagalam.
01:08
Gone.
Pagalam.
01:10
To me, the irony about the Facit story
Manuprāt, ironiskākais no Facit stāsta
01:11
is hearing about the Facit engineers,
ir viņu inženieri,
01:15
who had bought cheap, small
electronic calculators in Japan
kas nopirkuši lētus, mazus
elektroniskos kalkulatorus Japānā
01:19
that they used to double-check
their calculators.
lietoja tos, lai pārbaudītu
savus ražojumus.
01:24
(Laughter)
(Smiekli)
01:27
Facit did too much exploitation.
Facit izmantoja pārāk daudz.
01:29
But exploration can go wild, too.
Bet arī ar izpēti var iebraukt grāvī.
01:32
A few years back,
Pirms dažiem gadiem,
01:34
I worked closely alongside
a European biotech company.
es cieši sadarbojos
ar kādu Eiropas biotehnoloģijas uzņēmumu.
01:36
Let's call them OncoSearch.
Sauksim viņus par OncoSearch.
01:40
The company was brilliant.
Uzņēmums bija spīdošs.
01:42
They had applications that promised
to diagnose, even cure,
Viņi bija atraduši veidu
kā diagnosticēt, un pat ārstēt,
01:44
certain forms of blood cancer.
noteiktus asinsvēža veidus.
01:49
Every day was about
creating something new.
Katru dienu viņi gribēja radīt ko jaunu.
01:52
They were extremely innovative,
Viņi bija ārkārtīgi novatoriski,
01:55
and the mantra was,
"When we only get it right,"
un viņu mantra bija:
„Tikai tad, kad viss būs pareizi”
01:58
or even, "We want it perfect."
vai pat: „Mēs gribam, lai būtu ideāli.”
02:01
The sad thing is,
Skumjākais ir tas,
02:04
before they became perfect --
ka pirms kļuvis perfekts –
02:06
even good enough --
vai pat pietiekoši labs –
02:08
they became obsolete.
viņu produkts bija novecojis.
02:10
OncoSearch did too much exploration.
OncoSearch pārāk daudz veltīja izpētei.
02:13
I first heard about exploration
and exploitation about 15 years ago,
Es pirmoreiz par izpēti un izmantošanu
dzirdēju pirms aptuveni 15 gadiem,
02:17
when I worked as a visiting
scholar at Stanford University.
kad strādāju kā vieszinātnieks
Stenfordas universitātē.
02:23
The founder of the idea is Jim March.
Idejas autors ir Džims Mārčs.
02:27
And to me the power of the idea
is its practicality.
Un, manuprāt, idejas spēks slēpjas
tās praktiskumā.
02:30
Exploration.
Izpēte.
02:35
Exploration is about
coming up with what's new.
Izpēte ir nākšana klajā ar kaut ko jaunu.
02:36
It's about search,
Tie ir meklējumi,
02:40
it's about discovery,
tie ir atklājumi,
02:42
it's about new products,
tie ir jauni produkti,
02:43
it's about new innovations.
tie ir jauni jauninājumi.
02:45
It's about changing our frontiers.
Tā ir robežu pārbīde.
02:47
Our heroes are people
who have done exploration:
Mūsu varoņi ir cilvēki, kuri ir pētījuši:
02:51
Madame Curie,
Marija Kirī,
02:54
Picasso,
Pikaso,
02:56
Neil Armstrong,
Nīls Armstrongs,
02:57
Sir Edmund Hillary, etc.
Sers Edmunds Hilarijs un citi.
02:58
I come from Norway;
Es esmu no Norvēģijas;
03:01
all our heroes are explorers,
and they deserve to be.
visi mūsu varoņi ir pētnieki,
un viņi ir pelnījuši būt par varoņiem.
03:03
We all know that exploration is risky.
Mēs visi zinām, ka izpēte ir riskanta.
03:09
We don't know the answers,
Mēs nezinām atbildes,
03:12
we don't know if we're going to find them,
mēs nezinām, vai atradīsim tās,
03:14
and we know that the risks are high.
un mēs zinām, ka risks ir liels.
03:16
Exploitation is the opposite.
Izmantošana ir pretēja tam.
03:18
Exploitation is taking
the knowledge we have
Izmantošana
ir esošo zināšanu likšana lietā
03:20
and making good, better.
un to uzlabošana.
03:23
Exploitation is about making
our trains run on time.
Izmantošana nozīmē
likt vilcieniem pienākt precīzi laikā.
03:26
It's about making good products
faster and cheaper.
Tā nozīmē ražot labus produktus
ātrāk un lētāk.
03:29
Exploitation is not risky --
Izmantošana nav riskanta –
03:34
in the short term.
īstermiņā.
03:37
But if we only exploit,
Bet, ja mēs tikai izmantojam,
03:39
it's very risky in the long term.
tas kļūst riskanti ilgtermiņā.
03:41
And I think we all have memories
of the famous pop groups
Un es domāju, ka mums visiem atmiņā
ir slavenas popgrupas,
03:44
who keep singing the same songs
again and again,
kas dziedājušas
vienas un tās pašas dziesmas,
03:48
until they become obsolete
or even pathetic.
līdz novecojušas
vai pat kļuvušas nožēlojamas.
03:51
That's the risk of exploitation.
Tas ir izmantošanas risks.
03:56
So if we take a long-term
perspective, we explore.
Tātad, ja skatāmies ilgtermiņā,
tad ķeramies pie izpētes.
04:00
If we take a short-term
perspective, we exploit.
Ja skatāmies īstermiņā,
tad ķeramies pie izmantošanas.
04:05
Small children, they explore all day.
Mazi bērni pēta cauru dienu.
04:09
All day it's about exploration.
Visa diena tiem paiet izpētē.
04:12
As we grow older,
Pieaugot,
04:15
we explore less because we have
more knowledge to exploit on.
mēs izpētei veltam mazāk,
jo mums ir zināšanas, ko var izmantot.
04:16
The same goes for companies.
Tas pats ir ar uzņēmumiem.
04:21
Companies become,
by nature, less innovative
Uzņēmumi dabiski kļūst
mazāk novatoriski,
04:24
as they become more competent.
tiem uzkrājot zināšanas.
04:28
And this is, of course,
a big worry to CEOs.
Un tā, protams, ir
uzņēmumu vadītāju lielā rūpe.
04:31
And I hear very often questions
phrased in different ways.
Un es bieži dzirdu jautājumus
dažādi formulētus.
04:35
For example,
Piemēram,
04:39
"How can I both effectively run
and reinvent my company?"
„Kā lai es efektīvi vadu
un vienlaikus atjaunoju savu uzņēmumu?”
04:41
Or, "How can I make sure
Vai, „Kā lai es nodrošinu,
04:46
that our company changes
before we become obsolete
ka mūsu uzņēmums mainās
pirms tas noveco
04:48
or are hit by a crisis?"
vai cieš no krīzes?”
04:52
So, doing one well is difficult.
Tikt galā ar vienu ir grūti.
04:55
Doing both well as the same time is art --
Tikt galā ar abām problēmām ir māksla –
04:58
pushing both exploration and exploitation.
vienlaikus pētīt un izmantot.
05:01
So one thing we've found
Mēs esam atklājuši,
05:05
is only about two percent of companies
are able to effectively explore
ka tikai divi procenti no uzņēmumiem
spēj efektīvi pētīt
05:06
and exploit at the same time, in parallel.
un izmantot vienlaikus, paralēli.
05:13
But when they do,
Bet, kad tas izdodas,
05:17
the payoffs are huge.
atdeve ir milzīga.
05:19
So we have lots of great examples.
Mums ir daudzi lieliski piemēri.
05:22
We have Nestlé creating Nespresso,
Nestle, kas rada Nespresso,
05:24
we have Lego going into animated films,
Lego, kas ķeras pie filmu animācijas,
05:27
Toyota creating the hybrids,
Toyota, kas rada hibrīdus,
05:30
Unilever pushing into sustainability --
Unilever ar ilgtspējīgiem produktiem –
05:32
there are lots of examples,
and the benefits are huge.
piemēru ir daudz,
un to atdeve ir milzīga.
05:35
Why is balancing so difficult?
Kādēļ ir tik grūti noturēt līdzsvaru?
05:39
I think it's difficult
because there are so many traps
Es domāju, ka tas ir tādēļ,
ka pastāv vairāki slazdi,
05:42
that keep us where we are.
kas mūs notur uz vietas.
05:45
So I'll talk about two,
but there are many.
Es minēšu divus no tiem,
bet to ir daudz vairāk.
05:47
So let's talk about
the perpetual search trap.
Parunāsim par mūžīgo meklējumu slazdu.
05:51
We discover something,
Mēs kaut ko atklājam,
05:54
but we don't have the patience
or the persistence
bet mums trūkst pacietības vai uzcītības,
05:56
to get at it and make it work.
lai to novestu līdz rezultātam.
05:59
So instead of staying with it,
we create something new.
Tāpēc tā vietā, lai to pilnveidotu,
mēs radām ko jaunu.
06:01
But the same goes for that,
Bet tad atkal tas pats,
06:04
then we're in the vicious circle
un mēs nokļūstam apburtajā lokā,
06:06
of actually coming up with ideas
but being frustrated.
kad ir jaunas idejas,
bet neapmierinātība pieaug.
06:07
OncoSearch was a good example.
OncoSearch bija labs piemērs.
06:12
A famous example is, of course, Xerox.
Slavens piemērs, protams, ir Xerox.
06:14
But we don't only see this in companies.
Bet mēs to redzam ne tikai uzņēmumos.
06:18
We see this in the public sector as well.
Mēs to redzam arī sabiedriskajā sektorā.
06:20
We all know that any kind
of effective reform of education,
Mēs visi zinām, ka jebkādas
efektīvas izglītības reformas,
06:23
research, health care, even defense,
izpēte, veselības aprūpe, pat aizsardzība
06:29
takes 10, 15, maybe 20 years to work.
prasa 10, 15 varbūt 20 gadu darbu.
06:31
But still, we change much more often.
Un tomēr, mēs mainām daudz biežāk.
06:35
We really don't give them the chance.
Mēs tiešām viņiem nedodam iespēju.
06:39
Another trap is the success trap.
Vēl viens slazds ir panākumu slazds.
06:42
Facit fell into the success trap.
Facit iekrita panākumu slazdā.
06:46
They literally held
the future in their hands,
Nākotne burtiski bija viņu rokās,
06:50
but they couldn't see it.
bet viņi to neredzēja.
06:53
They were simply so good
at making what they loved doing,
Viņi vienkārši tik labi darīja to,
kas viņiem patika,
06:54
that they wouldn't change.
ka negribēja mainīties.
06:58
We are like that, too.
Mēs darām tāpat.
07:01
When we know something well,
it's difficult to change.
Kad protam kaut ko labi,
mums ir grūti mainīties.
07:02
Bill Gates has said:
Bils Geits ir teicis:
07:06
"Success is a lousy teacher.
„Panākumi ir štruntīgs skolotājs.
07:09
It seduces us into thinking
we cannot fail."
Tie vedina domāt, ka nevaram kļūdīties.”
07:12
That's the challenge with success.
Tāds ir panākumu izaicinājums.
07:16
So I think there are some lessons,
and I think they apply to us.
Es domāju, ka šeit ir dažas mācības,
kas attiecas uz mums.
07:19
And they apply to our companies.
Un tās attiecas uz mūsu uzņēmumiem.
07:23
The first lesson is:
get ahead of the crisis.
Pitmā mācība ir: apsteidz krīzi.
07:25
And any company that's able to innovate
Jebkurš uz jaunievedumiem spējīgs uzņēmums
07:29
is actually able to also buy
an insurance in the future.
patiesībā spēj arī nopirkt
apdrošināšanu savai nākotnei.
07:32
Netflix -- they could so easily
have been content
Netflix – viņi varētu vienkārši
būt apmierināti
07:36
with earlier generations of distribution,
ar agrākajām izplatīšanas veidu paaudzēm,
07:39
but they always -- and I think
they will always --
bet viņi arvien –
un domāju, ka arī turpmāk arvien –
07:42
keep pushing for the next battle.
raujas uz nākamo cīņu.
07:45
I see other companies that say,
Es redzu citus uzņēmumus, kas saka:
07:47
"I'll win the next innovation cycle,
whatever it takes."
„Es uzvarēšu nākamo jaunievedumu ciklu,
lai ko tas man maksātu.”
07:49
Second one: think in multiple time scales.
Otra mācība:
domā vairākās laika dimensijās.
07:55
I'll share a chart with you,
Es parādīšu kādu diagrammu.
07:58
and I think it's a wonderful one.
Man šķiet, tā ir brīnišķīga.
08:00
Any company we look at,
Jebkurš uzņēmums, kuru apskatām
08:02
taking a one-year perspective
gada griezumā
08:04
and looking at the valuation
of the company,
un no uzņēmuma vērtības viedokļa,
08:06
innovation typically accounts
for only about 30 percent.
jauninājumiem parasti atvēl
tikai ap 30 procentiem.
08:08
So when we think one year,
Tātad, gada griezumā,
08:12
innovation isn't really that important.
jauninājumi nav nemaz tik svarīgi.
08:13
Move ahead, take a 10-year perspective
on the same company --
Turpinot tāpat,
un apskatot uzņēmumu 10 gadu griezumā –
08:16
suddenly, innovation and ability
to renew account for 70 percent.
pēkšņi, jauninājumi un atjaunošanās
aizņem 70 procentus.
08:20
But companies can't choose.
Bet uzņēmumi nevar izvēlēties.
08:26
They need to fund the journey
and lead the long term.
Viņiem ir jāfinansē sava darbība
un jāstrādā ilgtermiņā.
08:27
Third:
Treškārt:
08:32
invite talent.
pievilini talantu.
08:34
I don't think it's possible for any of us
Es nedomāju, ka kāds no mums
08:35
to be able to balance exploration
and exploitation by ourselves.
viens pats spēj līdzsvarot
izpēti un izmantošanu.
08:38
I think it's a team sport.
Manuprāt, tas ir komandu sports.
08:43
I think we need to allow challenging.
Manuprāt, mums jādod ceļs izaicinājumiem.
08:44
I think the mark of a great company
is being open to be challenged,
Manuprāt, lieliska uzņēmuma pazīme
ir atvērtība izaicinājumiem,
08:48
and the mark of a good corporate board
is to constructively challenge.
un labas uzņēmuma valdes pazīme
ir konstruktīvi izaicinājumi.
08:53
I think that's also what
good parenting is about.
Manuprāt, tādai jābūt arī
labai bērnu audzināšanai.
08:58
Last one: be skeptical of success.
Visbeidzot: esi skeptisks pret panākumiem.
09:02
Maybe it's useful to think back
at the old triumph marches in Rome,
Varbūt ir noderīgi padomāt
par triumfa maršiem senajā Romā,
09:06
when the generals, after a big victory,
kad ģenerāļiem pēc lielām uzvarām
09:12
were given their celebration.
rīkoja dzīres.
09:16
Riding into Rome on the carriage,
Iebraucot pilsētā,
09:18
they always had a companion
whispering in their ear,
kāds tika norīkots viņiem blakus,
lai čukstētu ausī:
09:21
"Remember, you're only human."
„Atceries, tu esi tikai cilvēks.”
09:25
So I hope I made the point:
Ceru, ka esmu izteicies skaidri:
09:29
balancing exploration and exploitation
līdzsvars starp izpēti un izmantošanu
09:32
has a huge payoff.
dod lieliskus rezultātus.
09:35
But it's difficult,
and we need to be conscious.
Bet tas ir sarežģīti,
un mums tas jāapzinās.
09:37
I want to just point out two questions
that I think are useful.
Es vēlos jums norādīt uz diviem,
manuprāt, noderīgiem jautājumiem.
09:40
First question is,
looking at your own company:
Pirmkārt, skatoties uz savu uzņēmumu,
padomājiet:
09:45
In which areas do you see
that the company is at the risk
Kurās jomās jūs saredzat
sava uzņēmuma riskus
09:49
of falling into success traps,
iekrist panākumu slazdā,
09:53
of just going on autopilot?
kad sākat strādāt autopilotā.
09:56
And what can you do to challenge?
Un ko jūs varat darīt, lai izvairītos.
09:59
Second question is:
Otrkārt:
10:03
When did I explore something new last,
Kad es pēdējoreiz veltīju laiku izpētei,
10:06
and what kind of effect did it have on me?
un kādu ietekmi tas uz mani tas atstāja?
10:09
Is that something I should do more of?
Vai es varētu šajā ziņā darīt vairāk?
10:12
In my case, yes.
Manā gadījumā, jā.
10:15
So let me leave you with this.
Ļaujiet man jūs atstāt ar šo domu.
10:18
Whether you're an explorer by nature
Vai pēc dabas esat pētnieks,
10:20
or whether you tend to exploit
what you already know,
vai arī mēdzat izmantot to,
ko jau protat,
10:23
don't forget: the beauty
is in the balance.
neaizmirstiet,
ka svarīgākais ir līdzsvars.
10:27
Thank you.
Paldies
10:33
(Applause)
(Aplausi)
10:34
Translated by Raimonds Jaks
Reviewed by Kristaps Kadiķis

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About the speaker:

Knut Haanaes - Strategist
IMD's Knut Haanaes believes that the secret to creating lasting, impactful companies is to find a balance between doing what you're good at and looking for new challenges to take on.

Why you should listen

What strategy traps repeatedly entice well-meaning companies? Sweet words that lure with a sense of promise and growth, but ultimately fail to deliver again and again? How do we balance exploration and exploitation without falling fully into either ditch?

Knut Haanaes is a professor of strategy and international management at IMD, formerly senior partner and global leader of BCG's strategy practice – where he is still a BCG Fellow. Through his work with clients, Knut has accumulated extensive experience in a number of industries on issues of strategy. He holds a Master’s Degree in Economics from the Norwegian School of Economics, a PhD in Strategy from the Copenhagen Business School, and has been a visiting scholar at Scancor, Stanford University.

In 2015, together with Martin Reeves and Janmejaya Sinha from BCG, Haanaes published the book Your Strategy Needs a Strategy. The book is already translated into a number of languages.

More profile about the speaker
Knut Haanaes | Speaker | TED.com