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Stephanie Busari: How fake news does real harm

史蒂芬妮‧布薩里: 假新聞造成的真實傷害

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2014 年 4 月 14 日,超過 200 名奇博克女孩被博科勝地恐怖分子綁架,此事件在世界上引發了 #釋放我們的女孩 (#BringBackOurGirls) 的活動。但奈及利亞政府卻聲稱該綁架案是假新聞,因此而延誤了救援行動。在這場演講中,記者史蒂芬妮‧布薩里以奇博克綁架案說明假新聞的致命性,以及我們該如何阻止假新聞的傳播。

- Journalist
Stephanie Busari is a journalist and editor at CNN International Digital. Full bio

我想和你們分享一個女孩的故事,
00:13
I want to tell告訴 you a story故事 about a girl女孩.
但我不能說出她的真名,
00:16
But I can't不能 tell告訴 you her她的 real真實 name名稱.
所以我們暫且稱她為哈狄札。
00:19
So所以 let's讓我們 just只是 call呼叫 her她的 HadizaHadiza.
她今年 20 歲,
00:21
HadizaHadiza is 20.
她很害羞,
00:23
She's她是 shy害羞,
她的笑容看起來很美麗,
00:24
but she has a beautiful美麗 smile微笑
that lights燈火 up向上 her她的 face面對.
但她卻身在痛苦中,
00:28
But she's in constant不變 pain疼痛.
而且她可能終生都需要藥物治療。
00:32
And she will likely容易 be on medication藥物治療
for the rest休息 of her她的 life.
你知道為什麼嗎?
00:37
Do you want to know知道 why為什麼?
哈狄札來自奇博克,
00:39
HadizaHadiza is a ChibokChibok girl女孩,
2014 年 4 月 14 日,
00:42
and on April四月 14, 2014, she was kidnapped綁架
她被博科聖地恐怖分子綁架。
00:46
by Boko博科 Haram閨房 terrorists恐怖分子.
她試圖要逃跑,
00:48
She managed管理 to escape逃逸, though雖然,
她從載滿女孩的卡車上跳下,
00:51
by jumping跳躍 off the truck卡車
that was carrying攜帶 the girls女孩.
但在著地時摔斷了雙腿,
00:54
But when什麼時候 she landed登陸,
she broke打破 both her她的 legs,
她得爬進草叢裡躲起來。
00:57
and she had to crawl爬行 on her她的 tummy趴著
to hide隱藏 in the bushes灌木叢.
她非常害怕恐怖份子會再度找上她,
01:00
She told告訴 me she was terrified
that Boko博科 Haram閨房 would come back背部 for her她的.
那天共有 57 個女孩逃出卡車。
01:05
She was one of 57 girls女孩 who would escape逃逸
by jumping跳躍 off trucks卡車 that day.
這個事件很快的,
01:10
This story故事, quite相當 rightly正當地, caused造成 ripples漣漪
引起全球的關注。
01:12
around周圍 the world世界.
蜜雪兒歐巴馬、馬拉拉以及其他名人,
01:14
People like Michelle米歇爾 Obama奧巴馬,
Malala馬拉拉 and others其他
都站出來發聲。
01:17
lent借給 their voices聲音 in protest抗議,
當時我正住在倫敦,
01:19
and at about the same相同 time時間 --
I was living活的 in London倫敦 at the time時間 --
我被派到阿布加參與
01:23
I was sent發送 from London倫敦 to Abuja阿布賈
to cover the World世界 Economic經濟 Forum論壇
奈及利亞首次主辦的
世界經濟論壇會議。
01:27
that Nigeria尼日利亞 was hosting託管
for the first第一 time時間.
當時綁架案在當地受到很大的關注,
01:30
But when什麼時候 we我們 arrived到達, it was clear明確
that there那裡 was only只要 one story故事 in town.
我們向當地政府施壓。
01:35
We我們 put the government政府 under pressure壓力.
並詢問他們,
01:37
We我們 asked tough強硬 questions問題
about what什麼 they他們 were doing
解救人質的進展。
01:40
to bring帶來 these這些 girls女孩 back背部.
可以理解的是,
01:42
Understandably可以理解,
他們不喜歡被質問,
01:44
they他們 weren't too happy快樂
with our我們的 line of questioning疑問,
所以我們只得到一些
「小道的事實消息」,
01:46
and let's讓我們 just只是 say we我們 received收到
our我們的 fair公平 share分享 of "alternative替代 facts事實."
(笑聲)
01:50
(Laughter笑聲)
具有影響力的當地人告訴我們,
01:53
Influential有影響 Nigerians尼日利亞人
were telling告訴 us at the time時間
我們太天真了。
01:56
that we我們 were naïve已經,
我們不了解奈及利亞的政治情勢,
01:58
we我們 didn't沒有 understand理解
the political政治 situation情況 in Nigeria尼日利亞.
但他們也告訴我們。
02:02
But they他們 also told告訴 us
奇博克女孩綁架案,
02:05
that the story故事 of the ChibokChibok girls女孩
是假的,
02:07
was a hoax惡作劇.
難過的是,這些假謠言仍被流傳著。
02:10
Sadly可悲的是, this這個 hoax惡作劇 narrative敘述 has persisted堅持,
直到現在,仍有當地人,
02:12
and there那裡 are still仍然 people
in Nigeria尼日利亞 today今天
深信奇博克女孩綁架案從未發生過,
02:15
who believe相信 that the ChibokChibok girls女孩
were never決不 kidnapped綁架.
但我採訪過那些受害者,
02:18
Yet然而 I was talking to people like these這些 --
我採訪過那些絕望的父母,
02:22
devastated滿目瘡痍 parents父母,
他們訴說著女兒被綁架的那天,
02:24
who told告訴 us that on the day
Boko博科 Haram閨房 kidnapped綁架 their daughters女兒,
他們追著卡車跑進山姆畢沙叢林裡,
02:28
they他們 ran into the SambisaSambisa Forest森林
after the trucks卡車 carrying攜帶 their daughters女兒.
他們帶著彎刀衝進叢林裡,
但卻被迫回頭,
02:32
They他們 were armed武裝 with machetes砍刀,
but they他們 were forced被迫 to turn back背部
因為恐怖分子持有槍。
02:36
because因為 Boko博科 Haram閨房 had guns槍砲.
這兩年來,此新聞受到的
關注越來越少,
02:39
For two years年份, inevitably必將,
the news新聞 agenda議程 moved移動 on,
過去兩年來,
02:43
and for two years年份,
我們沒有聽到太多
關於奇博克女孩的消息,
02:44
we我們 didn't沒有 hear much許多
about the ChibokChibok girls女孩.
大家都認為她們死了。
02:47
Everyone大家 presumed假定 they他們 were dead.
但去年四月,
02:50
But in April四月 last持續 year,
我拿到一部影片,
02:52
I was able能夠 to obtain獲得 this這個 video視頻.
這是擷自影片的畫面,
02:55
This is a still仍然 from the video視頻
恐怖分子以此證明女孩們還活著,
02:56
that Boko博科 Haram閨房 filmed拍攝 as a proof證明 of life,
我透過關係取得這部影片,
03:00
and through通過 a source資源,
I obtained獲得 this這個 video視頻.
但在我發佈影片前。
03:04
But before之前 I could publish發布 it,
我必須到奈及利亞的東北部,
03:05
I had to travel旅行
to the northeast東北 of Nigeria尼日利亞
向受害者家長確認影片真實性,
03:08
to talk談論 to the parents父母, to verify校驗 it.
我很快就得到了答案。
03:11
I didn't沒有 have to wait等待
too long for confirmation確認.
其中有一個母親
在看過影片後跟我說,
03:15
One一個 of the mothers母親,
when什麼時候 she watched看著 the video視頻, told告訴 me
如果她能把手伸進螢幕裡,
03:18
that if如果 she could have reached到達
into the laptop筆記本電腦
並把她的女兒拉出來,
03:21
and pulled our我們的 her她的 child兒童 from the laptop筆記本電腦,
她真的很想這麼做。
03:25
she would have doneDONE so所以.
各位,如果你們跟我一樣,
已經為人父母的話,
03:28
For those那些 of you who are parents父母,
like myself, in the audience聽眾,
你大概能想像那位母親,
03:31
you can only只要 imagine想像 the anguish痛苦
所承受的極大痛苦,
03:34
that that mother母親 felt.
這部影片是與博科聖地談判的開端,
03:37
This video視頻 would go on to kick-start腳踏啟動
negotiation談判 talks會談 with Boko博科 Haram閨房.
奈及利亞的議員跟我說,
因為這部影片,
03:44
And a Nigerian尼日利亞 senator參議員 told告訴 me
that because因為 of this這個 video視頻
他們現在才採取行動。
03:48
they他們 entered進入 into those那些 talks會談,
因為他們之前認為女孩們早已死亡,
03:50
because因為 they他們 had long presumed假定
that the ChibokChibok girls女孩 were dead.
去年十月,21 位女孩被釋放了,
03:54
Twenty-one二十一 girls女孩 were freed釋放
in October十月 last持續 year.
不幸的是,大概還有
200 位失蹤的女孩,
03:59
Sadly可悲的是, nearly幾乎 200 of them他們
still仍然 remain missing失踪.
我得承認我沒有站在客觀的角度
04:03
I must必須 confess承認 that I have not been
a dispassionate冷靜 observer觀察者
報導此事件,
04:07
covering覆蓋 this這個 story故事.
每當想起有許多機會都被浪費掉時,
04:09
I am furious狂怒 when什麼時候 I think認為
about the wasted浪費 opportunities機會
我就非常地氣憤。
04:14
to rescue拯救 these這些 girls女孩.
每當想起那些父母說,
04:15
I am furious狂怒 when什麼時候 I think認為 about
what什麼 the parents父母 have told告訴 me,
如果他們是有錢有勢的人,
04:19
that if如果 these這些 were daughters女兒
of the rich豐富 and the powerful強大,
那些女孩們早就被解救時,
我就很氣憤。
04:22
they他們 would have been found發現 much許多 earlier.
我也對假新聞
04:26
And I am furious狂怒
感到憤怒。
04:28
that the hoax惡作劇 narrative敘述,
我深信著
04:30
I firmly牢牢 believe相信,
那是拖延救援的原因。
04:32
caused造成 a delay延遲;
害那些女孩無法提早被救出來,
04:34
it was part部分 of the reason原因
for the delay延遲 in their return返回.
這讓我了解到假新聞
所造成的真實傷害,
04:38
This illustrates說明 to me
the deadly致命 danger危險 of fake news新聞.
我們能做什麼?
04:43
So所以 what什麼 can we我們 do about it?
在谷歌及臉書有一群,
04:45
There are some一些 very非常 smart聰明 people,
非常聰明的工程師們,
04:47
smart聰明 engineers工程師 at Google谷歌 and FacebookFacebook的,
試圖用新科技防止假新聞的散佈。
04:50
who are trying to use使用 technology技術
to stop停止 the spread傳播 of fake news新聞.
但除此之外,我想每一個人,
04:55
But beyond that, I think認為
everybody每個人 here這裡 -- you and I --
包含你和我,
都要參與其中,
05:00
we我們 have a role角色 to play in that.
我們會分享新聞,
05:02
We我們 are the ones那些 who share分享 the content內容.
我們會在網路上分享故事,
05:04
We我們 are the ones那些 who share分享
the stories故事 online線上.
在這個時代,我們就是出版者,
05:07
In this這個 day and age年齡, we're我們 all所有 publishers出版商,
所以我們應要承擔責任。
05:10
and we我們 have responsibility責任.
身為一位記者,
05:13
In my我的 job工作 as a journalist記者,
我會檢查、確認。
05:15
I check, I verify校驗.
我相信我的直覺,但我也會質問,
05:17
I trust相信 my我的 gut腸道, but I ask tough強硬 questions問題.
為什麼這個人要告訴我這個故事?
05:21
Why為什麼 is this這個 person telling告訴 me this這個 story故事?
他們能從分享此資訊中獲得什麼?
05:24
What什麼 do they他們 have to gain獲得
by sharing分享 this這個 information信息?
他們是不是有別的意圖?
05:28
Do they他們 have a hidden agenda議程?
我相信我們應該要開始質問
05:30
I really believe相信 that we我們 must必須 all所有 start開始
to ask tougher強硬 questions問題
我們在網路上發現的資訊,
05:36
of information信息 that we我們 discover發現 online線上.
有研究指出,有些人只看到標題,
05:41
Research研究 shows節目 that some一些 of us
don't even read beyond headlines新聞頭條
就分享資訊。
05:47
before之前 we我們 share分享 stories故事.
在座有人這麼做過嗎?
05:49
Who here這裡 has doneDONE that?
我就曾經做過,
05:51
I know知道 I have.
但如果
05:54
But what什麼 if如果
我們能停止轉發未經證實的消息,
05:57
we我們 stopped停止 taking服用 information信息
that we我們 discover發現 at face面對 value?
如果我們能仔細思考,
06:02
What什麼 if如果 we我們 stop停止 to think認為
about the consequence後果
我們所轉發的訊息,
06:05
of the information信息 that we我們 pass通過 on
可能會引發暴力或仇恨,
06:08
and its它的 potential潛在 to incite煽動
violence暴力 or要么 hatred?
如果我們能在分享訊息前仔細思考,
06:12
What什麼 if如果 we我們 stop停止 to think認為
about the real-life現實生活 consequences後果
此舉會對真實世界造成什麼樣影響?
06:17
of the information信息 that we我們 share分享?
感謝各位的聆聽。
06:20
Thank謝謝 you very非常 much許多 for listening.
(掌聲)
06:21
(Applause掌聲)
Translated by Candice Su
Reviewed by Yanyan Hong

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About the speaker:

Stephanie Busari - Journalist
Stephanie Busari is a journalist and editor at CNN International Digital.

Why you should listen

Stephanie Busari moved to Lagos from London in July 2016 to pioneer CNN's first digital and multimedia bureau. She also reports on-air in breaking news situations for CNN International.

In April 2016 Busari exclusively obtained the "proof of life" video that showed that the missing Chibok schoolgirls who were kidnapped in Nigeria in 2014 were still alive. She was also an instrumental member of the CNN team that won a Peabody Award in May 2015 for the network's coverage of the missing girls. Busari recently won a Gracie Award for her persistence in covering this story, and she's also a previous recipient of the Outstanding Woman in the Media Awards.

Busari is a passionate community activist who curated TEDxBrixton for three years before she left London. She founded TEDxBrixton in 2013 driven by a desire to bring disparate elements of her community together and to create a platform for those who wouldn't normally have one to share their ideas worth spreading.

A passionate and adept public speaker, Busari is regularly invited to share her insights and host panels. She has spoken at UN Women, Said Business School, Oxford, Africa Gathering among others.

Over a 15-year career, Busari has worked as a news reporter, entertainment and features writer, court reporter and columnist, and she has been published in many of the UK and international media's most influential outlets, such as the BBC and Daily Mirror.

During a six-month stint in Northern Ireland in 2003, Busari spent time in some of the worst affected areas of "The Troubles" and secured interviews with a crucifixion victim, government ministers and paramilitaries. While there, she also launched and edited an award-winning lifestyle column.

A native Yoruba speaker, Busari also speaks fluent French and is currently learning Hausa.  

More profile about the speaker
Stephanie Busari | Speaker | TED.com