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TED2009

José Antonio Abreu: The El Sistema music revolution

Jose Antonio Abreu o djeci koju je glazba preobrazila

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Jose Antonio Abreu je karizmatični osnivač sustava "orkestar mladih" koji je preobrazio tisuće dječjih života u Venezueli. Sada s nama dijeli ovu nevjerojatnu priču i otkriva svoju TED nagradnu želju koja bi mogla imati velik utjecaj u SAD-u i šire.

- Maestro
Jose Antonio Abreu founded El Sistema ("the system") in 1975 to help poor Venezuelan kids learn to play a musical instrument and be part of an orchestra. 30 years on, El Sistema has seeded 102 youth orchestras -- and many happy lives. Full bio

Chris Anderson: Let's now see the extraordinary speech
Chris Anderson: Pogledajmo sada ovaj nevjerojatni govor
00:18
that we captured a couple weeks ago.
kojega smo snimili prije nekoliko tjedana.
00:21
(Music)
(glazba)
00:23
Jose Antonio Abreu: My dear friends, ladies and gentlemen,
Jose Antonio Abreu: Dragi prijatelji, dame i gospodo,
00:32
I am overjoyed today
Presretan sam zbog
00:37
at being awarded the TED Prize
primitka TED nagrade
00:41
on behalf of all
u ime svih
00:47
the distinguished music teachers,
istaknutih učitelja glazbe,
00:49
artists and educators from Venezuela
umjetnika i pedagoga iz Venezuele,
00:51
who have selflessly and loyally accompanied me for 35 years
koji su me nesebično i odano pratili 35 godina
00:59
in founding, growing and developing in Venezuela
u osnivanju, rastu i razvoju venezuelanskog
01:03
the National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras and Choirs.
Nacionalnog sustava orkestara i zborova djece i mladih.
01:09
Since I was a boy,
Otkako sam bio dječak,
01:13
in my early childhood,
od ranog djetinjstva,
01:15
I always wanted to be a musician,
želio sam biti glazbenik
01:18
and, thank God, I made it.
i, hvala Bogu, uspio sam.
01:21
From my teachers, my family and my community,
Moji učitelji, obitelj i zajednica
01:25
I had all the necessary support to become a musician.
omogućili su mi nužnu potporu kako bih postao glazbenik.
01:29
All my life I've dreamed
Cijelog sam života sanjao
01:33
that all Venezuelan children
kako sva venezuelanska djeca
01:35
have the same opportunity that I had.
imaju jednaku mogućnost kao što sam ja imao.
01:40
From that desire and from my heart
Od te želje iz moga srca
01:43
stemmed the idea to make music
potekla je ideja učiniti glazbu
01:49
a deep and global reality for my country.
dubokom i globalnom stvarnošću moje zemlje.
01:51
From the very first rehearsal, I saw the bright future ahead.
Od prve probe, vidio sam svijetlu budućnost.
01:57
Because the rehearsal meant a great challenge to me.
Probe su za mene bile veliki izazov.
02:03
I had received a donation of 50 music stands
Primio sam donaciju od 50 stalaka za note
02:09
to be used by 100 boys in that rehearsal.
namijenjenih za 100 dječaka na probi.
02:14
When I arrived at the rehearsal, only 11 kids had shown up,
Kada sam stigao na probu, samo se 11 djece pojavilo,
02:19
and I said to myself,
pa sam si rekao:
02:24
"Do I close the program or multiply these kids?"
"Hoću li završiti program ili povećati broj ove djece?"
02:26
I decided to face the challenge, and on that same night,
Odlučio sam se suočiti s izazovom, i te iste noći
02:32
I promised those 11 children I'd turn our orchestra
obećao sam toj 11-orici da ću pretvoriti naš orkestar
02:37
into one of the leading orchestras in the world.
u jedan od najvećih orkestara na svijetu.
02:41
Two months ago, I remembered that promise I made,
Prije dva mjeseca sam se sjetio svog obećanja,
02:43
when a distinguished English critic
kada je istaknuti engleski kritičar
02:50
published an article in the London Times,
objavio članak u London Timesu
02:52
asking who could be the winner of the Orchestra World Cup.
pitajući tko bi mogao biti pobjednik Svjetskog kupa orkestara.
02:57
He mentioned four great world orchestras,
Spomenuo je četiri velika svjetska orkestra,
03:02
and the fifth one was Venezuela's Youth Symphony Orchestra.
a peti je bio Simfonijski orkestar mladih Venezuele.
03:04
Today we can say
Danas možemo reći
03:11
that art in Latin America
da umjetnost u Latinskoj Americi
03:13
is no longer a monopoly of elites
više nije monopol elita
03:17
and that it has become a social right,
i da je postala društveno pravo,
03:23
a right for all the people.
pravo svih ljudi.
03:25
Child: There is no difference here between classes,
Dijete: Ovdje nema razlika među klasama,
03:28
nor white or black, nor if you have money or not.
jesi li bijel ili crn, imaš li novca ili ne.
03:33
Simply, if you are talented,
Jednostavno, ako si talentiran,
03:35
if you have the vocation and the will to be here,
ako imaš poziv i želju biti ovdje,
03:39
you get in. You share with us and make music.
dolaziš i s nama dijeliš i stvaraš glazbu.
03:43
JA: During the recent tour
JA: Tijekom nedavne turneje
03:45
by the Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra of Venezuela
Venezuelanskog orkestra mladih koju je vodio Simon Bolivar
03:48
of U.S. and Europe,
po SAD-u i Europi,
03:53
we saw how our music moved young audiences
vidjeli smo koliko je glazba ganula mladu publiku
03:55
to the bottom of their souls,
do dna njihovih duša,
04:00
how children and adolescents rushed up to the stage
kako su djeca i adolescenti pojurili na pozornicu
04:05
to receive the jackets from our musicians,
kako bi primili jakne od glazbenika,
04:10
how the standing ovations, sometimes 30 minutes long,
kako su ovacije, katkada duge i po 30 minuta,
04:13
seemed to last forever,
naizgled trajale vječno
04:21
and how the public, after the concert was over,
i kako je publika, nakon završetka koncerta,
04:23
went out into the street to greet our young people in triumph.
izišla na ulice kako bi čestitala našim mladim ljudima na uspjehu.
04:26
This meant not only an artistic triumph,
To nije predstavljalo samo umjetnički uspjeh,
04:31
but also a profound emotional sympathy
nego i duboku emotivnu simpatiju
04:37
between the public of the most advanced nations of the world
između publike nekih od najnaprednijih nacija na svijetu
04:41
and the musical youth of Latin America,
i glazbene mladeži Latinske Amerike,
04:47
as seen in Venezuela,
kao što smo vidjeli u Venezueli,
04:49
giving these audiences a message of music, vitality, energy,
koja toj publici šalje poruku glazbe, vitalnosti, energije,
04:51
enthusiasm and strength.
entuzijazma i snage.
05:00
In its essence, the orchestra and the choir
U svojoj srži, orkestar i zbor
05:02
are much more than artistic structures.
su puno više od umjetničkih struktura.
05:07
They are examples and schools of social life,
Oni su primjeri i škole društvenog života,
05:11
because to sing and to play together
jer zajedničko pjevanje i sviranje
05:15
means to intimately coexist
znači zajednički suživot
05:17
toward perfection and excellence,
prema savršenstvu i izvrsnosti,
05:22
following a strict discipline of organization and coordination
slijedeći strogu disciplinu organizacije i koordinacije
05:27
in order to seek the harmonic interdependence
u potrazi za harmoničnom međuovisnosti
05:33
of voices and instruments.
glasova i instrumenata.
05:35
That's how they build a spirit of solidarity
Na taj način oni grade duh solidarnosti
05:37
and fraternity among them,
i bratstva među sobom,
05:40
develop their self-esteem
razvijaju samopouzdanje
05:42
and foster the ethical and aesthetical values
i njeguju etničke i estetske vrijednosti
05:45
related to the music in all its senses.
vezane uz glazbu u svakom smislu.
05:50
This is why music is immensely important
Zbog toga je glazba neizmjerno važna
05:54
in the awakening of sensibility, in the forging of values
u buđenju osjetljivosti, njegovanju vrijednosti
05:58
and in the training of youngsters
i uvježbavanju mladih ljudi
06:04
to teach other kids.
kako podučavati drugu djecu.
06:06
Child: After all this time here,
Dijete: Nakon svog ovog vremena ovdje,
06:08
music is life.
glazba je život.
06:10
Nothing else.
Ništa drugo.
06:12
Music is life.
Glazba je život.
06:14
JA: Each teenager and child in El Sistema has his own story,
JA: Svaki tinejdžer u sklopu El Sistema ima vlastitu priču
06:18
and they are all important and of great significance to me.
i sve su mi jednako važne i značajne.
06:23
Let me mention the case of Edicson Ruiz.
Ispričat ću vam slučaj Edicsona Ruiza.
06:30
He is a boy from a parish in Caracas
On je dječak iz župe Caracasa,
06:36
who passionately attended to his double bass lessons
koji je strastveno dolazio na satove kontrabasa
06:41
at the San Agustin's Junior Orchestra.
u San Agustin orkestar mladih.
06:46
With his effort,
Svojim trudom i
06:50
and the support of his mother, his family and his community,
potporom majke, obitelji i zajednice,
06:52
he became a principal member
postao je glavni član
06:57
in the double bass segment of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra.
dionice kontrabasa orkestra Berlinske filharmonije.
06:59
We have another well-known case -- Gustavo Dudamel.
Tu je i još jedan dobro poznati slučaj - Gustavo Dudamel.
07:03
He started as a boy member of the children's orchestra
Najprije je bio član dječjeg orkestra
07:08
in his hometown, Barquisimeto.
u svom rodnom gradu. Barquisimetu.
07:12
There, he grew as a violinist and as a conductor.
Potom, kako je rastao kao violinist i dirigent,
07:14
He became the conductor of Venezuela's junior orchestras,
postaje dirigent Venezuelanskog orkestra mladih
07:20
and today conducts the world's greatest orchestras.
a danas dirigira najvećim orkestrima svijeta.
07:25
He is the musical director of Los Angeles Philharmonic,
On je glazbeni direktor Filharmonije Los Angelesa
07:29
and is still the overall leader of Venezuela's junior orchestras.
i još uvijek je glavni vođa Venezuelanskog orkestra mladih.
07:34
He was the conductor of the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra,
Bio je dirigent Gothenburškog simfonijskog orkestra
07:38
and he's an unbeatable example
i on je nenadmašan primjer
07:40
for young musicians in Latin America and the world.
mladim glazbenicima Latinske Amerike i svijeta.
07:44
The structure of El Sistema
Struktura El Sistema
07:48
is based on a new and flexible managing style
temelji se na novom i fleksibilnom stilu upravljanja,
07:50
adapted to the features of each community and region,
prilagođenom osobinama pojedine zajednice i regije,
07:57
and today attends to 300,000 children of the lower and middle class
a danas obuhvaća 300.000 djece iz nižeg i srednjeg sloja
08:03
all over Venezuela.
cijele Venezuele.
08:09
It's a program of social rescue
To je program društvenog spašavanja
08:11
and deep cultural transformation
i duboke kulturološke preobrazbe
08:15
designed for the whole Venezuelan society
namijenjene cijelom venezuelanskom društvu,
08:19
with absolutely no distinctions whatsoever,
bez ikakvih razlika,
08:23
but emphasizing the vulnerable and endangered social groups.
ali s naglaskom na ranjivim i ugroženim društvenim skupinama.
08:25
The effect of El Sistema is felt in three fundamental circles:
Učinak El Sistema osjeća se u tri temeljna kruga -
08:32
in the personal/social circle,
osobnom/društvenom krugu,
08:37
in the family circle and in the community.
u krugu obitelji i krugu zajednice.
08:40
In the personal/social circle,
U osobnom/društvenom krugu,
08:45
the children in the orchestras and choirs
djeca u orkestrima i zborovima
08:47
develop their intellectual and emotional side.
razvijaju svoju intelektualnu i emotivnu stranu.
08:52
The music becomes a source
Glazba postaje izvor
08:56
for developing the dimensions of the human being,
razvoja dimenzija ljudskog bića,
08:58
thus elevating the spirit
kroz podizanje duha
09:02
and leading man to a full development of his personality.
čovjeka dovodi do punog razvoja njegove osobnosti.
09:04
So, the emotional and intellectual profits are huge --
Stoga su emotivni i intelektualni profiti ogromni -
09:08
the acquisition of leadership, teaching and training principles,
stjecanje principa liderstva, podučavanja i vježbanja,
09:15
the sense of commitment, responsibility,
osjećaja obveze, odgovornosti
09:24
generosity and dedication to others,
velikodušnosti i posvećenosti drugima,
09:26
and the individual contribution to achieve great collective goals.
i pojedinačnog doprinosa u ostvarenju velikih zajedničkih ciljeva.
09:30
All this leads to the development of self-esteem and confidence.
Sve to dovodi do razvoja samopouzdanja i samouvjerenja.
09:37
Mother Teresa of Calcutta
Majka Tereza iz Calcutte
09:44
insisted on something that always impressed me:
inzistirala je na nečemu što me uvijek impresioniralo -
09:49
the most miserable and tragic thing about poverty
najjadnija i najtragičnija stvar u vezi siromaštva
09:53
is not the lack of bread or roof,
nije nedostatak kruha ili krova nad glavom,
09:58
but the feeling of being no-one --
već osjećaj da si nitko i ništa,
10:03
the feeling of not being anyone,
osjećaj da si nitko,
10:07
the lack of identification,
nedostatak identifikacije,
10:09
the lack of public esteem.
nedostatak javnog priznanja.
10:14
That's why the child's development
Zbog toga djetetov razvoj
10:20
in the orchestra and the choir
u orkestru i zboru
10:23
provides him with a noble identity
donosi plemenit identitet
10:26
and makes him a role model for his family and community.
i čini ga uzorom vlastitoj obitelji i zajednici.
10:28
It makes him a better student at school
Čini ga boljim učenikom u školi
10:34
because it inspires in him a sense of responsibility,
jer u njemu budi osjećaj odgovornosti,
10:39
perseverance and punctuality that will greatly help him at school.
ustrajnosti i točnosti, što će mu u školi biti od velike koristi.
10:41
Within the family, the parents' support is unconditional.
Unutar obitelji, podrška roditelja je bezuvjetna.
10:50
The child becomes a role model for both his parents,
Dijete postaje uzor svojim roditeljima
10:57
and this is very important for a poor child.
i to je vrlo važno za siromašno dijete.
11:01
Once the child discovers he is important to his family,
Kada dijete jednom otkrije kako je važno svojoj obitelji,
11:03
he begins to seek new ways of improving himself
počinje tražiti nove načine kako bi napredovao
11:09
and hopes better for himself and his community.
i nada se boljitku za sebe i svoju zajednicu.
11:13
Also, he hopes for social and economic improvements for his own family.
Jednako tako se nada socio-ekonomskom napretku vlastite obitelji.
11:18
All this makes up a constructive and ascending social dynamic.
Sve ovo stvara konstruktivnu i uzlaznu socijalnu dinamiku.
11:25
The large majority of our children belong, as I already mentioned,
Velika većina naše djece pripada, kao što sam već spomenuo,
11:32
to the most vulnerable strata of the Venezuelan population.
najranjivijem dijelu venezuelanske populacije.
11:37
That encourages them to embrace new dreams, new goals,
Glazba ih ohrabruje kako bi prihvatili nove snove, ciljeve
11:41
and progress in the various opportunities
i napredak u različitim mogućnostima
11:46
that music has to offer.
koje pruža glazba.
11:50
Finally, in the circle of the community,
Napokon, u krugu zajednice,
11:52
the orchestras prove to be the creative spaces of culture
orkestri su dokazani kreativni prostori kulture
11:56
and sources of exchange and new meanings.
i izvori razmjene i novih značenja.
12:01
The spontaneity music has
Spontanost glazbe
12:03
excludes it as a luxury item and makes it a patrimony of society.
isključuje njeno bivanje luksuzom i čini ju stupom društva.
12:09
It's what makes a child play a violin at home,
Zbog toga dijete svira violinu kod kuće,
12:16
while his father works in his carpentry.
dok se njegov otac bavi stolarstvom.
12:21
It's what makes a little girl play the clarinet at home,
Zbog toga mala djevojčica svira klarinet kod kuće,
12:25
while her mother does the housework.
dok njena majka posprema.
12:30
The idea is that the families join with pride and joy
Ideja je ujedinjenje obitelji u ponosu i radosti
12:34
in the activities of the orchestras and the choirs
djelovanja orkestara i zborova
12:41
that their children belong to.
kojima njihovo dijete pripada.
12:43
The huge spiritual world that music produces in itself,
Ogromni duhovni svijet kojega sama glazba stvara,
12:45
which also lies within itself,
koji postoji u njoj,
12:50
ends up overcoming material poverty.
na kraju nadilazi materijalnu oskudicu.
12:53
From the minute a child's taught how to play an instrument,
Od minute kada dijete nauči svirati neki instrument,
12:57
he's no longer poor.
ono više nije siromašno.
12:59
He becomes a child in progress heading for a professional level,
Ono postaje dijete koje napreduje prema profesionalnoj razini,
13:01
who'll later become a full citizen.
koje će kasnije postati punopravni građanin.
13:06
Needless to say that music is the number one prevention
Suvišno je reći kako je glazba najbolja prevencija
13:08
against prostitution, violence, bad habits,
od prostitucije, nasilja, loših navika
13:14
and everything degrading in the life of a child.
i svega što unazađuje život jednog djeteta.
13:18
A few years ago, historian Arnold Toynbee
Prije nekoliko godina, povjesničar Arnold Toynbee
13:23
said that the world was suffering a huge spiritual crisis.
rekao je kako svijet prolazi kroz veliku duhovnu krizu.
13:29
Not an economic or social crisis, but a spiritual one.
Ne ekonomsku ili socijalnu krizu, već duhovnu.
13:35
I believe that to confront such a crisis,
Vjerujem da, u suprotstavljanju takvoj krizi,
13:40
only art and religion can give proper answers to humanity,
samo umjetnost i religija mogu dati valjane odgovore čovječanstvu,
13:46
to mankind's deepest aspirations,
njegovim najdubljim željama,
13:55
and to the historic demands of our times.
kao i povijesnim zahtjevima našega doba.
13:57
Education -- the synthesis of wisdom and knowledge --
Obrazovanje kao sinteza mudrosti i znanja,
14:01
is the means to strive for a more perfect, more aware,
sredstvo je postizanja savršenijeg, svjesnijeg,
14:09
more noble and more just society.
plemenitijeg i pravednijeg drušva.
14:18
With passion and enthusiasm we pay profound respects to TED
Sa strašću i entuzijazmom, odajemo duboko poštovanje TED-u,
14:20
for its outstanding humanism, the scope of its principles,
za njegovu iznimnu humanost, raspon načela,
14:34
for its open and generous promotion of young values.
za njegovu otvorenu i velikodušnu promociju mladih vrijednosti.
14:43
We hope that TED can contribute in a full and fundamental way
Nadamo se da TED može doprinijeti na pun i temeljni način
14:51
to the building of this new era in the teaching of music,
građenju nove ere u podučavanju glazbe
14:59
in which the social, communal, spiritual and vindicatory aims
u kojoj socijalni, društveni, duhovni i opravdani ciljevi
15:03
of the child and the adolescent
djeteta i adolescenta
15:11
become a beacon and a goal for a vast social mission.
postaju smjernica i cilj cijele društvene misije.
15:13
No longer putting society at the service of art,
Ne stavljati društvo u službu umjetnosti,
15:18
and much less at the services of monopolies of the elite,
a znatno manje u službu monopolističkih elita,
15:24
but instead art at the service of society,
već glazbu staviti na raspolaganje društvu,
15:28
at the service of the weakest, at the service of the children,
na raspolaganje najslabijima, djeci,
15:32
at the service of the sick, at the service of the vulnerable,
na raspolaganje bolesnima, ranjivima,
15:36
and at the service of all those who cry for vindication
i svima onima koji vape za zaštitom
15:41
through the spirit of their human condition
kroz duh njihove ljudskosti
15:46
and the raising up of their dignity.
i podizanje vlastitog dostojanstva.
15:50
(Music)
(glazba)
15:52
(Applause)
(pljesak)
15:56
CA: We are going live now to Caracas.
CA: Sada idemo uživo u Caracas.
15:57
We are going live to Caracas
Idemo uživo kako bismo
16:00
to hear Maestro Abreu's TED Prize wish.
čuli TED nagradnu želju maestra Abreua.
16:02
JA: Here is my TED Prize wish:
JA: Evo moje TED nagradne želje -
16:06
I wish that you'll help to create and document
Želim da pomognete stvoriti dokument,
16:10
a special training program
posebni program poduke
16:15
for 50 gifted young musicians,
za 50 nadarenih mladih glazbenika
16:19
passionate about their art and social justice,
strastvenih u vezi svoje umjetnosti i društvene pravde
16:22
and dedicated to bringing El Sistema to the United States
i posvećene donošenju El Sistema u SAD
16:27
and other countries.
i druge zemlje.
16:33
Thank you very much.
Puno vam hvala.
16:35
(Applause)
(pljesak)
16:37
Translated by Dijana Ivezic
Reviewed by Dunja Vucenovic

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About the speaker:

Jose Antonio Abreu - Maestro
Jose Antonio Abreu founded El Sistema ("the system") in 1975 to help poor Venezuelan kids learn to play a musical instrument and be part of an orchestra. 30 years on, El Sistema has seeded 102 youth orchestras -- and many happy lives.

Why you should listen

The gulf between the rich and the poor in Venezuela is one of the worst in the world. Jose Antonio Abreu, an economist, musician, and reformer, founded El Sistema ("the system") in 1975 to help Venezuelan kids take part in classical music. After 30 years (and 10 political administrations), El Sistema is a nationwide organization of 102 youth orchestras, 55 children's orchestras, and 270 music centers -- and close to 250,000 young musicians.

El Sistema uses music education to help kids from impoverished circumstances achieve their full potential and learn values that favor their growth. The talented musicians have become a source of national pride. Several El Sistema students have gone on to major international careers, including Gustavo Dudamel, soon to be the music director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and the bassist Edicson Ruiz, who at 17 became the youngest musician ever to join the Berlin Philharmonic.

There is a simple concept behind Abreu's work: for him an orchestra is first and foremost about together­ness, a place where children learn to listen to each other and to respect one another.

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Jose Antonio Abreu | Speaker | TED.com