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Knut Haanaes: Two reasons companies fail -- and how to avoid them

Knut Hanes (Knut Haanaes): Dva razloga zbog kojih kompanije propadaju i kako ih izbeći

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Da li je moguće voditi kompaniju i iznova je osmisliti u isto vreme? Za poslovnog stratega Knuta Hanesa, mogućnost uvođenja novina nakon uspešne karijere je odlika sjajne organizacije. On deli uvid u to kako napraviti balans između usavršavanja onog što već uveliko znamo i istraživanja potpuno novih ideja - i pokazuje kako izbeći dve glavne strateške klopke.

- Strategist
IMD's Knut Haanaes believes that the secret to creating lasting, impactful companies is to find a balance between doing what you're good at and looking for new challenges to take on. Full bio

Here are two reasons companies fail:
Ovo su dva razloga
zbog kojih firme propadaju:
00:13
they only do more of the same,
samo rade iznova jedno te isto,
00:17
or they only do what's new.
ili samo rade ono što je novo.
00:20
To me the real, real
solution to quality growth
Smatram da je istinski pravo rešenje
ka rastu kvaliteta
00:23
is figuring out the balance
between two activities:
uspostavljanje ravnoteže
između dve aktivnosti:
00:28
exploration and exploitation.
istraživanje i eksploatacija.
00:32
Both are necessary,
Obe su neophodne,
00:35
but it can be too much of a good thing.
ali može biti previše dobrih stvari.
00:36
Consider Facit.
Uzmite u obzir Fasit.
00:41
I'm actually old enough to remember them.
Zapravo sam dovoljno star
da bih ih se setio.
00:43
Facit was a fantastic company.
Fasit je bila fantastična kompanija.
00:45
They were born deep in the Swedish forest,
Osnovani su duboko u švedskoj šumi,
00:47
and they made the best
mechanical calculators in the world.
i napravili su najbolje
mehaničke digitrone na svetu.
00:50
Everybody used them.
Svi su ih koristili.
00:54
And what did Facit do when
the electronic calculator came along?
I šta je Fasit uradio
kada je elektronski digitron došao?
00:56
They continued doing exactly the same.
Nastavili su da rade potpuno istu stvar.
01:01
In six months, they went
from maximum revenue ...
Za 6 meseci, otišli su
od najvećeg prihoda...
01:04
and they were gone.
do nestanka.
01:08
Gone.
Nestali.
01:10
To me, the irony about the Facit story
Po mom mišljenju, ironija o priči o Fasitu
01:11
is hearing about the Facit engineers,
je slušanje o inženjerima iz Fasita,
01:15
who had bought cheap, small
electronic calculators in Japan
koji su kupili jeftine,
male elektronske digitrone u Japanu
01:19
that they used to double-check
their calculators.
koje su koristili da proveravaju
svoje digitrone.
01:24
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
01:27
Facit did too much exploitation.
Fasit je previše eksploatisao.
01:29
But exploration can go wild, too.
I istraživanje može da dovede do ludila.
01:32
A few years back,
Pre nekoliko godina,
01:34
I worked closely alongside
a European biotech company.
blisko sam sarađivao sa jednom
biotehničkom kompanijom iz Evrope.
01:36
Let's call them OncoSearch.
Nazovimo ih Onkosrč.
01:40
The company was brilliant.
Firma je bila fantastična.
01:42
They had applications that promised
to diagnose, even cure,
Imali su aplikacije koje su obećavale
dijagnozu, čak i lečenje,
01:44
certain forms of blood cancer.
određenih oblika leukemije.
01:49
Every day was about
creating something new.
Svakog dana se nešto novo stvaralo.
01:52
They were extremely innovative,
Bili su izrazito inovativni,
01:55
and the mantra was,
"When we only get it right,"
i njihova deviza je bila:
"Kada to znamo dobro da radimo."
01:58
or even, "We want it perfect."
ili čak, "Želimo da bude savršeno."
02:01
The sad thing is,
Loša stvar je
02:04
before they became perfect --
pre nego što su postali savršeni,
02:06
even good enough --
čak dovoljno dobri,
02:08
they became obsolete.
postali su zastareli.
02:10
OncoSearch did too much exploration.
Onkosrč je pravio previše istraživanja.
02:13
I first heard about exploration
and exploitation about 15 years ago,
Prvo sam čuo za istraživanje
i eksploataciju pre oko 15 godina,
02:17
when I worked as a visiting
scholar at Stanford University.
kada sam radio kao gostujući predavač
na Univerzitetu Stenford.
02:23
The founder of the idea is Jim March.
Osnivač ideje je Džim Marč.
02:27
And to me the power of the idea
is its practicality.
Smatram da je moć ideje njena praktičnost.
02:30
Exploration.
Istraživanje.
02:35
Exploration is about
coming up with what's new.
Istraživanje predstavlja
shvatanje šta je novo.
02:36
It's about search,
Ono predstavlja istraživanje,
02:40
it's about discovery,
otkriće,
02:42
it's about new products,
nove proizvode,
02:43
it's about new innovations.
nove inovacije.
02:45
It's about changing our frontiers.
Pomeranje granica.
02:47
Our heroes are people
who have done exploration:
Naši heroji su ljudi koji su istraživali:
02:51
Madame Curie,
Marija Kiri,
02:54
Picasso,
Pikaso,
02:56
Neil Armstrong,
Nil Armstrong,
02:57
Sir Edmund Hillary, etc.
Ser Edmund Hilari, itd.
02:58
I come from Norway;
Potičem iz Norveške,
03:01
all our heroes are explorers,
and they deserve to be.
i svi naši heroji su istraživači
i zaslužuju da to budu.
03:03
We all know that exploration is risky.
Svi znamo da je istraživanje rizično.
03:09
We don't know the answers,
Ne znamo odgovore,
03:12
we don't know if we're going to find them,
ne znamo da li ćemo ih pronaći,
03:14
and we know that the risks are high.
ali znamo da su rizici visoki.
03:16
Exploitation is the opposite.
Eksploatacija je nešto suprotno.
03:18
Exploitation is taking
the knowledge we have
Ona predstavlja sticanje znanja
03:20
and making good, better.
i njegovo usavršavanje i proširivanje.
03:23
Exploitation is about making
our trains run on time.
Eksploatacija uzrokuje
da naši vozovi stižu na vreme.
03:26
It's about making good products
faster and cheaper.
Zbog nje su dobri proizvodi
brži i jeftiniji.
03:29
Exploitation is not risky --
Eksploatacija nije rizična,
03:34
in the short term.
kratkoročno.
03:37
But if we only exploit,
Ali ako samo eksploatišemo,
03:39
it's very risky in the long term.
veoma je rizična na duge staze.
03:41
And I think we all have memories
of the famous pop groups
Mislim da se svi mi sećamo
čuvenih pop grupa
03:44
who keep singing the same songs
again and again,
koje su pevale istu pesmu iznova i iznova,
03:48
until they become obsolete
or even pathetic.
dok nisu zastarele i postale patetične.
03:51
That's the risk of exploitation.
Ovo je rizik eksploatacije.
03:56
So if we take a long-term
perspective, we explore.
Ako pogledamo dugoročnu perspektivu,
mi istražujemo.
04:00
If we take a short-term
perspective, we exploit.
Ako uzmemo kratkoročni uvid,
mi eksploatišemo.
04:05
Small children, they explore all day.
Deca istražuju svakoga dana.
04:09
All day it's about exploration.
Čitav dan provode u istraživanju.
04:12
As we grow older,
Kako odrastamo,
04:15
we explore less because we have
more knowledge to exploit on.
istražujemo manje jer imamo
više znanja za eksploatisanje.
04:16
The same goes for companies.
Isto je i sa kompanijama.
04:21
Companies become,
by nature, less innovative
Kompanije prirodno
postaju manje inovativne
04:24
as they become more competent.
kako postaju sposobnije.
04:28
And this is, of course,
a big worry to CEOs.
A ovo je naravno
velika briga za direktore.
04:31
And I hear very often questions
phrased in different ways.
Često čujem pitanja
koja su postavljana na drugačiji način.
04:35
For example,
Na primer:
04:39
"How can I both effectively run
and reinvent my company?"
"Kako mogu da i uspešno vodim
kompaniju i iznova je izgrađujem?"
04:41
Or, "How can I make sure
Ili "Kako mogu da budem siguran
04:46
that our company changes
before we become obsolete
da se naša kompanija menja
pre nego što zastarimo
04:48
or are hit by a crisis?"
ili nas pogodi kriza?"
04:52
So, doing one well is difficult.
Činiti dobro jedno od to dvoje je teško.
04:55
Doing both well as the same time is art --
Činiti obe stvari dobro
u isto vreme je umetnost -
04:58
pushing both exploration and exploitation.
guranje istraživanja i eksploatisanja.
05:01
So one thing we've found
Jedna stvar koju smo otkrili
05:05
is only about two percent of companies
are able to effectively explore
je da je samo dva procenta kompanija
sposobno da efektivno istražuje
05:06
and exploit at the same time, in parallel.
i eksploatiše paralelno, u isto vreme.
05:13
But when they do,
Ali kada to rade,
05:17
the payoffs are huge.
prilično se isplati.
05:19
So we have lots of great examples.
Imamo mnogo sjajnih primera.
05:22
We have Nestlé creating Nespresso,
Nestle koji pravi Nespreso,
05:24
we have Lego going into animated films,
Lego koji snima animirane filmove,
05:27
Toyota creating the hybrids,
Tojota pravi hibride,
05:30
Unilever pushing into sustainability --
Unilever koji podržava održivi razvoj,
05:32
there are lots of examples,
and the benefits are huge.
postoji gomila primera
a prednosti su ogromne.
05:35
Why is balancing so difficult?
Zašto je balansiranje toliko teško?
05:39
I think it's difficult
because there are so many traps
Mislim da je teško
zato što postoji toliko klopki
05:42
that keep us where we are.
koje nas drže tu gde smo.
05:45
So I'll talk about two,
but there are many.
Pričaću o dve, ali postoji ih mnogo.
05:47
So let's talk about
the perpetual search trap.
Popričajmo o klopci trajne potrage.
05:51
We discover something,
Oktrijemo nešto,
05:54
but we don't have the patience
or the persistence
ali nemamo strpljenja ili istrajnosti
05:56
to get at it and make it work.
da krenemo s tim i nateramo ga da radi.
05:59
So instead of staying with it,
we create something new.
Umesto da se držimo toga,
stvorimo nešto novo.
06:01
But the same goes for that,
Ali isto je i za to,
06:04
then we're in the vicious circle
tako da smo u začaranom krugu
06:06
of actually coming up with ideas
but being frustrated.
gde zapravo dolazimo do ideja
ali smo frustrirani.
06:07
OncoSearch was a good example.
Onkosrč je bio dobar primer.
06:12
A famous example is, of course, Xerox.
Čuveni primer je naravno Kseroks.
06:14
But we don't only see this in companies.
Ali ne vidimo ovo samo u kompanijama.
06:18
We see this in the public sector as well.
Ovo se vidi i u javnom sektoru.
06:20
We all know that any kind
of effective reform of education,
Svi znamo da bilo kakva
efikasna reforma školstva,
06:23
research, health care, even defense,
istraživanja, zdravstva, čak i odbrane,
06:29
takes 10, 15, maybe 20 years to work.
traje 10, 15, možda 20 godina
dok ne proradi.
06:31
But still, we change much more often.
Ali opet, menjamo stvari mnogo češće.
06:35
We really don't give them the chance.
Ne damo im priliku.
06:39
Another trap is the success trap.
Druga klopka je klopka uspeha.
06:42
Facit fell into the success trap.
Fasit je upao u klopku uspeha.
06:46
They literally held
the future in their hands,
Bukvalno su imali budućnost
u svojim rukama,
06:50
but they couldn't see it.
ali nisu mogli da je vide.
06:53
They were simply so good
at making what they loved doing,
Prosto su bili tako dobri
u pravljenju onoga što su voleli,
06:54
that they wouldn't change.
da nisu hteli da se menjaju.
06:58
We are like that, too.
I mi smo takvi.
07:01
When we know something well,
it's difficult to change.
Kada nešto dobro poznajemo,
teško je promeniti se.
07:02
Bill Gates has said:
Bil Gejts je rekao:
07:06
"Success is a lousy teacher.
"Uspeh je loš učitelj.
07:09
It seduces us into thinking
we cannot fail."
Zavodi nas da mislimo
da ne možemo da podbacimo."
07:12
That's the challenge with success.
To je izazov kod uspeha.
07:16
So I think there are some lessons,
and I think they apply to us.
Mislim da postoje neke lekcije
i da su primenjive na sve nas.
07:19
And they apply to our companies.
Primenjive su i na naše kompanije.
07:23
The first lesson is:
get ahead of the crisis.
Prva lekcija je: idite ispred krize.
07:25
And any company that's able to innovate
Svaka kompanija koja je
sposobna za inovaciju
07:29
is actually able to also buy
an insurance in the future.
takođe je sposobna da sebi kupi
osiguranje za budućnost.
07:32
Netflix -- they could so easily
have been content
Netfliks - lako su mogli da se zadovolje
07:36
with earlier generations of distribution,
ranim generacijama distribucije,
07:39
but they always -- and I think
they will always --
ali su uvek - i mislim da će uvek tako -
07:42
keep pushing for the next battle.
gurali do nove bitke.
07:45
I see other companies that say,
Vidim druge kompanije koje kažu:
07:47
"I'll win the next innovation cycle,
whatever it takes."
"Pobediću u narednom ciklusu inovacija,
šta god bilo potrebno za to."
07:49
Second one: think in multiple time scales.
Drugo: mislite na više vremenskih linija.
07:55
I'll share a chart with you,
Podeliću s vama grafikon
07:58
and I think it's a wonderful one.
i mislim da je predivan.
08:00
Any company we look at,
Koju god kompaniju pogledali,
08:02
taking a one-year perspective
uzevši perspektivu od jedne godine
08:04
and looking at the valuation
of the company,
i gledajući vrednost kompanije,
08:06
innovation typically accounts
for only about 30 percent.
inovacija obično daje
samo oko 30 procenata.
08:08
So when we think one year,
Kada mislimo o jednoj godini,
08:12
innovation isn't really that important.
inovacija i nije tako bitna.
08:13
Move ahead, take a 10-year perspective
on the same company --
Krenite unapred, pogledajte perspektivu
iste kompanije za 10 godina,
08:16
suddenly, innovation and ability
to renew account for 70 percent.
odjednom, inovacija i mogućnost
obnavljanja daju 70 procenata.
08:20
But companies can't choose.
Ali kompanije nemaju izbor.
08:26
They need to fund the journey
and lead the long term.
Moraju da finansiraju putovanje
i vode na duge staze.
08:27
Third:
Treće:
08:32
invite talent.
primamite talenat.
08:34
I don't think it's possible for any of us
Mislim da za bilo koga od nas nije moguće
08:35
to be able to balance exploration
and exploitation by ourselves.
da sami balansiramo istraživanje
i eksploataciju.
08:38
I think it's a team sport.
Mislim da je to timski sport.
08:43
I think we need to allow challenging.
Mislim da treba da dozvolimo izazivanje.
08:44
I think the mark of a great company
is being open to be challenged,
Mislim da je znak sjajne kompanije
otvorenost ka izazivanju,
08:48
and the mark of a good corporate board
is to constructively challenge.
i znak sjajnog poslovnog odbora
je konstruktivno izazivanje.
08:53
I think that's also what
good parenting is about.
Mislim da je to i stvar
dobrog odnosa roditelja prema deci.
08:58
Last one: be skeptical of success.
Poslednje: budite skeptični na uspeh.
09:02
Maybe it's useful to think back
at the old triumph marches in Rome,
Možda je korisno prisećati se
starih trijumfalnih marševa u Rimu,
09:06
when the generals, after a big victory,
kada je generalima nakon velike pobede
09:12
were given their celebration.
priređena proslava.
09:16
Riding into Rome on the carriage,
Ulazivši u Rim na kočijama,
09:18
they always had a companion
whispering in their ear,
uvek su pored sebe imali saputnika
koji bi im šaputao u uvo:
09:21
"Remember, you're only human."
"Seti se, ti si samo čovek."
09:25
So I hope I made the point:
Nadam se da sam objasnio sve:
09:29
balancing exploration and exploitation
balansiranje istraživanja i eksploatisanja
09:32
has a huge payoff.
prilično se isplati.
09:35
But it's difficult,
and we need to be conscious.
Ali teško je i moramo biti trezveni.
09:37
I want to just point out two questions
that I think are useful.
Želim samo da istaknem
dva korisna pitanja.
09:40
First question is,
looking at your own company:
Prvo je, gledavši na sopstvenu kompaniju:
09:45
In which areas do you see
that the company is at the risk
u kojim područjima vidite
da je kompanija pod rizikom
09:49
of falling into success traps,
da upadne u klopke uspeha,
09:53
of just going on autopilot?
da se vozi sama na autopilotu?
09:56
And what can you do to challenge?
I šta možete uraditi da to izazovete?
09:59
Second question is:
Drugo pitanje je:
10:03
When did I explore something new last,
kada sam poslednji put istražio nešto novo
10:06
and what kind of effect did it have on me?
i koji je efekat to imalo na mene?
10:09
Is that something I should do more of?
Da li to treba više da radim?
10:12
In my case, yes.
U mom slučaju, da.
10:15
So let me leave you with this.
Ostavljam vas uz ovo.
10:18
Whether you're an explorer by nature
Bez obzira da li ste po prirodi istraživač
10:20
or whether you tend to exploit
what you already know,
ili obično eksploatišete
ono što već znate,
10:23
don't forget: the beauty
is in the balance.
ne zaboravite: lepota je u ravnoteži.
10:27
Thank you.
Hvala vam.
10:33
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
10:34
Translated by Mile Živković
Reviewed by Milenka Okuka

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About the speaker:

Knut Haanaes - Strategist
IMD's Knut Haanaes believes that the secret to creating lasting, impactful companies is to find a balance between doing what you're good at and looking for new challenges to take on.

Why you should listen

What strategy traps repeatedly entice well-meaning companies? Sweet words that lure with a sense of promise and growth, but ultimately fail to deliver again and again? How do we balance exploration and exploitation without falling fully into either ditch?

Knut Haanaes is a professor of strategy and international management at IMD, formerly senior partner and global leader of BCG's strategy practice – where he is still a BCG Fellow. Through his work with clients, Knut has accumulated extensive experience in a number of industries on issues of strategy. He holds a Master’s Degree in Economics from the Norwegian School of Economics, a PhD in Strategy from the Copenhagen Business School, and has been a visiting scholar at Scancor, Stanford University.

In 2015, together with Martin Reeves and Janmejaya Sinha from BCG, Haanaes published the book Your Strategy Needs a Strategy. The book is already translated into a number of languages.

More profile about the speaker
Knut Haanaes | Speaker | TED.com