ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Nagin Cox - Spacecraft operations engineer
Nagin Cox explores Mars as part of the team that operates NASA's rovers.

Why you should listen

Nagin Cox has been exploring since she decided as a teenager that she wanted to work at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. She was born in Bangalore, India, and grew up in Kansas City, Kansas, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her experiences as a child in a Muslim household showed her how easily we separate ourselves based on gender, race or nationality, and it inspired her to do something that brings people together instead of dividing them. The Space Program helps the world "look up" and remember that we are one world. Thus, she has known from the time she was 14 years old that she wanted to work on missions of robotic space exploration.  

Cox realized her childhood dream and has been a spacecraft operations engineer at NASA/JPL for over 20 years. She has held leadership and system engineering positions on interplanetary robotic missions including the Galileo mission to Jupiter, the Mars Exploration Rovers, the Kepler exoplanet hunter, InSight and the Mars Curiosity Rover.

In 2015, Cox was honored as the namesake for Asteroid 14061 by its discovers. She has also received the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and two NASA Exceptional Achievement Medals. She is a U.S. Department of State STEM Speaker and has spoken to audiences around the world on the stories of the people behind the missions. She has also served on Cornell University’s President's Council for Cornell Women.

Before her time at JPL, Cox served for 6 years in the US Air Force including duty as a Space Operations Officer at NORAD/US Space Command. She holds engineering degrees from Cornell University and the Air Force Institute of Technology as well as a psychology degree from Cornell. (Sometimes she is not sure which one she uses more: the engineering degree or the psychology degree.)

Cox is currently a Tactical Mission Lead on the Curiosity Rover, and every day at NASA/JPL exploring space is as rewarding as the first. You can contact her at nagincox(at)outlook.com.

More profile about the speaker
Nagin Cox | Speaker | TED.com
TEDxBeaconStreet

Nagin Cox: What time is it on Mars?

Nagin Cox: Que horas são em Marte?

Filmed:
2,067,551 views

Nagin Cox é uma marciana de primeira geração. Como engenheira de naves espacias do Laboratório de Propulsão a Jato da NASA (sigla JPL em inglês), Cox trabalha numa equipe que administra as sondas americanas em Marte. Mas trabalhar das 9 às 17h em outro planeta, onde o dia tem 40 minutos a mais que a Terra, cria desafios singulares e frequentemente cômicos.
- Spacecraft operations engineer
Nagin Cox explores Mars as part of the team that operates NASA's rovers. Full bio

Double-click (or triple-click) the English transcript below to play the video.

00:13
So many of you have probably seen
the movie "The Martian."
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Muitos de vocês devem ter
assistido ao filme "Perdido em Marte".
00:17
But for those of you who did not,
it's a movie about an astronaut
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Para os que não assistiram,
é um filme sobre um astronauta
00:20
who is stranded on Mars,
and his efforts to stay alive
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que fica preso em Marte
e seus esfoços para sobreviver
00:25
until the Earth can send a rescue mission
to bring him back to Earth.
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até que a Terra mande uma missão
de resgate para trazê-lo de volta.
00:31
Gladly, they do re-establish communication
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Felizmente, eles reestabelecem comunicação
00:34
with the character,
astronaut Watney, at some point
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com o personagem, o astronauta Watney,
00:36
so that he's not as alone
on Mars until he can be rescued.
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então ele não fica tão só
em Marte até ser resgatado.
00:42
So while you're watching the movie,
or even if you haven't,
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Ao assistirmos ao filme,
ou mesmo sem assisti-lo,
00:45
when you think about Mars,
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ao pensarmos em Marte,
00:47
you're probably thinking about
how far away it is and how distant.
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provavelmente pensamos
em como ele é distante.
00:51
And, what might not
have occurred to you is,
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O que pode não ter lhe ocorrido é:
00:54
what are the logistics really like
of working on another planet --
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"Quais são as logísticas
de trabalhar num outro planeta,
00:58
of living on two planets
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de habitar em dois planetas,
01:00
when there are people on the Earth
and there are rovers or people on Mars?
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quando há pessoas na Terra
e sondas ou pessoas em Marte?"
Pensem em quando vocês têm amigos,
famílias e colegas de trabalho
01:06
So think about when you have friends,
families and co-workers
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01:10
in California, on the West Coast
or in other parts of the world.
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na Califórnia, na costa oeste,
ou em outras partes do mundo.
01:14
When you're trying
to communicate with them,
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Quando estão tentando
se comunicar com eles,
01:16
one of the things
you probably first think about is:
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e uma das coisas que pensam, é:
"Que horas são na Califórnia?
01:18
wait, what time is it in California?
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Vou acordá-los? Tudo bem ligar agora?"
01:20
Will I wake them up? Is it OK to call?
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01:23
So even if you're interacting
with colleagues who are in Europe,
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Se estamos interagindo
com colegas na Europa,
imediatemente pensamos:
01:27
you're immediately thinking about:
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01:29
What does it take to coordinate
communication when people are far away?
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"O que é necessário
para coordenar uma comunicação
quando as pessoas estão distantes?"
01:36
So we don't have people on Mars
right now, but we do have rovers.
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Não há pessoas em Marte agora,
mas há sondas.
Agora, na sonda Curiosity,
são 6:10 da manhã.
01:42
And actually right now, on Curiosity,
it is 6:10 in the morning.
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Então, 6:10 da manhã em Marte.
01:47
So, 6:10 in the morning on Mars.
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01:50
We have four rovers on Mars.
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Há quatro sondas em Marte.
01:52
The United States has put four rovers
on Mars since the mid-1990s,
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Os EUA enviaram quatro sondas
a Marte desde a metade dos anos 90,
e eu tenho tido o privilégio
de trabalhar em três delas.
01:56
and I have been privileged enough
to work on three of them.
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02:00
So, I am a spacecraft engineer,
a spacecraft operations engineer,
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Sou engenheira de operações
de nave espacial,
02:05
at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
in Los Angeles, California.
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no Laboratório Jet Propulsion da NASA
em Los Angeles, Califórnia.
02:10
And these rovers
are our robotic emissaries.
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As sondas são nossos emissários robóticos.
02:15
So, they are our eyes and our ears,
and they see the planet for us
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São nossos olhos e ouvidos,
e vêem o planeta por nós
até que possamos mandar pessoas.
02:21
until we can send people.
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Aprendemos como proceder
em outros planetas através das sondas.
02:23
So we learn how to operate
on other planets through these rovers.
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02:28
So before we send people, we send robots.
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Antes de mandarmos pessoas,
mandamos robôs.
02:33
So the reason there's a time difference
on Mars right now,
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A diferença entre o horário em Marte
e o horário que temos aqui
02:37
from the time that we're at
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02:38
is because the Martian day
is longer than the Earth day.
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deve-se ao fato de que o dia marciano
é mais longo do que o terráqueo.
Nosso dia na Terra tem 24 horas,
02:42
Our Earth day is 24 hours,
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02:45
because that's how long it takes
the Earth to rotate,
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porque este é o tempo que a Terra
leva para fazer uma rotação,
02:49
how long it takes to go around once.
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então nosso dia é de 24 horas.
02:51
So our day is 24 hours.
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02:53
It takes Mars 24 hours and approximately
40 minutes to rotate once.
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Marte leva 24 horas
e aproximadamente 40 minutos
para girar uma vez.
03:00
So that means that the Martian day
is 40 minutes longer than the Earth day.
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Isso significa que o dia em Marte
tem 40 minutos a mais do que na Terra.
03:07
So teams of people who are operating
the rovers on Mars, like this one,
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Equipes de pessoas que operam
as sondas em Marte, como esta aqui,
03:12
what we are doing is we are living
on Earth, but working on Mars.
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vivem na Terra, mas trabalham em Marte.
03:17
So we have to think as if we are actually
on Mars with the rover.
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Temos que pensar como se estivéssemos
em Marte, com a sonda.
03:23
Our job, the job of this team,
of which I'm a part of,
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Nosso trabalho nesta equipe,
da qual eu faço parte,
03:27
is to send commands to the rover
to tell it what to do the next day.
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é mandar ordens para a sonda,
dizendo-lhe o que fazer no dia seguinte:
mover-se, perfurar ou dizer-lhe
aquilo que ela deve fazer.
03:33
To tell it to drive or drill
or tell her whatever she's supposed to do.
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03:37
So while she's sleeping --
and the rover does sleep at night
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Enquanto ela dorme,
e a sonda dorme mesmo à noite
03:42
because she needs
to recharge her batteries
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para recarregar as baterias
03:44
and she needs to weather
the cold Martian night.
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e resistir às noites frias de Marte,
então ela dorme.
03:48
And so she sleeps.
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03:49
So while she sleeps, we work
on her program for the next day.
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Enquanto isso, trabalhamos
no programa para ela no dia seguinte.
03:54
So I work the Martian night shift.
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Eu trabalho no turno da noite de Marte.
03:57
(Laughter)
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(Risos)
03:59
So in order to come to work on the Earth
at the same time every day on Mars --
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Para ir ao trabalho na Terra
na mesma hora todos os dias em Marte,
04:06
like, let's say I need to be
at work at 5:00 p.m.,
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digamos, eu preciso
ir trabalhar às 5 da tarde,
04:08
this team needs to be at work
at 5:00 p.m. Mars time every day,
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a equipe precisa ir trabalhar às 5,
horário de Marte, todos os dias,
então, atrasamos 40 minutos
nosso horário de trabalho na Terra,
04:14
then we have to come to work
on the Earth 40 minutes later every day,
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todos os dias,
04:22
in order to stay in sync with Mars.
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para ficarmos em sincronia com Marte.
04:24
That's like moving a time zone every day.
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É como mudar de fuso horário diariamente.
04:27
So one day you come in at 8:00,
the next day 40 minutes later at 8:40,
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Um dia trabalhamos às 8:00,
no dia seguinte, 40 minutos
mais tarde, às 8h40,
04:32
the next day 40 minutes later at 9:20,
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dia seguinte 40 minutos depois, às 9h20,
dia seguinte às 10h.
04:36
the next day at 10:00.
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04:37
So you keep moving 40 minutes every day,
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Alteramos 40 minutos todos os dias,
04:41
until soon you're coming to work
in the middle of the night --
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até virmos trabalhar
no meio da noite terrestre.
04:44
the middle of the Earth night.
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Imaginem como é confuso.
04:46
Right? So you can imagine
how confusing that is.
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Por isso, o relógio de Marte.
04:49
Hence, the Mars watch.
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(Risos)
04:51
(Laughter)
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04:53
This weights in this watch
have been mechanically adjusted
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Os pesos neste relógio
foram ajustados mecanicamente
04:56
so that it runs more slowly.
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para funcionar mais devagar.
04:59
Right? And we didn't start out --
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Eu ganhei este relógio em 2004,
05:01
I got this watch in 2004
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05:03
when Spirit and Opportunity,
the rovers back then.
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quando Spirit e Opportunity
eram as sondas na época.
05:06
We didn't start out thinking
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Não começamos pensando
05:08
that we were going to need Mars watches.
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que precisaríamos de relógios marcianos.
05:10
Right? We thought, OK,
we'll just have the time on our computers
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Pensamos que seria suficiente termos
a hora em nossos computadores
05:15
and on the mission control screens,
and that would be enough.
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e na tela de controle da missão.
05:18
Yeah, not so much.
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Não mesmo!
Não estávamos só trabalhando
no horário de Marte,
05:20
Because we weren't just
working on Mars time,
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05:23
we were actually living on Mars time.
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estávamos vivendo no horário de Marte.
05:26
And we got just instantaneously confused
about what time it was.
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Instantaneamente nos confundimos
sobre que horas eram.
05:30
So you really needed something
on your wrist to tell you:
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Precisamos algo no pulso para nos dizer:
05:34
What time is it on the Earth?
What time is it on Mars?
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Que horas são na Terra?
Que horas são em Marte?
05:38
And it wasn't just the time on Mars
that was confusing;
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Não eram só as horas em Marte
que eram confusas;
05:44
we also needed to be able
to talk to each other about it.
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também precisávamos conversar
uns com os outros sobre Marte.
05:49
So a "sol" is a Martian day --
again, 24 hours and 40 minutes.
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Um "sol" é um dia marciano, com 24h40m.
05:54
So when we're talking about something
that's happening on the Earth,
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Quando conversamos sobre algo
acontecendo na Terra, dizemos "hoje".
05:58
we will say, today.
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Para Marte, dizemos "hoje-sol".
06:00
So, for Mars, we say, "tosol."
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06:03
(Laughter)
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(Risos)
06:05
Yesterday became "yestersol" for Mars.
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Ontem virou "ontem-sol" em Marte.
06:10
Again, we didn't start out thinking,
"Oh, let's invent a language."
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Não começamos pensando:
"Vamos inventar uma língua".
06:15
It was just very confusing.
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Só que era muito confuso.
06:16
I remember somebody
walked up to me and said,
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Eu me lembro de alguém que me disse:
06:18
"I would like to do this activity
on the vehicle tomorrow, on the rover."
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"Eu gostaria de fazer tal atividade
no veículo amanhã, na sonda".
06:22
And I said, "Tomorrow, tomorrow,
or Mars, tomorrow?"
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Eu disse: "Amanhã, amanhã,
ou amanhã de Marte?"
06:27
We started this terminology because
we needed a way to talk to each other.
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Criamos essa termiologia porque
precisávamos de uma forma de conversar.
06:33
(Laughter)
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(Risos)
06:34
Tomorrow became "nextersol" or "solorrow."
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Amanhã ficou "amahã-sol" ou "sol-amanhã".
06:39
Because people have different preferences
for the words they use.
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As pessoas têm preferências diferentes
pelas palavras que escolhem.
06:42
Some of you might say "soda"
and some of you might say "pop."
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Alguns dizem "pipa"
outros, dizem "papagaio".
06:46
So we have people who say
"nextersol" or "solorrow."
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Há pessoas que dizem "amahã-sol"
ou "sol-amahã".
06:50
And then something that I noticed after
a few years of working on these missions,
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Algo que eu notei depois de trabalhar
alguns anos nessas missões,
06:55
was that the people who work
on the rovers, we say "tosol."
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é que nós que trabalhamos
em sondas, dizemos "hoje-sol".
07:00
The people who work on the
landed missions that don't rove around,
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Aqueles que trabalham nas missões
de pouso, sem as sondas ao redor,
07:03
they say "tosoul."
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dizem "hoje-soul".
07:05
So I could actually tell what mission
you worked on from your Martian accent.
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Eu consigo saber que missão
você trabalhou pelo seu sotaque marciano.
07:10
(Laughter)
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(Risos)
07:13
So we have the watches and the language,
and you're detecting a theme here, right?
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Temos os relógios e a língua,
e vocês estão percebendo um tema aqui?
07:17
So that we don't get confused.
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É para não nos confundirmos.
07:20
But even the Earth daylight
could confuse us.
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Mas até a luz do dia da Terra
pode nos confundir.
07:24
If you think that right now,
you've come to work
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Se pensarmos que viemos
trabalhar agora mesmo
07:27
and it's the middle of the Martian night
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e está no meio da noite marciana
07:29
and there's light streaming in
from the windows
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e há luz entrando pelas janelas
seria confuso também.
07:32
that's going to be confusing as well.
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07:35
So you can see from
this image of the control room
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Vemos nesta imagem da sala de controle
07:37
that all of the blinds are down.
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que todas as persianas estão fechadas,
07:39
So that there's no light to distract us.
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para a luz não nos distrair.
07:42
The blinds went down all over the building
about a week before landing,
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Fechamos as persianas em todo o prédio
por volta de uma semana antes do pouso,
07:47
and they didn't go up
until we went off Mars time.
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e não as abrimos até sairmos
do horário marciano.
07:51
So this also works
for the house, for at home.
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Isso também nos afeta em casa.
07:54
I've been on Mars time three times,
and my husband is like,
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Estive no horário marciano
três vezes e meu marido diz assim:
07:57
OK, we're getting ready for Mars time.
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"Aprontemo-nos para o horário marciano!"
07:58
And so he'll put foil all over the windows
and dark curtains and shades
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Ele põe chapas nas janelas
e cortinas escuras,
porque também afeta nossas famílias.
08:05
because it also affects your families.
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08:08
And so here I was living in kind of
this darkened environment, but so was he.
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Ali estava eu, vivendo num ambiente
escuro, mas ele também estava.
08:13
And he'd gotten used to it.
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E ele se acostumou a isso.
08:15
But then I would get these plaintive
emails from him when he was at work.
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Eu recebia e-mails melancólicos
dele quando ele estava no trabalho:
08:19
Should I come home? Are you awake?
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"Eu devo ir para casa?
Você está acordada?
08:22
What time is it on Mars?
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Que horas são em Marte?"
08:25
And I decided, OK,
so he needs a Mars watch.
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Eu decidi que ele precisava
de um relógio marciano.
08:28
(Laughter)
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(Risos)
08:29
But of course, it's 2016,
so there's an app for that.
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Mas estamos em 2016, então
já deve haver um aplicativo para isso.
08:34
(Laughter)
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(Risos)
08:35
So now instead of the watches,
we can also use our phones.
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Agora ao invés de relógios,
podemos usar nossos telefones.
08:40
But the impact on families
was just across the board;
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Mas o impacto nas famílias era geral;
08:44
it wasn't just those of us
who were working on the rovers
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não era só em nós trabalhando nas sondas,
mas em nossas família também.
08:48
but our families as well.
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Este é o David Oh,
um dos nossos diretores do voo,
08:50
This is David Oh,
one of our flight directors,
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08:53
and he's at the beach in Los Angeles
with his family at 1:00 in the morning.
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e ele estava na praia em Los Angeles
com sua família à 1 da manhã.
08:57
(Laughter)
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(Risos)
08:59
So because we landed in August
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Porque nós pousamos em agosto
09:02
and his kids didn't have to go back
to school until September,
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e seus filhos não tinham que voltar
às aulas até setembro,
09:06
they actually went on to Mars time
with him for one month.
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eles entraram no horário marciano
com ele por um mês.
09:11
They got up 40 minutes later every day.
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Acordavam 40 minutos
mais tarde todos os dias.
E estavam no horário de trabalho do pai.
09:16
And they were on dad's work schedule.
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09:18
So they lived on Mars time for a month
and had these great adventures,
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Viveram no horário marciano por um mês
e passaram por grandes aventuras,
09:22
like going bowling
in the middle of the night
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como jogar boliche no meio da noite
09:24
or going to the beach.
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ou ir à praia.
09:26
And one of the things
that we all discovered
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Uma das coisas que todos nós descobrimos
09:29
is you can get anywhere in Los Angeles
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é que podemos ir
à qualquer lugar em Los Angeles
09:33
at 3:00 in the morning
when there's no traffic.
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às 3 da manhã quando não há trânsito.
09:37
(Laughter)
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(Risos)
Saíamos do trabalho
09:38
So we would get off work,
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09:39
and we didn't want to go home
and bother our families,
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e não queríamos ir para casa
incomodar nossas família,
09:42
and we were hungry, so instead of
going locally to eat something,
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e estávamos com fome, então,
ao invés de ir comer algo por perto,
09:46
we'd go, "Wait, there's this great
all-night deli in Long Beach,
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pensávamos: "Há uma padaria ótima
aberta 24 horas em Long Beach.
Dá para chegar lá em 10 minutos!"
09:49
and we can get there in 10 minutes!"
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09:52
So we would drive down --
it was like the 60s, no traffic.
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E íamos lá, como nos anos 60,
sem trânsito.
09:54
We would drive down there,
and the restaurant owners would go,
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Íamos lá e os donos do restaurante diziam:
09:58
"Who are you people?
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"Quem são vocês?
10:01
And why are you at my restaurant
at 3:00 in the morning?"
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Por que estão no meu restaurante
às 3 da manhã?"
10:05
So they came to realize
that there were these packs of Martians,
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Eles perceberam que havia
bandos de marcianos,
(Risos)
10:11
roaming the LA freeways,
in the middle of the night --
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perambulando pelas estradas
de Los Angeles no meio da noite,
10:17
in the middle of the Earth night.
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no meio da noite terráquea.
10:19
And we did actually
start calling ourselves Martians.
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Nós começamos a nos chamar de marcianos.
10:24
So those of us who were on Mars time
would refer to ourselves as Martians,
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Aqueles no grupo em horário marciano
chamavam-se de marcianos,
e os outros de terráqueos.
10:30
and everyone else as Earthlings.
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10:33
(Laughter)
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1300
(Risos)
10:34
And that's because when you're moving
a time-zone every day,
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É porque quando mudamos
de fuso todos os dias,
começamos a nos sentir
isolados dos outros.
10:40
you start to really feel separated
from everyone else.
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5813
10:45
You're literally in your own world.
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3919
Vivemos literalmente
no nosso próprio mundo.
10:50
So I have this button on that says,
"I survived Mars time. Sol 0-90."
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Eu tenho este broche que diz:
"Sobrevivi ao horário marciano. Sol 0-90".
10:57
And there's a picture of it
up on the screen.
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2745
Há uma foto dele no telão.
11:00
So the reason we got these buttons
is because we work on Mars time
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Ganhamos esses broches
porque trabalhamos no horário marciano
11:06
in order to be as efficient as possible
with the rover on Mars,
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para sermos o mais eficientes possível
com a sonda em Marte,
para fazer melhor uso do nosso tempo.
11:11
to make the best use of our time.
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2290
11:13
But we don't stay on Mars time
for more than three to four months.
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Mas não ficamos no horário de Marte
por mais de três ou quatro meses.
11:17
Eventually, we'll move to a modified Mars
time, which is what we're working now.
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4268
Enfim, mudamos para um horário marciano
adaptado, que é o que estamos agora.
11:22
And that's because it's hard on
your bodies, it's hard on your families.
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4657
Porque é difícil para nossos corpos
e para nossas famílias.
De fato, havia pesquisadores
do sono nos estudando
11:27
In fact, there were sleep researchers
who actually were studying us
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4882
porque era muito anormal para humanos
tentar estender seu dia.
11:31
because it was so unusual for humans
to try to extend their day.
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5037
11:37
And they had about 30 of us
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Usaram 30 de nós para fazer
experimentos de carência de sono.
11:38
that they would do
sleep deprivation experiments on.
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3626
11:42
So I would come in and take the test
and I fell asleep in each one.
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3563
Eu vinha e fazia o teste
e adormecia em todos.
11:45
And that was because, again,
this eventually becomes hard on your body.
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6642
E isso é porque fica difícil
demais para nossos corpos,
apesar de ter sido divertidíssimo.
11:52
Even though it was a blast.
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3315
11:55
It was a huge bonding experience
with the other members on the team,
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Foi uma experiência
que uniu os membros da equipe,
mas é difícil de manter.
12:00
but it is difficult to sustain.
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2840
12:04
So these rover missions are our first
steps out into the solar system.
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6185
Com as missões das sondas
damos nossos primeiros passos
no sistema solar.
12:10
We are learning how to live
on more than one planet.
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5073
Estamos aprendendo como viver
em mais de um planeta.
12:15
We are changing our perspective
to become multi-planetary.
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5076
Estamos mudando nossa perspectiva
para nos tornarmos multiplanetários.
12:20
So the next time you see
a Star Wars movie,
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2795
A próxima vez que virem o filme Star Wars,
12:23
and there are people going
from the Dagobah system to Tatooine,
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3675
e as pessoas estão viajando
do sistema de Dagobah para Tatooine,
12:27
think about what it really means to have
people spread out so far.
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735461
5490
pensem no que significa as pessoas
estarem espalhadas tão longe.
O que significa em termos
de distância entre elas,
12:32
What it means in terms
of the distances between them,
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740975
3062
12:36
how they will start to feel
separate from each other
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como começam a se sentir
separadas umas das outras,
12:39
and just the logistics of the time.
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747905
3224
e na logística dos horários.
12:43
We have not sent people
to Mars yet, but we hope to.
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751937
4552
Ainda não mandamos pessoas
para Marte, mas esperamos mandar.
12:48
And between companies like SpaceX and NASA
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756513
3839
Junto a empresas como SpaceX e a NASA
12:52
and all of the international
space agencies of the world,
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3489
e todas as agências espaciais
internacionais do mundo,
12:55
we hope to do that
in the next few decades.
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3767
esperamos fazer isso nas próximas décadas.
12:59
So soon we will have people on Mars,
and we truly will be multi-planetary.
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5825
Logo haverá pessoas em Marte,
e seremos realmente multiplanetários.
13:06
And the young boy or the young girl
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774000
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O garoto e a garota
13:08
who will be going to Mars could be
in this audience or listening today.
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776436
7000
que irão à Marte
podem estar nesta plateia
ou nos ouvindo hoje.
13:16
I have wanted to work at JPL
on these missions since I was 14 years old
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5602
Eu queria trabalhar no JPL nessas missões
desde que tinha 14 anos,
13:21
and I am privileged to be a part of it.
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2222
e tenho o privilégio de fazer parte dele.
13:24
And this is a remarkable time
in the space program,
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Vivemos uma época marcante
para o programa espacial,
13:28
and we are all in this journey together.
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e todos estamos juntos nesta jornada.
13:31
So the next time you think
you don't have enough time in your day,
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Da próxima vez que pensarem
que não há tempo suficiente num dia,
13:36
just remember, it's all a matter
of your Earthly perspective.
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4778
lembrem-se: é só uma questão
do seu ponto de vista terráqueo.
13:41
Thank you.
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Obrigada.
13:42
(Applause)
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(Aplausos)
Translated by Denise Pelusch
Reviewed by Maricene Crus

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ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Nagin Cox - Spacecraft operations engineer
Nagin Cox explores Mars as part of the team that operates NASA's rovers.

Why you should listen

Nagin Cox has been exploring since she decided as a teenager that she wanted to work at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. She was born in Bangalore, India, and grew up in Kansas City, Kansas, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her experiences as a child in a Muslim household showed her how easily we separate ourselves based on gender, race or nationality, and it inspired her to do something that brings people together instead of dividing them. The Space Program helps the world "look up" and remember that we are one world. Thus, she has known from the time she was 14 years old that she wanted to work on missions of robotic space exploration.  

Cox realized her childhood dream and has been a spacecraft operations engineer at NASA/JPL for over 20 years. She has held leadership and system engineering positions on interplanetary robotic missions including the Galileo mission to Jupiter, the Mars Exploration Rovers, the Kepler exoplanet hunter, InSight and the Mars Curiosity Rover.

In 2015, Cox was honored as the namesake for Asteroid 14061 by its discovers. She has also received the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and two NASA Exceptional Achievement Medals. She is a U.S. Department of State STEM Speaker and has spoken to audiences around the world on the stories of the people behind the missions. She has also served on Cornell University’s President's Council for Cornell Women.

Before her time at JPL, Cox served for 6 years in the US Air Force including duty as a Space Operations Officer at NORAD/US Space Command. She holds engineering degrees from Cornell University and the Air Force Institute of Technology as well as a psychology degree from Cornell. (Sometimes she is not sure which one she uses more: the engineering degree or the psychology degree.)

Cox is currently a Tactical Mission Lead on the Curiosity Rover, and every day at NASA/JPL exploring space is as rewarding as the first. You can contact her at nagincox(at)outlook.com.

More profile about the speaker
Nagin Cox | Speaker | TED.com