ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Nagin Cox - Spacecraft operations engineer
Nagin Cox explores Mars as part of the team that operates NASA's rovers.

Why you should listen

Nagin Cox has been exploring since she decided as a teenager that she wanted to work at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. She was born in Bangalore, India, and grew up in Kansas City, Kansas, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her experiences as a child in a Muslim household showed her how easily we separate ourselves based on gender, race or nationality, and it inspired her to do something that brings people together instead of dividing them. The Space Program helps the world "look up" and remember that we are one world. Thus, she has known from the time she was 14 years old that she wanted to work on missions of robotic space exploration.  

Cox realized her childhood dream and has been a spacecraft operations engineer at NASA/JPL for over 20 years. She has held leadership and system engineering positions on interplanetary robotic missions including the Galileo mission to Jupiter, the Mars Exploration Rovers, the Kepler exoplanet hunter, InSight and the Mars Curiosity Rover.

In 2015, Cox was honored as the namesake for Asteroid 14061 by its discovers. She has also received the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and two NASA Exceptional Achievement Medals. She is a U.S. Department of State STEM Speaker and has spoken to audiences around the world on the stories of the people behind the missions. She has also served on Cornell University’s President's Council for Cornell Women.

Before her time at JPL, Cox served for 6 years in the US Air Force including duty as a Space Operations Officer at NORAD/US Space Command. She holds engineering degrees from Cornell University and the Air Force Institute of Technology as well as a psychology degree from Cornell. (Sometimes she is not sure which one she uses more: the engineering degree or the psychology degree.)

Cox is currently a Tactical Mission Lead on the Curiosity Rover, and every day at NASA/JPL exploring space is as rewarding as the first. You can contact her at nagincox(at)outlook.com.

More profile about the speaker
Nagin Cox | Speaker | TED.com
TEDxBeaconStreet

Nagin Cox: What time is it on Mars?

纳金·考克斯: 火星现在是什么时间?

Filmed:
2,047,965 views

纳金·考克斯是第一代火星人。作为美国航天局喷气推进实验室的一名航天器工程师,考克斯工作的团队操控着美国在火星的巡游者探测器。但是在另一个星球朝九晚五的上班很特别,尤其是这个星球还比地球多了40分钟,是很有意思也极具挑战的工作。
- Spacecraft operations engineer
Nagin Cox explores Mars as part of the team that operates NASA's rovers. Full bio

Double-click the English transcript below to play the video.

00:13
So many许多 of you have probably大概 seen看到
the movie电影 "The Martian火星."
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我估计在座很多人都看过
“火星救援”这部电影。
00:17
But for those of you who did not,
it's a movie电影 about an astronaut宇航员
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对于没看过的人来说,
这是一部关于一名宇航员
被困在火星,努力求生
00:20
who is stranded搁浅 on Mars火星,
and his efforts努力 to stay alive
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直到地球派出了
一个救援小队把他带回地球。
00:25
until直到 the Earth地球 can send发送 a rescue拯救 mission任务
to bring带来 him back to Earth地球.
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00:31
Gladly乐意, they do re-establish重建 communication通讯
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幸运的是,他们与主角沃特尼
重新取得了联系。在某些方面来说,
00:34
with the character字符,
astronaut宇航员 Watney沃特尼, at some point
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直到获救前,他在火星上还不算太孤独。
00:36
so that he's not as alone单独
on Mars火星 until直到 he can be rescued获救.
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00:42
So while you're watching观看 the movie电影,
or even if you haven't没有,
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当你在看电影的时候,即便你没看过,
当你想像火星的时候,
00:45
when you think about Mars火星,
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你可能会思考它距离我们有多远。
00:47
you're probably大概 thinking思维 about
how far away it is and how distant遥远.
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00:51
And, what might威力 not
have occurred发生 to you is,
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不过,你可能不会去想
工作或是生活在另一个星球,
00:54
what are the logistics后勤 really like
of working加工 on another另一个 planet行星 --
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后勤是如何得到保障的,
00:58
of living活的 on two planets行星
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毕竟有一部分人在地球,还有一部分
漫游者或是人类在火星。
01:00
when there are people on the Earth地球
and there are rovers流浪者 or people on Mars火星?
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可以这么想象,当你的朋友,
家人还有同事
01:06
So think about when you have friends朋友,
families家庭 and co-workers合作伙伴
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在西海岸的加利福尼亚,
或是世界上其他一些地方。
01:10
in California加州, on the West西 Coast
or in other parts部分 of the world世界.
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01:14
When you're trying
to communicate通信 with them,
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当你尝试去联系他们
你可能想的第一件事是:
01:16
one of the things
you probably大概 first think about is:
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等会,现在是加利福尼亚几点?
01:18
wait, what time is it in California加州?
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我会不会打扰他们?现在能不能打电话?
01:20
Will I wake唤醒 them up? Is it OK to call?
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01:23
So even if you're interacting互动
with colleagues同事 who are in Europe欧洲,
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即便你联系在欧洲的同事,
你也直接会想到
01:27
you're immediately立即 thinking思维 about:
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怎样才能顺利的进行远距离沟通?
01:29
What does it take to coordinate坐标
communication通讯 when people are far away?
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01:36
So we don't have people on Mars火星
right now, but we do have rovers流浪者.
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我们现在并没有人类生活在火星,
但是我们有漫游者探测器。
现在,好奇号漫游者的时间
是早上6点10分。
01:42
And actually其实 right now, on Curiosity好奇心,
it is 6:10 in the morning早上.
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也就是说火星时间是早上6点10分。
01:47
So, 6:10 in the morning早上 on Mars火星.
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01:50
We have four rovers流浪者 on Mars火星.
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我们有四个漫游者在火星。
01:52
The United联合的 States状态 has put four rovers流浪者
on Mars火星 since以来 the mid-中-1990s,
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自90年代中期,美国就发送了
四个漫游者到火星上,
01:56
and I have been privileged特权 enough足够
to work on three of them.
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而且我有幸和其中
三个漫游者一起工作过。
02:00
So, I am a spacecraft宇宙飞船 engineer工程师,
a spacecraft宇宙飞船 operations操作 engineer工程师,
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所以,我是一名航天器工程师,
准确说是操纵航天器的工程师,
02:05
at NASA's美国航空航天局 Jet喷射 Propulsion动力 Laboratory实验室
in Los洛杉矶 Angeles洛杉矶, California加州.
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工作于加州洛杉矶的
美国宇航局推进技术实验室。
02:10
And these rovers流浪者
are our robotic机器人 emissaries使者.
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而这些漫游者是我们的机器使者。
02:15
So, they are our eyes眼睛 and our ears耳朵,
and they see the planet行星 for us
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所以,他们就是我们的眼睛和耳朵。
他们能为我们观察火星,
02:21
until直到 we can send发送 people.
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直到我们有能力把人送到那里。
02:23
So we learn学习 how to operate操作
on other planets行星 through通过 these rovers流浪者.
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所以,我们可以通过这些漫游者
来了解在其他星球的环境状况。
02:28
So before we send发送 people, we send发送 robots机器人.
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所以,在我们把宇航员送到那里之前,
我们先派了一批机器人去。
02:33
So the reason原因 there's a time difference区别
on Mars火星 right now,
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火星上的时间和我们现在的时间
02:37
from the time that we're at
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是不一样的,
02:38
is because the Martian火星 day
is longer than the Earth地球 day.
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因为火星的一天比地球要长。
02:42
Our Earth地球 day is 24 hours小时,
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我们的地球一天是24个小时,
02:45
because that's how long it takes
the Earth地球 to rotate回转,
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那是因为地球自身转动,
02:49
how long it takes to go around once一旦.
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刚好旋转一周的时间
02:51
So our day is 24 hours小时.
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就是我们一天的24小时。
02:53
It takes Mars火星 24 hours小时 and approximately
40 minutes分钟 to rotate回转 once一旦.
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火星自转一周需要24小时零40分钟。
03:00
So that means手段 that the Martian火星 day
is 40 minutes分钟 longer than the Earth地球 day.
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这就是说,火星的一天比地球长40分钟。
03:07
So teams球队 of people who are operating操作
the rovers流浪者 on Mars火星, like this one,
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屏幕里这群操纵着火星漫游者的人,
03:12
what we are doing is we are living活的
on Earth地球, but working加工 on Mars火星.
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我们生活在地球,但是工作在火星。
03:17
So we have to think as if we are actually其实
on Mars火星 with the rover流浪者.
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所以,我们不得不认为我们就是
和漫游者一起呆在火星上。
03:23
Our job工作, the job工作 of this team球队,
of which哪一个 I'm a part部分 of,
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我们团队中我参与的一部分工作,
03:27
is to send发送 commands命令 to the rover流浪者
to tell it what to do the next下一个 day.
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就是把指令发送给漫游者,
让她知道明天需要做些什么。
告诉她是要行驶,还是开采些岩土样本,
或是其他应该做的事情。
03:33
To tell it to drive驾驶 or drill钻头
or tell her whatever随你 she's supposed应该 to do.
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03:37
So while she's sleeping睡眠 --
and the rover流浪者 does sleep睡觉 at night
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当然,在她睡觉的时候,
她晚上确实是在睡觉,
03:42
because she needs需求
to recharge充值 her batteries电池
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因为她需要给电池充电,
03:44
and she needs需求 to weather天气
the cold Martian火星 night.
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而且她需要抵抗住火星晚上的低温。
03:48
And so she sleeps睡觉.
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所以她需要休息。
03:49
So while she sleeps睡觉, we work
on her program程序 for the next下一个 day.
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在她休息的时候,
我们会为她计划好第二天的工作。
03:54
So I work the Martian火星 night shift转移.
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所以我在火星上夜班。
03:57
(Laughter笑声)
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(笑)
03:59
So in order订购 to come to work on the Earth地球
at the same相同 time every一切 day on Mars火星 --
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为了在火星上每天的同一时间工作,
04:06
like, let's say I need to be
at work at 5:00 p.m.,
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或句话说,我需要每天下午5点上班,
04:08
this team球队 needs需求 to be at work
at 5:00 p.m. Mars火星 time every一切 day,
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这个团队需要在火星时间下午5点上班。
04:14
then we have to come to work
on the Earth地球 40 minutes分钟 later后来 every一切 day,
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在地球上,我们每天则
需要晚40分钟开始工作,
04:22
in order订购 to stay in sync同步 with Mars火星.
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这都是为了和火星同步。
04:24
That's like moving移动 a time zone every一切 day.
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就像每天都在换时区。
04:27
So one day you come in at 8:00,
the next下一个 day 40 minutes分钟 later后来 at 8:40,
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所以今天你8点来,
明天就要晚40分钟,8:40来,
04:32
the next下一个 day 40 minutes分钟 later后来 at 9:20,
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后天又要晚40分钟,就是9:20来。
04:36
the next下一个 day at 10:00.
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大后天就是10点。
04:37
So you keep moving移动 40 minutes分钟 every一切 day,
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每天都要随着这40分钟变,
04:41
until直到 soon不久 you're coming未来 to work
in the middle中间 of the night --
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直到你要半夜来上班——
04:44
the middle中间 of the Earth地球 night.
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是地球时间的半夜哦。
04:46
Right? So you can imagine想像
how confusing扑朔迷离 that is.
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没错吧?现在你能想象有多复杂了吧。
04:49
Hence于是, the Mars火星 watch.
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这就是我的火星手表。
04:51
(Laughter笑声)
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(笑)
这只手表的砝码用机械的方法调整过了,
04:53
This weights权重 in this watch
have been mechanically机械 adjusted调整
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04:56
so that it runs运行 more slowly慢慢地.
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所以它走的相对慢一些。
04:59
Right? And we didn't start开始 out --
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但是我们还没开始——
05:01
I got this watch in 2004
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我在2004年得到这只表,
05:03
when Spirit精神 and Opportunity机会,
the rovers流浪者 back then.
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当机遇号和勇气号探测器都到位后,
05:06
We didn't start开始 out thinking思维
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我们并没有想到
05:08
that we were going to need Mars火星 watches手表.
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我们需要一只火星时间的表,
05:10
Right? We thought, OK,
we'll just have the time on our computers电脑
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我们想我们仅仅需要在电脑上有个时间,
05:15
and on the mission任务 control控制 screens屏幕,
and that would be enough足够.
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还有在任务监控屏幕上
显示时间,这就够了。
05:18
Yeah, not so much.
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其实,还不够。
05:20
Because we weren't just
working加工 on Mars火星 time,
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因为我们不仅仅要按火星时间工作,
05:23
we were actually其实 living活的 on Mars火星 time.
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其实我们是按火星时间生活。
05:26
And we got just instantaneously瞬间 confused困惑
about what time it was.
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瞬间我们就把时间搞混了。
05:30
So you really needed需要 something
on your wrist to tell you:
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所以你需要一些东西在你手腕上:
05:34
What time is it on the Earth地球?
What time is it on Mars火星?
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随时提醒你在地球上是几点?
在火星上是几点?
05:38
And it wasn't just the time on Mars火星
that was confusing扑朔迷离;
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而且,不仅仅是火星的
时间让我们感到混乱,
我们还要在谈话中区别它。
05:44
we also needed需要 to be able能够
to talk to each other about it.
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05:49
So a "sol溶胶" is a Martian火星 day --
again, 24 hours小时 and 40 minutes分钟.
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所以一个“Sol“代表火星的一天,
24小时40分钟。
05:54
So when we're talking about something
that's happening事件 on the Earth地球,
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当我们谈论在地球上发生的一些事情,
05:58
we will say, today今天.
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我们会说今天。
06:00
So, for Mars火星, we say, "tosoltosol."
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换成火星的话,我们就说,“Tosol“
06:03
(Laughter笑声)
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(笑)
06:05
Yesterday昨天 became成为 "yestersolyestersol" for Mars火星.
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“昨天”成为了火星的“yestersol”。
06:10
Again, we didn't start开始 out thinking思维,
"Oh, let's invent发明 a language语言."
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我们开始想:“对了,
我们干脆发明一种语言吧。”
06:15
It was just very confusing扑朔迷离.
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刚开始真的非常的混乱。
06:16
I remember记得 somebody
walked up to me and said,
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我记得有人走过来对我说:
06:18
"I would like to do this activity活动
on the vehicle车辆 tomorrow明天, on the rover流浪者."
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“我明天要在漫游者上做这个任务。”
06:22
And I said, "Tomorrow明天, tomorrow明天,
or Mars火星, tomorrow明天?"
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我就问:“明天,地球的明天
还是火星的明天?”
06:27
We started开始 this terminology术语 because
we needed需要 a way to talk to each other.
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我们开始想一些专有术语,
否则我们都没法交谈了。
06:33
(Laughter笑声)
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(笑)
06:34
Tomorrow明天 became成为 "nextersolnextersol" or "solorrowsolorrow."
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于是“明天”变成了
“nextersol“ 或是 ”solorrow“。
06:39
Because people have different不同 preferences优先
for the words they use.
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毕竟人们用词各有所好,
06:42
Some of you might威力 say "soda苏打"
and some of you might威力 say "pop流行的."
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有些人说“苏打”,有些人说“饮料”。
06:46
So we have people who say
"nextersolnextersol" or "solorrowsolorrow."
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所以我们有人说“ nextersol“ ,
有人说 ” solorrow“。
06:50
And then something that I noticed注意到 after
a few少数 years年份 of working加工 on these missions任务,
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在这个项目工作几年后,我发现
06:55
was that the people who work
on the rovers流浪者, we say "tosoltosol."
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运行漫游者的人说“tosol”。
07:00
The people who work on the
landed登陆 missions任务 that don't rove漫游 around,
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处理陆地工作的,不接触漫游者的人,
07:03
they say "tosoultosoul."
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他们说“tosoul”。
07:05
So I could actually其实 tell what mission任务
you worked工作 on from your Martian火星 accent口音.
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所以我都能从工作人员的
“火星口音”中推断出他的工作。
07:10
(Laughter笑声)
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(笑)
07:13
So we have the watches手表 and the language语言,
and you're detecting检测 a theme主题 here, right?
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我们有特制的手表和专门的语言,
现在你们明白了吧?
这样我们不再搞混了。
07:17
So that we don't get confused困惑.
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07:20
But even the Earth地球 daylight阳光
could confuse迷惑 us.
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但是连地球的阳光,
也会使我们感到困扰。
07:24
If you think that right now,
you've come to work
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试想,你现在要来上班,
07:27
and it's the middle中间 of the Martian火星 night
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现在是火星的午夜。
07:29
and there's light streaming in
from the windows视窗
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但是窗外却有很多阳光,
07:32
that's going to be confusing扑朔迷离 as well.
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这也会使你感到困惑。
07:35
So you can see from
this image图片 of the control控制 room房间
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你能从这张控制室的照片看出,
07:37
that all of the blinds百叶窗 are down.
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所有的百叶窗全落了下来,
07:39
So that there's no light to distract转移 us.
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所以就没有阳光来干扰我们。
07:42
The blinds百叶窗 went down all over the building建造
about a week before landing降落,
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在登陆前,百叶窗会持续落下来一周。
07:47
and they didn't go up
until直到 we went off Mars火星 time.
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直到我们不再用火星时间,
它们才会被拉起来。
07:51
So this also works作品
for the house, for at home.
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在家里也如此。
07:54
I've been on Mars火星 time three times,
and my husband丈夫 is like,
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我这样依照火星时间工作了三次,
每次我丈夫就说:
“”好吧,我们准备好要过火星时间咯。”
07:57
OK, we're getting得到 ready准备 for Mars火星 time.
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07:58
And so he'll地狱 put foil挫败 all over the windows视窗
and dark黑暗 curtains窗帘 and shades色调
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于是他会在窗户上贴上锡纸,
换上暗的窗帘和百叶窗,
08:05
because it also affects影响 your families家庭.
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因为它同时也会影响你的家庭成员们。
08:08
And so here I was living活的 in kind of
this darkened黑暗 environment环境, but so was he.
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他只能陪着我一起生活在
这种黑暗的环境下。
08:13
And he'd他会 gotten得到 used to it.
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他也渐渐习惯了。
08:15
But then I would get these plaintive哀怨
emails电子邮件 from him when he was at work.
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但是当他在工作时,
会发给我一些可怜兮兮的邮件。
08:19
Should I come home? Are you awake苏醒?
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我能回家么?你醒了么?
08:22
What time is it on Mars火星?
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现在是火星几点?
08:25
And I decided决定, OK,
so he needs需求 a Mars火星 watch.
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然后我觉得他也需要
一只火星时间的手表。
08:28
(Laughter笑声)
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(笑)
08:29
But of course课程, it's 2016,
so there's an app应用 for that.
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当然,到了2016年,
已经有手机软件可以替代手表了。
08:34
(Laughter笑声)
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(笑)
08:35
So now instead代替 of the watches手表,
we can also use our phones手机.
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现在我们可以用手机来代替手表。
08:40
But the impact碰撞 on families家庭
was just across横过 the board;
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但这对家庭的影响的确是非常大的;
08:44
it wasn't just those of us
who were working加工 on the rovers流浪者
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不仅仅是我们这些操控漫游者的人,
08:48
but our families家庭 as well.
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还有我们的家人。
08:50
This is David大卫 Oh,
one of our flight飞行 directors董事,
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这是大卫,我们的飞行指挥官之一,
08:53
and he's at the beach海滩 in Los洛杉矶 Angeles洛杉矶
with his family家庭 at 1:00 in the morning早上.
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这是他在洛杉矶的沙滩上,凌晨1点。
08:57
(Laughter笑声)
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(笑)
08:59
So because we landed登陆 in August八月
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因为我们的探测器8月份就要着陆,
09:02
and his kids孩子 didn't have to go back
to school学校 until直到 September九月,
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他的孩子直到9月份才会开学,
09:06
they actually其实 went on to Mars火星 time
with him for one month.
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他们就随着他过了一个月火星时间,
09:11
They got up 40 minutes分钟 later后来 every一切 day.
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他们的作息每天都会推迟40分钟。
09:16
And they were on dad's爸爸的 work schedule时间表.
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全家都随着父亲的日程表。
09:18
So they lived生活 on Mars火星 time for a month
and had these great adventures冒险,
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他们过了一个月火星时间,
现在想来还真是一个大挑战,
09:22
like going bowling保龄球
in the middle中间 of the night
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像是在午夜去打保龄球,
09:24
or going to the beach海滩.
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或是去沙滩。
09:26
And one of the things
that we all discovered发现
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而且我们都发现了一件事,
09:29
is you can get anywhere随地 in Los洛杉矶 Angeles洛杉矶
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你可以在凌晨3点去洛杉矶的任何地方,
09:33
at 3:00 in the morning早上
when there's no traffic交通.
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大街上空荡荡的,一辆车也没有。
09:37
(Laughter笑声)
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(笑)
09:38
So we would get off work,
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所以我们下班后,
09:39
and we didn't want to go home
and bother our families家庭,
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并不想回家去打扰家人,
09:42
and we were hungry饥饿, so instead代替 of
going locally本地 to eat something,
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饿的时候,往往就近找些吃的。
09:46
we'd星期三 go, "Wait, there's this great
all-night彻夜 deli熟食店 in Long Beach海滩,
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我们会说:“等等,长滩有一家
通宵营业的熟食店,
09:49
and we can get there in 10 minutes分钟!"
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我们到那只要10分钟!”
09:52
So we would drive驾驶 down --
it was like the 60s, no traffic交通.
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然后我们就开了过去,
畅通无阻,就像是60秒。
09:54
We would drive驾驶 down there,
and the restaurant餐厅 owners拥有者 would go,
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当我们到那时,餐馆老板会说,
09:58
"Who are you people?
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“你们是什么人?
10:01
And why are you at my restaurant餐厅
at 3:00 in the morning早上?"
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为什么凌晨3点来我的餐馆?“
10:05
So they came来了 to realize实现
that there were these packs of Martians火星,
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然后他们慢慢知道有一群火星人
10:11
roaming漫游 the LALA freeways高速公路,
in the middle中间 of the night --
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在午夜的洛杉矶游荡——
10:17
in the middle中间 of the Earth地球 night.
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地球的午夜。
10:19
And we did actually其实
start开始 calling调用 ourselves我们自己 Martians火星.
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我们确实开始管自己叫火星人。
10:24
So those of us who were on Mars火星 time
would refer参考 to ourselves我们自己 as Martians火星,
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我们之中按火星时间工作的
喜欢称自己为火星人,
10:30
and everyone大家 else其他 as Earthlings地球人.
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其他人叫地球同胞。
10:33
(Laughter笑声)
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(笑)
10:34
And that's because when you're moving移动
a time-zone时区 every一切 day,
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这是因为当你每天
都在改你自己的时区,
10:40
you start开始 to really feel separated分离
from everyone大家 else其他.
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你就会开始觉得和其他人疏远了。
10:45
You're literally按照字面 in your own拥有 world世界.
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准确的说你活在自己的世界中。
10:50
So I have this button按键 on that says,
"I survived幸存 Mars火星 time. Sol索尔 0-90."
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所以我有这个胸牌,
“我在火星生存的时间:0-90天”。
10:57
And there's a picture图片 of it
up on the screen屏幕.
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屏幕上显示的就是这个胸牌。
11:00
So the reason原因 we got these buttons纽扣
is because we work on Mars火星 time
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我们带这个胸牌是为了
表明我们依据火星时间工作,
11:06
in order订购 to be as efficient高效 as possible可能
with the rover流浪者 on Mars火星,
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为了尽可能方便的
和火星的漫游者工作,
11:11
to make the best最好 use of our time.
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来合理利用我们的时间。
11:13
But we don't stay on Mars火星 time
for more than three to four months个月.
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但是我们从不在火星时间下
工作超过3-4个月。
11:17
Eventually终于, we'll move移动 to a modified改性 Mars火星
time, which哪一个 is what we're working加工 now.
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最终,我们得作息会依照修改过的
火星的时间,这就是我们现在在做的。
11:22
And that's because it's hard on
your bodies身体, it's hard on your families家庭.
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因为这对你的身体和家庭都是个负担。
11:27
In fact事实, there were sleep睡觉 researchers研究人员
who actually其实 were studying研究 us
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实际上,有睡眠专家一直在
拿我们做实验观察对象。
11:31
because it was so unusual异常 for humans人类
to try to extend延伸 their day.
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因为人类很难有机会去
试图延长自己的一天。
11:37
And they had about 30 of us
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我们有30人被观察,
11:38
that they would do
sleep睡觉 deprivation剥夺 experiments实验 on.
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他们会在我们身上
做一些缺觉的实验。
11:42
So I would come in and take the test测试
and I fell下跌 asleep睡着 in each one.
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我就会参与实验,
在每个实验中去睡觉。
11:45
And that was because, again,
this eventually终于 becomes hard on your body身体.
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这种情况最终还是会
对身体造成一些负担。
11:52
Even though虽然 it was a blast爆破.
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即使只是一时的损害。
11:55
It was a huge巨大 bonding结合 experience经验
with the other members会员 on the team球队,
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这段经历让团队的所有人同舟共济
12:00
but it is difficult to sustain支持.
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但是很难持续。
12:04
So these rover流浪者 missions任务 are our first
steps脚步 out into the solar太阳能 system系统.
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所以这个漫游者任务
是我们迈向宇宙的第一步。
12:10
We are learning学习 how to live生活
on more than one planet行星.
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我们正在学习
如何生活在另外一个星球上,
12:15
We are changing改变 our perspective透视
to become成为 multi-planetary多行星.
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我们正在改变原有的观点,
逐渐适应多星球生活。
12:20
So the next下一个 time you see
a Star Wars战争 movie电影,
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所以下次你去看星球大战的时候,
12:23
and there are people going
from the Dagobah达戈巴 system系统 to Tatooine塔图,
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一些人从荻克巴星到塔图因,
12:27
think about what it really means手段 to have
people spread传播 out so far.
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想像一下,那真的是条很远的道路。
12:32
What it means手段 in terms条款
of the distances距离 between之间 them,
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他们之间到底距离有多远,
12:36
how they will start开始 to feel
separate分离 from each other
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他们离开彼此会有什么感觉,
12:39
and just the logistics后勤 of the time.
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还有时间差的问题。
12:43
We have not sent发送 people
to Mars火星 yet然而, but we hope希望 to.
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我们还没有把人类送到火星上,
但是我想我们总有一天会做到。
12:48
And between之间 companies公司 like SpaceXSpaceX公司 and NASANASA
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例如美国太空探索技术公司,
和美国国家航空航天局,
12:52
and all of the international国际
space空间 agencies机构 of the world世界,
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或是有国际空间站的国家,
12:55
we hope希望 to do that
in the next下一个 few少数 decades几十年.
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我们希望可以在未来的几十年里实现。
12:59
So soon不久 we will have people on Mars火星,
and we truly will be multi-planetary多行星.
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所以不久,我们将有人生活在火星,
那时我们就是真的多星球人了。
13:06
And the young年轻 boy男孩 or the young年轻 girl女孩
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未来将会前往火星的少男少女们,
13:08
who will be going to Mars火星 could be
in this audience听众 or listening today今天.
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今天可能恰巧就坐在这里听我的演讲。
13:16
I have wanted to work at JPLJPL
on these missions任务 since以来 I was 14 years年份 old
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我自打14岁起,就想工作在
喷气推进实验室来研究这个项目,
13:21
and I am privileged特权 to be a part部分 of it.
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如今我有幸成为了其中的一员。
13:24
And this is a remarkable卓越 time
in the space空间 program程序,
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现在对于宇宙探索是个重要的时间,
13:28
and we are all in this journey旅程 together一起.
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我们在一起经历了这些。
13:31
So the next下一个 time you think
you don't have enough足够 time in your day,
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所以下次你觉得自己时间不够的话,
13:36
just remember记得, it's all a matter
of your Earthly俗世的 perspective透视.
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记住,这只是你在地球时的观点。
13:41
Thank you.
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谢谢!
13:42
(Applause掌声)
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(掌声)
Translated by Ray Shi
Reviewed by XU JUNQING

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ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Nagin Cox - Spacecraft operations engineer
Nagin Cox explores Mars as part of the team that operates NASA's rovers.

Why you should listen

Nagin Cox has been exploring since she decided as a teenager that she wanted to work at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. She was born in Bangalore, India, and grew up in Kansas City, Kansas, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her experiences as a child in a Muslim household showed her how easily we separate ourselves based on gender, race or nationality, and it inspired her to do something that brings people together instead of dividing them. The Space Program helps the world "look up" and remember that we are one world. Thus, she has known from the time she was 14 years old that she wanted to work on missions of robotic space exploration.  

Cox realized her childhood dream and has been a spacecraft operations engineer at NASA/JPL for over 20 years. She has held leadership and system engineering positions on interplanetary robotic missions including the Galileo mission to Jupiter, the Mars Exploration Rovers, the Kepler exoplanet hunter, InSight and the Mars Curiosity Rover.

In 2015, Cox was honored as the namesake for Asteroid 14061 by its discovers. She has also received the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and two NASA Exceptional Achievement Medals. She is a U.S. Department of State STEM Speaker and has spoken to audiences around the world on the stories of the people behind the missions. She has also served on Cornell University’s President's Council for Cornell Women.

Before her time at JPL, Cox served for 6 years in the US Air Force including duty as a Space Operations Officer at NORAD/US Space Command. She holds engineering degrees from Cornell University and the Air Force Institute of Technology as well as a psychology degree from Cornell. (Sometimes she is not sure which one she uses more: the engineering degree or the psychology degree.)

Cox is currently a Tactical Mission Lead on the Curiosity Rover, and every day at NASA/JPL exploring space is as rewarding as the first. You can contact her at nagincox(at)outlook.com.

More profile about the speaker
Nagin Cox | Speaker | TED.com