ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Nagin Cox - Spacecraft operations engineer
Nagin Cox explores Mars as part of the team that operates NASA's rovers.

Why you should listen

Nagin Cox has been exploring since she decided as a teenager that she wanted to work at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. She was born in Bangalore, India, and grew up in Kansas City, Kansas, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her experiences as a child in a Muslim household showed her how easily we separate ourselves based on gender, race or nationality, and it inspired her to do something that brings people together instead of dividing them. The Space Program helps the world "look up" and remember that we are one world. Thus, she has known from the time she was 14 years old that she wanted to work on missions of robotic space exploration.  

Cox realized her childhood dream and has been a spacecraft operations engineer at NASA/JPL for over 20 years. She has held leadership and system engineering positions on interplanetary robotic missions including the Galileo mission to Jupiter, the Mars Exploration Rovers, the Kepler exoplanet hunter, InSight and the Mars Curiosity Rover.

In 2015, Cox was honored as the namesake for Asteroid 14061 by its discovers. She has also received the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and two NASA Exceptional Achievement Medals. She is a U.S. Department of State STEM Speaker and has spoken to audiences around the world on the stories of the people behind the missions. She has also served on Cornell University’s President's Council for Cornell Women.

Before her time at JPL, Cox served for 6 years in the US Air Force including duty as a Space Operations Officer at NORAD/US Space Command. She holds engineering degrees from Cornell University and the Air Force Institute of Technology as well as a psychology degree from Cornell. (Sometimes she is not sure which one she uses more: the engineering degree or the psychology degree.)

Cox is currently a Tactical Mission Lead on the Curiosity Rover, and every day at NASA/JPL exploring space is as rewarding as the first. You can contact her at nagincox(at)outlook.com.

More profile about the speaker
Nagin Cox | Speaker | TED.com
TEDxBeaconStreet

Nagin Cox: What time is it on Mars?

娜晶.科思: 火星時間現在幾點?

Filmed:
2,047,965 views

娜晶.科思是第一代「火星人」。 作為太空總署噴氣推進實驗室的太空船工程師,科思負責管理火星上的美國火星探測車隊。 但是,在另一顆行星上九到五──比地球長 40分鐘──成為很特別、而且常常很滑稽的挑戰。
- Spacecraft operations engineer
Nagin Cox explores Mars as part of the team that operates NASA's rovers. Full bio

Double-click the English transcript below to play the video.

00:13
So many許多 of you have probably大概 seen看到
the movie電影 "The Martian火星."
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我想在座的大部分人可能
看過《絕地救援》。
00:17
But for those of you who did not,
it's a movie電影 about an astronaut宇航員
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但是,沒有看過的,我講一下:
這部電影是關於一個太空人,
00:20
who is stranded擱淺 on Mars火星,
and his efforts努力 to stay alive
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他被困在火星上,
然後他想辦法要存活下來,
00:25
until直到 the Earth地球 can send發送 a rescue拯救 mission任務
to bring帶來 him back to Earth地球.
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直到地球能發動一個
營救任務然後帶他回去。
00:31
Gladly樂意, they do re-establish重建 communication通訊
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還好他們和太空人瓦特尼
00:34
with the character字符,
astronaut宇航員 Watney沃特尼, at some point
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重新聯繫上了,
00:36
so that he's not as alone單獨
on Mars火星 until直到 he can be rescued獲救.
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這樣太空人在被救出去前
就不是孤單一人在火星上了。
00:42
So while you're watching觀看 the movie電影,
or even if you haven't沒有,
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在你看這部電影的時候,
沒看過也沒關係,
00:45
when you think about Mars火星,
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在你想起火星的時候,
00:47
you're probably大概 thinking思維 about
how far away it is and how distant遙遠.
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你可能在思考火星
離這裡有多遠,距離是多少。
00:51
And, what might威力 not
have occurred發生 to you is,
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還有,你腦海裡可能沒想過的:
00:54
what are the logistics後勤 really like
of working加工 on another另一個 planet行星 --
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後勤是什麼樣的?
要是你真的在另一個星球上工作,
00:58
of living活的 on two planets行星
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或者居住在兩個星球,
01:00
when there are people on the Earth地球
and there are rovers流浪者 or people on Mars火星?
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一邊是在地球的人,
一邊是火星上的小艇或者居民?
01:06
So think about when you have friends朋友,
families家庭 and co-workers合作夥伴
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所以,想像當你嘗試聯繫
01:10
in California加州, on the West西 Coast
or in other parts部分 of the world世界.
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在加州,在西海岸
或者在世界的另一面
01:14
When you're trying
to communicate通信 with them,
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你的朋友、家人和同事的時候,
01:16
one of the things
you probably大概 first think about is:
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你所想到的第一點就是
01:18
wait, what time is it in California加州?
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等等,在加州是什麼時間?
01:20
Will I wake喚醒 them up? Is it OK to call?
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我會吵到他們嗎?
我可以給他們打電話嗎?
01:23
So even if you're interacting互動
with colleagues同事 who are in Europe歐洲,
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所以,如果你試著聯繫
你在歐洲的同事時,
01:27
you're immediately立即 thinking思維 about:
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你馬上就會想到:
01:29
What does it take to coordinate坐標
communication通訊 when people are far away?
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當人們這麼遠的時候,
彼此間聯繫需要協調什麼?
01:36
So we don't have people on Mars火星
right now, but we do have rovers流浪者.
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我們現在還沒有人居住在火星,
但是我們有探測小艇。
01:42
And actually其實 right now, on Curiosity好奇心,
it is 6:10 in the morning早上.
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現在探測小艇「好奇號」那邊
是早上 6 點 10 分,
01:47
So, 6:10 in the morning早上 on Mars火星.
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所以在火星是早上 6 點 10 分。
01:50
We have four rovers流浪者 on Mars火星.
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我們有四部探測小艇在火星。
01:52
The United聯合的 States狀態 has put four rovers流浪者
on Mars火星 since以來 the mid-中-1990s,
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美國自 1990 年代中期
就在火星投放四部探測小艇。
01:56
and I have been privileged特權 enough足夠
to work on three of them.
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我非常很榮幸地參加了
三部探測小艇的工作。
02:00
So, I am a spacecraft宇宙飛船 engineer工程師,
a spacecraft宇宙飛船 operations操作 engineer工程師,
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我是太空船工程師,
太空船航務管理工程師,
02:05
at NASA's美國航空航天局 Jet噴射 Propulsion動力 Laboratory實驗室
in Los洛杉磯 Angeles洛杉磯, California加州.
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在位於洛杉磯的
太空總署噴射推進實驗室工作。
02:10
And these rovers流浪者
are our robotic機器人 emissaries使者.
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這些探測車是我們的機器密使。
02:15
So, they are our eyes眼睛 and our ears耳朵,
and they see the planet行星 for us
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所以,他們是我們的眼睛和耳朵,
他們在我們送人上去之前
02:21
until直到 we can send發送 people.
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幫助我們探索這個星球。
02:23
So we learn學習 how to operate操作
on other planets行星 through通過 these rovers流浪者.
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所以,我們透過這些小艇
學習怎麼在另一個星球上管理。
02:28
So before we send發送 people, we send發送 robots機器人.
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在我們送人上去之前,
我們先送機器人。
02:33
So the reason原因 there's a time difference區別
on Mars火星 right now,
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火星跟我們有時差的原因,
02:37
from the time that we're at
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和我們現在的地方有時差,
02:38
is because the Martian火星 day
is longer than the Earth地球 day.
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是因為在火星的一天
比在地球的一天長。
02:42
Our Earth地球 day is 24 hours小時,
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我們在地球一天是 24 小時,
02:45
because that's how long it takes
the Earth地球 to rotate迴轉,
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因為這是地球自轉的時間,
02:49
how long it takes to go around once一旦.
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這是轉一圈的時間。
02:51
So our day is 24 hours小時.
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所以我們一天是 24 小時。
02:53
It takes Mars火星 24 hours小時 and approximately
40 minutes分鐘 to rotate迴轉 once一旦.
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火星自轉一圈需要約
24 小時又 40 分鐘。
03:00
So that means手段 that the Martian火星 day
is 40 minutes分鐘 longer than the Earth地球 day.
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這就說明了火星的一天
比地球多了 40 分鐘。
03:07
So teams球隊 of people who are operating操作
the rovers流浪者 on Mars火星, like this one,
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所以像這個在管理
火星探測小艇的團隊,
03:12
what we are doing is we are living活的
on Earth地球, but working加工 on Mars火星.
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我們所做的就是雖然我們
居住在地球,卻在火星工作。
03:17
So we have to think as if we are actually其實
on Mars火星 with the rover流浪者.
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所以我們得像實際在火星上
與探測艇一起一樣。
03:23
Our job工作, the job工作 of this team球隊,
of which哪一個 I'm a part部分 of,
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這個隊伍的工作,我也是其中之一,
03:27
is to send發送 commands命令 to the rover流浪者
to tell it what to do the next下一個 day.
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是要下指令告訴探測艇
我們明天要幹什麼。
03:33
To tell it to drive駕駛 or drill鑽頭
or tell her whatever隨你 she's supposed應該 to do.
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告訴它要開或鑽取
或告訴她任何她應該做的。
03:37
So while she's sleeping睡眠 --
and the rover流浪者 does sleep睡覺 at night
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所以當她在睡覺的時候,
這部探測艇的確需要在晚上休息,
03:42
because she needs需求
to recharge充值 her batteries電池
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因為她需要充電,
03:44
and she needs需求 to weather天氣
the cold Martian火星 night.
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她還需要在冰冷的火星
晚上保護自己。
03:48
And so she sleeps睡覺.
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所以她需要睡覺。
03:49
So while she sleeps睡覺, we work
on her program程序 for the next下一個 day.
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在她睡覺的時候,我們忙著告訴她
第二天需要做的事。
03:54
So I work the Martian火星 night shift轉移.
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所以我值火星(錯誤包)夜班。
03:57
(Laughter笑聲)
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(笑)
03:59
So in order訂購 to come to work on the Earth地球
at the same相同 time every一切 day on Mars火星 --
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所以在地球上如果我們要在
火星的固定時間上班,
04:06
like, let's say I need to be
at work at 5:00 p.m.,
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舉個例,我需要在下午 5:00 工作,
04:08
this team球隊 needs需求 to be at work
at 5:00 p.m. Mars火星 time every一切 day,
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這個團隊需要在火星時間
每天下午 5:00 工作,
04:14
then we have to come to work
on the Earth地球 40 minutes分鐘 later後來 every一切 day,
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那麼在地球上我們每天都要
比前一天晚 40 分鐘來上班,
04:22
in order訂購 to stay in sync同步 with Mars火星.
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以便與火星保持同步。
04:24
That's like moving移動 a time zone every一切 day.
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這就像每天換一個時區一樣。
04:27
So one day you come in at 8:00,
the next下一個 day 40 minutes分鐘 later後來 at 8:40,
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所以一天你 8 點到,
第二天晚 40 分鐘,8 點 40 到,
04:32
the next下一個 day 40 minutes分鐘 later後來 at 9:20,
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第三天晚 40 分鐘,9 點 20,
04:36
the next下一個 day at 10:00.
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第四天 10 點。
04:37
So you keep moving移動 40 minutes分鐘 every一切 day,
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你會每天推遲 40 分鐘,
04:41
until直到 soon不久 you're coming未來 to work
in the middle中間 of the night --
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很快你就會在凌晨工作,
04:44
the middle中間 of the Earth地球 night.
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在地球的凌晨。
04:46
Right? So you can imagine想像
how confusing撲朔迷離 that is.
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是吧?所以你可以想像
這有多麼的複雜。
04:49
Hence於是, the Mars火星 watch.
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因此,火星手錶。
04:51
(Laughter笑聲)
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(笑)
04:53
This weights權重 in this watch
have been mechanically機械 adjusted調整
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重量已經過機械調整,
04:56
so that it runs運行 more slowly慢慢地.
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使其運行更慢。
04:59
Right? And we didn't start開始 out --
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對? 我們沒有開始──
05:01
I got this watch in 2004
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我在 2004 年拿到這款手錶,
05:03
when Spirit精神 and Opportunity機會,
the rovers流浪者 back then.
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當時「精神號」和「機會號」
這兩艘小艇開始工作。
05:06
We didn't start開始 out thinking思維
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我們一開始沒有想到
05:08
that we were going to need Mars火星 watches手錶.
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我們會需要火星手錶。
05:10
Right? We thought, OK,
we'll just have the time on our computers電腦
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對?我們只想到我們的電腦上
和任務管制螢幕上都有時間,
05:15
and on the mission任務 control控制 screens屏幕,
and that would be enough足夠.
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這就夠了。
05:18
Yeah, not so much.
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是的,不夠。
05:20
Because we weren't just
working加工 on Mars火星 time,
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因為我們不只是在火星時間工作,
05:23
we were actually其實 living活的 on Mars火星 time.
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我們實際上生活在火星時間。
05:26
And we got just instantaneously瞬間 confused困惑
about what time it was.
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我們瞬間就搞不清楚到底是幾點了。
05:30
So you really needed需要 something
on your wrist to tell you:
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所以你真的需要
你手腕上的東西告訴你:
05:34
What time is it on the Earth地球?
What time is it on Mars火星?
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在地球上是幾點?火星是幾點?
05:38
And it wasn't just the time on Mars火星
that was confusing撲朔迷離;
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而且還不只是火星上的
時間令人困惑;
05:44
we also needed需要 to be able能夠
to talk to each other about it.
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我們還需要能夠彼此談論它。
05:49
So a "sol溶膠" is a Martian火星 day --
again, 24 hours小時 and 40 minutes分鐘.
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所以在火星一個「太陽日」
是 24 小時又 40 分鐘。
05:54
So when we're talking about something
that's happening事件 on the Earth地球,
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當我們談論在地球上的事情時,
05:58
we will say, today今天.
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我們會說,今日。
06:00
So, for Mars火星, we say, "tosoltosol."
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所以在火星我們說,「今太陽日。」
06:03
(Laughter笑聲)
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(笑)
06:05
Yesterday昨天 became成為 "yestersolyestersol" for Mars火星.
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昨日在火星成為「昨太陽日」。
06:10
Again, we didn't start開始 out thinking思維,
"Oh, let's invent發明 a language語言."
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情況再度發生,我們沒有想到
「哦,讓我們發明一種語言。」
06:15
It was just very confusing撲朔迷離.
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這只是很混亂。
06:16
I remember記得 somebody
walked up to me and said,
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我記得有人走過來對我說:
06:18
"I would like to do this activity活動
on the vehicle車輛 tomorrow明天, on the rover流浪者."
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「明天我想在車上
做這個活動,探測車。」
06:22
And I said, "Tomorrow明天, tomorrow明天,
or Mars火星, tomorrow明天?"
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我說:「明天?
地球的,還是火星的?」
06:27
We started開始 this terminology術語 because
we needed需要 a way to talk to each other.
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我們開始用這個術語,
因為我們需要一種方式來相互交談。
06:33
(Laughter笑聲)
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(笑)
06:34
Tomorrow明天 became成為 "nextersolnextersol" or "solorrowsolorrow."
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明日成為「翌太陽日」
或「明太陽日。」
06:39
Because people have different不同 preferences優先
for the words they use.
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因為人們對他們使用的詞
有不同的偏好。
06:42
Some of you might威力 say "soda蘇打"
and some of you might威力 say "pop流行的."
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有些人可能會說「蘇打水」,
有些人可能會說「汽水。」
06:46
So we have people who say
"nextersolnextersol" or "solorrowsolorrow."
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所以我們有人說
「翌太陽日」或「明太陽日。」
06:50
And then something that I noticed注意到 after
a few少數 years年份 of working加工 on these missions任務,
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然後,我注意到,
做了這些任務幾年後,
06:55
was that the people who work
on the rovers流浪者, we say "tosoltosol."
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做探測挺工作的,
我們會說「今太陽日。」
07:00
The people who work on the
landed登陸 missions任務 that don't rove漫遊 around,
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只做登陸任務、不做探測挺的,
07:03
they say "tosoultosoul."
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他們說「今太陽天。」
07:05
So I could actually其實 tell what mission任務
you worked工作 on from your Martian火星 accent口音.
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所以我可以從你的火星用語
辨別你的工作任務。
(笑)
07:10
(Laughter笑聲)
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07:13
So we have the watches手錶 and the language語言,
and you're detecting檢測 a theme主題 here, right?
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所以我們有手錶和語言,
你開始有點感覺了吧?
07:17
So that we don't get confused困惑.
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所以我們不會困惑。
07:20
But even the Earth地球 daylight陽光
could confuse迷惑 us.
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但即使是地球的日光
也可能讓我們迷惑。
07:24
If you think that right now,
you've come to work
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如果你認為現在,你來上班,
07:27
and it's the middle中間 of the Martian火星 night
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但這是火星的深夜,
07:29
and there's light streaming in
from the windows視窗
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又有窗口流進的光,
07:32
that's going to be confusing撲朔迷離 as well.
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這也會造成混亂。
07:35
So you can see from
this image圖片 of the control控制 room房間
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所以你可以看到控制室的樣子,
07:37
that all of the blinds百葉窗 are down.
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所有的百葉窗都放下來了。
07:39
So that there's no light to distract轉移 us.
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所以沒有光可以分散我們的注意力。
07:42
The blinds百葉窗 went down all over the building建造
about a week before landing降落,
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著陸前一個星期
整個建築物的百葉窗都放下來,
07:47
and they didn't go up
until直到 we went off Mars火星 time.
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沒有拉上去,
直到我們開始火星時間。
07:51
So this also works作品
for the house, for at home.
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所以這也適用於房子,在家裡。
07:54
I've been on Mars火星 time three times,
and my husband丈夫 is like,
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我已經在火星時間三次,
我的丈夫就好像,
好的,我們準備好過火星時間了。
07:57
OK, we're getting得到 ready準備 for Mars火星 time.
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07:58
And so he'll地獄 put foil挫敗 all over the windows視窗
and dark黑暗 curtains窗簾 and shades色調
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所以他會把窗戶全貼上鋁箔紙,
窗簾和遮陽板都放下,
08:05
because it also affects影響 your families家庭.
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因為這也影響你的家人。
08:08
And so here I was living活的 in kind of
this darkened黑暗 environment環境, but so was he.
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所以我生活在這種
黑暗的環境中,他也是。
08:13
And he'd他會 gotten得到 used to it.
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他已經慢慢習慣了。
08:15
But then I would get these plaintive哀怨
emails電子郵件 from him when he was at work.
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當我在工作的時候,
我會收到他楚楚可憐的電子郵件。
08:19
Should I come home? Are you awake甦醒?
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我可以回家嗎?妳醒著嗎?
08:22
What time is it on Mars火星?
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現在在火星是幾點?
08:25
And I decided決定, OK,
so he needs需求 a Mars火星 watch.
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然後我決定了,
他需要一個火星手錶。
08:28
(Laughter笑聲)
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(笑)
08:29
But of course課程, it's 2016,
so there's an app應用 for that.
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但是當然,這是 2016 年,
所以他們當然有一個應用程式。
08:34
(Laughter笑聲)
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(笑)
08:35
So now instead代替 of the watches手錶,
we can also use our phones手機.
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現在除了手錶,
我們還可以用我們的手機。
08:40
But the impact碰撞 on families家庭
was just across橫過 the board;
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但對家庭的影響是全面的;
08:44
it wasn't just those of us
who were working加工 on the rovers流浪者
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不只對我們這些做探測挺工作的人,
08:48
but our families家庭 as well.
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對我們的家庭也一樣。
08:50
This is David大衛 Oh,
one of our flight飛行 directors董事,
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這是歐大衛,
我們的一名飛行指引長,
08:53
and he's at the beach海灘 in Los洛杉磯 Angeles洛杉磯
with his family家庭 at 1:00 in the morning早上.
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這是他凌晨 1:00 在洛杉磯海灘
和他家人的合照。
08:57
(Laughter笑聲)
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(笑)
08:59
So because we landed登陸 in August八月
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因為我們在八月份著陸,
09:02
and his kids孩子 didn't have to go back
to school學校 until直到 September九月,
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他的孩子在九月份之前
都不用回學校,
09:06
they actually其實 went on to Mars火星 time
with him for one month.
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他們真的和他一起
過了一個月的火星時間。
09:11
They got up 40 minutes分鐘 later後來 every一切 day.
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他們每天晚起 40 分鐘,
09:16
And they were on dad's爸爸的 work schedule時間表.
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他們跟著爸爸的工作日程過日子。
09:18
So they lived生活 on Mars火星 time for a month
and had these great adventures冒險,
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所以,他們過了一個月火星時間,
這是一次非常棒的歷程。
09:22
like going bowling保齡球
in the middle中間 of the night
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譬如在凌晨打保齡球,
09:24
or going to the beach海灘.
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或者去海灘一樣。
09:26
And one of the things
that we all discovered發現
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我們都發現到一件事,
09:29
is you can get anywhere隨地 in Los洛杉磯 Angeles洛杉磯
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就是你早上 3:00
可以去洛杉磯任何地方,
09:33
at 3:00 in the morning早上
when there's no traffic交通.
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因為不會塞車!
09:37
(Laughter笑聲)
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(笑)
09:38
So we would get off work,
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所以我們下班後,
09:39
and we didn't want to go home
and bother our families家庭,
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我們不想回家或者打擾我們的家人,
09:42
and we were hungry飢餓, so instead代替 of
going locally本地 to eat something,
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但是我們很餓,
可是我們沒有去附近找東西吃,
09:46
we'd星期三 go, "Wait, there's this great
all-night徹夜 deli熟食店 in Long Beach海灘,
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反而是:「等等,
長灘有一家很棒的宵夜店,
09:49
and we can get there in 10 minutes分鐘!"
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我們能在 10 分鐘內到那裡!」
09:52
So we would drive駕駛 down --
it was like the 60s, no traffic交通.
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所以,我們會開車去那裡,
就像 60 年代,沒有塞車!
09:54
We would drive駕駛 down there,
and the restaurant餐廳 owners擁有者 would go,
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我們到了那裡,
然後餐廳的主人過來了,
09:58
"Who are you people?
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「你們這群人是誰?」
10:01
And why are you at my restaurant餐廳
at 3:00 in the morning早上?"
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「為什麼你們凌晨3 點
在我的餐廳?」
10:05
So they came來了 to realize實現
that there were these packs of Martians火星,
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所以他們意識到,有這些火星人,
10:11
roaming漫遊 the LALA freeways高速公路,
in the middle中間 of the night --
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漫遊洛杉磯高速公路,在半夜──
10:17
in the middle中間 of the Earth地球 night.
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在地球的半夜。
10:19
And we did actually其實
start開始 calling調用 ourselves我們自己 Martians火星.
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我們確實開始稱自己是火星人。
10:24
So those of us who were on Mars火星 time
would refer參考 to ourselves我們自己 as Martians火星,
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所以過火星時間的我們
會自稱為火星人,
10:30
and everyone大家 else其他 as Earthlings地球人.
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其他人則是「地球上的生靈。」
10:33
(Laughter笑聲)
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(笑)
10:34
And that's because when you're moving移動
a time-zone時區 every一切 day,
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這是因為當你每天換一個時區,
10:40
you start開始 to really feel separated分離
from everyone大家 else其他.
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你開始真正感覺與其他人分開。
10:45
You're literally按照字面 in your own擁有 world世界.
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你真的活在你自己的世界裡。
10:50
So I have this button按鍵 on that says,
"I survived倖存 Mars火星 time. Sol索爾 0-90."
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所以我有這個圓別針上面說:
「我從火星時間生還,太陽日 0-90。」
10:57
And there's a picture圖片 of it
up on the screen屏幕.
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螢幕上有張相片。
11:00
So the reason原因 we got these buttons鈕扣
is because we work on Mars火星 time
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我們得到這些別針的原因
是因為我們在火星時間工作,
11:06
in order訂購 to be as efficient高效 as possible可能
with the rover流浪者 on Mars火星,
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為了使火星探測車
在火星上盡可能高效,
11:11
to make the best最好 use of our time.
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以充分利用我們的時間。
11:13
But we don't stay on Mars火星 time
for more than three to four months個月.
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但是我們不會過火星時間
超過三到四個月。
11:17
Eventually終於, we'll move移動 to a modified改性 Mars火星
time, which哪一個 is what we're working加工 now.
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最後,我們會轉到調整過的火星時間,
這是我們現在正在研究的東西。
11:22
And that's because it's hard on
your bodies身體, it's hard on your families家庭.
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這是因為它對你的身體很不好,
對你的家人也很難熬。
11:27
In fact事實, there were sleep睡覺 researchers研究人員
who actually其實 were studying研究 us
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事實上,有睡眠研究人員
實際在研究我們,
11:31
because it was so unusual異常 for humans人類
to try to extend延伸 their day.
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因為人類試圖延長
他們的一天是非常難見的。
11:37
And they had about 30 of us
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他們約有 30 個人
11:38
that they would do
sleep睡覺 deprivation剝奪 experiments實驗 on.
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會做睡眠剝奪實驗。
11:42
So I would come in and take the test測試
and I fell下跌 asleep睡著 in each one.
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所以我會進來參加測試,
而且我在每場測試都睡著了。
11:45
And that was because, again,
this eventually終於 becomes hard on your body身體.
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這是因為,再說一次,
這最終變得對你的身體很糟。
11:52
Even though雖然 it was a blast爆破.
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即使它很好玩。
11:55
It was a huge巨大 bonding結合 experience經驗
with the other members會員 on the team球隊,
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這會與團隊中其他成員
產生很強的情誼,
12:00
but it is difficult to sustain支持.
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但是難以維持。
12:04
So these rover流浪者 missions任務 are our first
steps腳步 out into the solar太陽能 system系統.
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所以這些探測任務
是我們進入太陽系的第一步。
12:10
We are learning學習 how to live生活
on more than one planet行星.
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我們正在學習
如何在多個星球上生活。
12:15
We are changing改變 our perspective透視
to become成為 multi-planetary多行星.
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我們正在改變我們的觀點,
成為多行星。
12:20
So the next下一個 time you see
a Star Wars戰爭 movie電影,
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所以下次你看到星際大戰電影,
12:23
and there are people going
from the Dagobah達戈巴 system系統 to Tatooine塔圖,
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有人從達哥巴系統到塔圖因,
12:27
think about what it really means手段 to have
people spread傳播 out so far.
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想想到目前為止人類向外擴散的
真正意義是什麼。
12:32
What it means手段 in terms條款
of the distances距離 between之間 them,
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他們之間的距離意味著什麼,
12:36
how they will start開始 to feel
separate分離 from each other
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他們將如何開始感覺彼此分離,
12:39
and just the logistics後勤 of the time.
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甚至只是物流的時間。
12:43
We have not sent發送 people
to Mars火星 yet然而, but we hope希望 to.
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我們還沒有派人去火星,
但我們希望能。
12:48
And between之間 companies公司 like SpaceXSpaceX公司 and NASANASA
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在像 SpaceX 這樣的公司和太空總署
12:52
and all of the international國際
space空間 agencies機構 of the world世界,
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及世界上所有的國際太空組織中間,
12:55
we hope希望 to do that
in the next下一個 few少數 decades幾十年.
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我們希望在未來幾十年裡能做到。
12:59
So soon不久 we will have people on Mars火星,
and we truly will be multi-planetary多行星.
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很快我們就會有人在火星上,
我們會是多行星的。
13:06
And the young年輕 boy男孩 or the young年輕 girl女孩
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今天在這裡看或聽的
年輕男孩或年輕女孩
13:08
who will be going to Mars火星 could be
in this audience聽眾 or listening today今天.
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都有可能會去火星。
13:16
I have wanted to work at JPLJPL
on these missions任務 since以來 I was 14 years年份 old
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我 14 歲時就想在
噴射推進實驗室做這些任務,
13:21
and I am privileged特權 to be a part部分 of it.
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我有幸成為它的一部分。
13:24
And this is a remarkable卓越 time
in the space空間 program程序,
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這是太空計劃中一個了不起的時代,
13:28
and we are all in this journey旅程 together一起.
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我們一起在這個旅程中。
13:31
So the next下一個 time you think
you don't have enough足夠 time in your day,
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所以下次你認為
你一天沒有足夠的時間,
13:36
just remember記得, it's all a matter
of your Earthly俗世的 perspective透視.
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只要記住,這只是你從地球角度看罷了。
13:41
Thank you.
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謝謝!
13:42
(Applause掌聲)
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(掌聲)
Translated by yue chen
Reviewed by Hime IX

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ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Nagin Cox - Spacecraft operations engineer
Nagin Cox explores Mars as part of the team that operates NASA's rovers.

Why you should listen

Nagin Cox has been exploring since she decided as a teenager that she wanted to work at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. She was born in Bangalore, India, and grew up in Kansas City, Kansas, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her experiences as a child in a Muslim household showed her how easily we separate ourselves based on gender, race or nationality, and it inspired her to do something that brings people together instead of dividing them. The Space Program helps the world "look up" and remember that we are one world. Thus, she has known from the time she was 14 years old that she wanted to work on missions of robotic space exploration.  

Cox realized her childhood dream and has been a spacecraft operations engineer at NASA/JPL for over 20 years. She has held leadership and system engineering positions on interplanetary robotic missions including the Galileo mission to Jupiter, the Mars Exploration Rovers, the Kepler exoplanet hunter, InSight and the Mars Curiosity Rover.

In 2015, Cox was honored as the namesake for Asteroid 14061 by its discovers. She has also received the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and two NASA Exceptional Achievement Medals. She is a U.S. Department of State STEM Speaker and has spoken to audiences around the world on the stories of the people behind the missions. She has also served on Cornell University’s President's Council for Cornell Women.

Before her time at JPL, Cox served for 6 years in the US Air Force including duty as a Space Operations Officer at NORAD/US Space Command. She holds engineering degrees from Cornell University and the Air Force Institute of Technology as well as a psychology degree from Cornell. (Sometimes she is not sure which one she uses more: the engineering degree or the psychology degree.)

Cox is currently a Tactical Mission Lead on the Curiosity Rover, and every day at NASA/JPL exploring space is as rewarding as the first. You can contact her at nagincox(at)outlook.com.

More profile about the speaker
Nagin Cox | Speaker | TED.com