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TEDGlobal 2012

Sanjay Pradhan: How open data is changing international aid

Sanjay Pradhan: Kako otvoreni podaci mijenjaju međunarodnu pomoć

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Kako se uvjeriti da humanitarna pomoć i novac zapravo dolaze do ljudi koji ih najviše trebaju? Sanjay Pradhan iz Svjetske banke pruža tri smjernice pomoću kojih ona ima najviše utjecaja -- i čime se suzbija korupcija. Postoji jedan ključ: spojiti ljude koji rade na promjeni propalih sustava s podacima koje trebaju.

- Development Leader
Sanjay Pradhan is vice president of the World Bank Institute, helping leaders in developing countries learn skills for reform, development and good governance. Full bio

I grew up in Bihar, India's poorest state,
Odrastao sam u Biharu, Indijskoj najsiromašnijoj saveznoj državi,
00:16
and I remember when I was six years old,
sjećam se kada sam imao šest godina,
00:21
I remember coming home one day to find a cart
išao sam kući i na pragu
00:24
full of the most delicious sweets at our doorstep.
naišao na kolica puna najfinijih slatkiša.
00:28
My brothers and I dug in,
Moj brat i ja smo ih odmah počeli jesti,
00:33
and that's when my father came home.
tada je moj otac došao kući.
00:37
He was livid, and I still remember how we cried
Problijedio je, još uvijek se sjećam kako je plakao
00:40
when that cart with our half-eaten sweets
kada su kolica s polu pojedenim slatkišima
00:46
was pulled away from us.
odvukli od nas.
00:50
Later, I understood why my father got so upset.
Kasnije sam shvatio zašto se moj otac toliko uzrujao.
00:53
Those sweets were a bribe
Ti slatkiši su bili mito
00:58
from a contractor who was trying to get my father
jednog građevinara koji je pokušavao dobiti
01:01
to award him a government contract.
vladin ugovor od mog oca.
01:04
My father was responsible for building roads in Bihar,
Moj otac je bio odgovoran za gradnju cesta u Biharu
01:08
and he had developed a firm stance against corruption,
i razvio je čvrst stav protiv korupcije,
01:13
even though he was harassed and threatened.
iako je bio maltretiran i prijetilo mu se.
01:17
His was a lonely struggle, because Bihar
Njegova borba bila je usamljena, jer je Bihar
01:21
was also India's most corrupt state,
bio najkorumpiranija država Indije,
01:25
where public officials were enriching themselves,
gdje su javni službenici obogaćivali sebe,
01:28
[rather] than serving the poor who had no means
(umjesto) da služe siromašnima koji nisu imali načina
01:32
to express their anguish if their children
kojim bi izrazili svoju muku ako im djeca
01:36
had no food or no schooling.
nisu imala hrane ili obrazovanja.
01:40
And I experienced this most viscerally
I to sam najbolje doživio
01:44
when I traveled to remote villages to study poverty.
kada sam putovao udaljenim selima kako bih proučavao siromaštvo.
01:48
And as I went village to village,
I kako sam išao od sela do sela,
01:55
I remember one day, when I was famished and exhausted,
sjećam se jednog dana, kada sam bio izgladnjen i izmoren,
01:58
and I was almost collapsing
i skoro sam kolabrirao
02:05
in a scorching heat under a tree,
pod užasnom vrućinom ispod jednog drveta,
02:07
and just at that time, one of the poorest men in that village
i baš tada, jedan od najsiromašnijih ljudi u tom selu
02:10
invited me into his hut and graciously fed me.
me pozvao u svoju kolibu i obilno nahranio.
02:16
Only I later realized that what he fed me
Tek sam kasnije shvatio da ono s čime me nahranio
02:22
was food for his entire family for two days.
je bila hrana cijele njegove obitelji za dva dana.
02:27
This profound gift of generosity
Taj jedinstveni dar plemenitosti
02:33
challenged and changed the very purpose of my life.
me potakao i promijenio smisao mog života.
02:37
I resolved to give back.
Odlučio sam se iskupiti.
02:42
Later, I joined the World Bank, which sought to fight
Kasnije, pridružio sam se Svjetskoj banci, koja se pokušala boriti
02:46
such poverty by transferring aid from rich to poor countries.
s takvim siromaštvom prenoseći pomoć iz bogatih prema siromašnim zemljama.
02:50
My initial work focused on Uganda, where I focused
Moj prvi rad se fokusirao na Ugandu, gdje sam se bavio
02:56
on negotiating reforms with the Finance Ministry of Uganda
pregovaranjem reformi s ministarstvom
financija Ugande
03:01
so they could access our loans.
kako bi mogli dobiti naše kredite.
03:06
But after we disbursed the loans, I remember
Ali nakon što smo isplatili novce, sjećam se
03:08
a trip in Uganda where I found newly built schools
puta u Ugandu gdje sam našao novoizgrađene škole
03:11
without textbooks or teachers,
bez knjiga ili učitelja,
03:16
new health clinics without drugs,
nove zdravstvene ustanove bez lijekova,
03:19
and the poor once again without any voice or recourse.
i siromašne još jednom bez ikakvoga glasa ili pomoći.
03:22
It was Bihar all over again.
Izgledalo je poput Bihara.
03:28
Bihar represents the challenge of development:
Bihar je predstavljao izazov napretka:
03:31
abject poverty surrounded by corruption.
potpuno siromaštvo okruženo korupcijom.
03:35
Globally, 1.3 billion people live on less than
Globalno, 1.3 milijarde ljudi živi na manje od
03:39
$1.25 a day, and the work I did in Uganda
1.25$ po danu i posao koji sam obavio u Ugandi
03:43
represents the traditional approach to these problems
predstavlja tradicionalni pristup ovakvim problemima
03:48
that has been practiced since 1944,
koji se primjenjivao od 1944,
03:53
when winners of World War II, 500 founding fathers,
kada su se pobjednici II. Svjetskog rata, 500 osnivajućih otaca,
03:57
and one lonely founding mother,
i jedna usamljena majka,
04:03
gathered in New Hampshire, USA,
okupili u New Hampshireu, SAD,
04:06
to establish the Bretton Woods institutions,
kako bi osnovali Bretton Woods institucije,
04:09
including the World Bank.
uključujući Svjetsku banku.
04:11
And that traditional approach to development
Taj tradicionalni pristup razvoju
04:13
had three key elements. First, transfer of resources
imao je tri ključna elementa. Prvo, prijenos sredstava
04:17
from rich countries in the North
iz bogatih zemalja na sjeveru
04:20
to poorer countries in the South,
prema siromašnijim zemljama na jugu,
04:22
accompanied by reform prescriptions.
popraćeno s propisivanjem reformi.
04:25
Second, the development institutions that channeled
Drugo, razvojne institucije koje su usmjeravale
04:28
these transfers were opaque, with little transparency
te transakcije bile su zatvorene, s malo transparentnosti
04:31
of what they financed or what results they achieved.
u vezi toga što su financirale ili
koje su rezultate postigle.
04:36
And third, the engagement in developing countries
I treće, angažman u zemljama u razvoju
04:40
was with a narrow set of government elites
se vodio u dogovoru s vladajućim elitama
04:44
with little interaction with the citizens, who are
s malo interakcije s građanima, koji su
04:47
the ultimate beneficiaries of development assistance.
krajnji korisnici razvojne pomoći.
04:50
Today, each of these elements is opening up
Danas, svaki od ovih elemenata se otvaraju
04:55
due to dramatic changes in the global environment.
zbog dramatičnih promjena u globalnom okruženju.
04:59
Open knowledge, open aid, open governance,
Otvoreno znanje, otvorena pomoć, otvoreno vladanje
05:02
and together, they represent three key shifts
i zajedno, oni predstavljaju tri ključna pomaka
05:06
that are transforming development
koja transformiraju razvoj
05:10
and that also hold greater hope for the problems
i u kojima postoji nada za probleme
05:12
I witnessed in Uganda and in Bihar.
kojima sam svjedočio u Ugandi i Biharu.
05:16
The first key shift is open knowledge.
Prvi ključan pomak je otvoreno znanje.
05:21
You know, developing countries today will not simply
Znate, zemlje u razvoju danas neće jednostavno
05:24
accept solutions that are handed down to them
prihvatiti rješenja koja im ponude
05:27
by the U.S., Europe or the World Bank.
SAD, Europa ili Svjetska banka.
05:31
They get their inspiration, their hope,
Oni dobivaju inspiraciju, nadu,
05:35
their practical know-how,
praktično znanje
05:37
from successful emerging economies in the South.
od uspješnih rastućih ekonomija na jugu.
05:40
They want to know how China lifted 500 million people
Oni žele znati kako je Kina izbavila 500 milijuna ljudi
05:43
out of poverty in 30 years,
iz siromaštva za 30 godina,
05:48
how Mexico's Oportunidades program
kako je Meksički Oportunidades program
05:52
improved schooling and nutrition for millions of children.
unaprijedio školstvo i prehranu za milijune djece.
05:55
This is the new ecosystem of open-knowledge flows,
Ovo je novi ekosustav otvorenog znanja,
05:59
not just traveling North to South, but South to South,
koji ne putuje samo sa sjevera na jug, nego i
s juga na jug,
06:05
and even South to North,
pa čak i s juga na sjever,
06:10
with Mexico's Oportunidades today inspiring New York City.
primjerice Meksički Oportunidades program koji
inspirira New York.
06:12
And just as these North-to-South transfers are opening up,
I baš kako se ovi sjever-jug prijelazi otvaraju,
06:18
so too are the development institutions
tako se i razvojne institucije
06:22
that channeled these transfers.
koje usmjeravaju ove prijenose otvaraju.
06:25
This is the second shift: open aid.
To je drugi pomak: otvorena pomoć.
06:27
Recently, the World Bank opened its vault of data
Nedavno, Svjetska banka je javnosti otvorila
svoj trezor s podacima,
06:31
for public use, releasing 8,000 economic and social indicators
u kojima su 8,000 ekonomskih i socijalnih indikatora
06:35
for 200 countries over 50 years,
za 200 zemalja tijekom 50 godina,
06:39
and it launched a global competition to crowdsource
što je pokrenilo globalno natjecanje za razvoj
06:44
innovative apps using this data.
inovativnih aplikacija koje koriste ove podatke.
06:48
Development institutions today are also opening
Razvojne institucije se danas također otvaraju
06:51
for public scrutiny the projects they finance.
davajući javnosti uvid u projekte koje financiraju.
06:55
Take GeoMapping. In this map from Kenya,
Uzmite za primjer GeoMapping. Na ovoj karti Kenije,
06:58
the red dots show where all the schools financed by donors
crvene točke prikazuju sve škole financirane od strane donora,
07:03
are located, and the darker the shade of green,
što je tamnija zelena boja,
07:07
the more the number of out-of-school children.
to je više djece izvan škola.
07:11
So this simple mashup reveals that donors
Tako ovaj primjer pokazuje da donori
07:15
have not financed any schools in the areas
nisu financirali niti jednu školu u područjima
07:19
with the most out-of-school children,
koja imaju najviše neškolovane djece,
07:22
provoking new questions. Is development assistance
što donosi nova pitanja. Cilja li razvojna pomoć
07:24
targeting those who most need our help?
one kojima je naša pomoć najpotrebnija?
07:28
In this manner, the World Bank has now GeoMapped
Zbog toga, Svjetska banka je trenutno geo-locirala
07:33
30,000 project activities in 143 countries,
30,000 projekata u 143 države,
07:36
and donors are using a common platform
a donori također koriste istu platformu
07:41
to map all their projects.
kako bi označili svoje projekte.
07:44
This is a tremendous leap forward in transparency
Ovo je ogroman korak naprijed u transparentnosti
07:47
and accountability of aid.
i odgovornosti pomaganja.
07:52
And this leads me to the third, and in my view,
Ovo me dovodi do trećeg, prema meni,
07:54
the most significant shift in development:
najznačajnijeg pomaka u razvoju:
07:57
open governance. Governments today are opening up
otvorenom vladanju. Danas se vlade otvaraju
08:01
just as citizens are demanding voice and accountability.
zbog građana koji traže pravo glasa i odgovornost.
08:05
From the Arab Spring to the Anna Hazare movement in India,
Od Arapskog Proljeća do Anna Hazare
pokreta u Indiji,
08:09
using mobile phones and social media
koristeći mobilne telefone i društvene medije
08:13
not just for political accountability
ne samo za političku odgovornost
08:16
but also for development accountability.
nego i za razvojnu odgovornost.
08:18
Are governments delivering services to the citizens?
Pružaju li vlade usluge svojim građanima?
08:22
So for instance, several governments in Africa
Na primjer, više vlada u Africi
08:27
and Eastern Europe are opening their budgets to the public.
i istočnoj Europi otvaraju svoje proračune javnosti.
08:31
But, you know, there is a big difference between a budget
Ali, znate, postoji velika razlika između proračuna
08:36
that's public and a budget that's accessible.
koji je javni i proračuna kojem se može pristupiti.
08:39
This is a public budget. (Laughter)
To je javni budžet. (Smijeh)
08:43
And as you can see, it's not really accessible
I kao što možete vidjeti, on je zapravo nedostupan
08:48
or understandable to an ordinary citizen
ili neshvatljiv običnom građaninu
08:52
that is trying to understand how the government is spending its resources.
koji pokušava razumjeti kako vlada
troši svoje resurse.
08:54
To tackle this problem, governments are using new tools
Kako bi riješili ovaj problem, vlade koriste nove alate
08:59
to visualize the budget so it's more understandable
za vizualizaciju budžeta tako da je on
09:03
to the public.
razumljiviji javnosti.
09:08
In this map from Moldova, the green color shows
U ovoj mapi Moldavije, zelena boja predstavlja
09:10
those districts that have low spending on schools
područja koja imaju niske izdatke za škole
09:14
but good educational outcomes,
ali dobre obrazovne ishode,
09:18
and the red color shows the opposite.
a crvena boja prikazuje obrnuto.
09:20
Tools like this help turn a shelf full of inscrutable documents
Alati poput ovoga pretvaraju police pune dokumenata
09:24
into a publicly understandable visual,
u prikaz koji je razumljiv javnosti,
09:30
and what's exciting is that with this openness,
i ono što je uzbudljivo u vezi ove otvorenosti,
09:34
there are today new opportunities for citizens
danas postoje nove mogućnosti za građane
09:38
to give feedback and engage with government.
da daju povratne informacije i sudjeluju s vladom.
09:42
So in the Philippines today, parents and students
Tako u Filipinima, roditelji i studenti
09:45
can give real-time feedback on a website,
mogu u stvarnom vremenu dati informacije na stranici,
09:49
Checkmyschool.org, or using SMS, whether teachers
Checkmyschool.org ili pomoću
SMSa, pojavljuju li se
09:54
and textbooks are showing up in school,
nastavnici i knjige u školi,
09:59
the same problems I witnessed in Uganda and in Bihar.
to su isti problemi kojima sam svjedočio
u Ugandi i Biharu.
10:01
And the government is responsive. So for instance,
I vlada reagira. Na primjer,
10:06
when it was reported on this website that 800 students
kada je na toj web stranici prijavljeno da je 800 učenika
10:09
were at risk because school repairs had stalled
ugroženo jer je popravak škole zastao
10:14
due to corruption, the Department of Education
zbog korupcije, ministarstvo obrazovanja
10:18
in the Philippines took swift action.
u Filipinima brzo je djelovalo.
10:20
And you know what's exciting is that this innovation
Uzbudljivo je to što se ova inovacija
10:23
is now spreading South to South, from the Philippines
sada širi od od juga do juga, od Filipina
10:27
to Indonesia, Kenya, Moldova and beyond.
do Indonezije, Kenije, Moldavije i dalje.
10:32
In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, even an impoverished
U Der es Salam, Tanzaniji, čak i najsiromašnije
10:36
community was able to use these tools
zajednice imaju mogućnost korištenja ovih alata
10:40
to voice its aspirations.
kako bi izrazili svoje želje.
10:44
This is what the map of Tandale looked like
Ovako je karta Tandale izgledala u
10:47
in August, 2011. But within a few weeks,
kolovozu, 2011. Ali za par tjedana,
10:50
university students were able to use mobile phones
studenti su iskoristili mobilne telefone
10:54
and an open-source platform to dramatically map
i otvorene platforme i dramatično izmapirali
10:58
the entire community infrastructure.
čitavu infrastrukturu zajednice.
11:03
And what is very exciting is that citizens were then
I uzbudljivo je što su građani tada u mogućnosti
11:07
able to give feedback as to which health or water points
pružiti povratnu informaciju poput koje
zdravstvene ili vodovodne
11:11
were not working, aggregated
usluge ne rade, naznačeno
11:16
in the red bubbles that you see,
ovim crvenim kružićima koje vidite,
11:19
which together provides a graphic visual
koji zajedno pružaju grafički prikaz
11:21
of the collective voices of the poor.
kolektivnih glasova siromašnih građana.
11:26
Today, even Bihar is turning around and opening up
Danas se čak i Bihar mijenja i otvara
11:31
under a committed leadership that is making government
pod odlučnim vodstvom koji čini vladu
11:36
transparent, accessible and responsive to the poor.
transparentnijom, pristupačnijom i odgovornijom
prema siromašnima.
11:39
But, you know, in many parts of the world,
Ali, znate, u mnogim dijelovima svijeta,
11:44
governments are not interested in opening up
vlade nisu zainteresirane za otvaranje,
11:48
or in serving the poor, and it is a real challenge
ili služenje siromašnima i to je pravi izazov
11:51
for those who want to change the system.
za one koje žele promijeniti takav sustav.
11:56
These are the lonely warriors
Oni su usamljeni ratnici
12:00
like my father and many, many others,
poput mog oca i mnogih, mnogih drugih,
12:04
and a key frontier of development work
a ključan cilj razvojnog procesa
12:07
is to help these lonely warriors join hands
je pomoći ovim usamljenim ratnicima da se ujedine
12:10
so they can together overcome the odds.
i tako zajedno svladaju prepreke..
12:15
So for instance, today, in Ghana, courageous reformers
Na primjer, danas, u Gani, hrabri reformisti
12:19
from civil society, Parliament and government,
iz civilnog društva, parlament i vlada,
12:24
have forged a coalition for transparent contracts
osnovali su koaliciju za transparentne ugovore
12:27
in the oil sector, and, galvanized by this,
u naftnom sektoru, i zbog toga,
12:31
reformers in Parliament are now investigating dubious contracts.
Parlament sada istražuje sumnjive ugovore.
12:35
These examples give new hope, new possibility
Ovi primjeri daju novu nadu, novu mogućnost
12:41
to the problems I witnessed in Uganda
problemima kojima sam svjedočio u Ugandi
12:46
or that my father confronted in Bihar.
ili kojima se moj otac suočio u Biharu.
12:49
Two years ago, on April 8th, 2010, I called my father.
Prije dvije godine, 8. travnja 2010, nazvao sam svog oca.
12:54
It was very late at night, and at age 80,
Bila je kasna noć i on je u dobi od 80 godina
13:01
he was typing a 70-page public interest litigation
pripremao javnu parnicu od 70 stranica
13:06
against corruption in a road project.
protiv korupcije u cestovnom projektu.
13:11
Though he was no lawyer, he argued the case in court
Iako nije bio odvjetnik, sam je vodio predmet na sudu
13:15
himself the next day. He won the ruling,
idućeg dana. Dobio je parnicu,
13:19
but later that very evening,
ali kasnije te iste večeri,
13:24
he fell, and he died.
pao je i preminuo.
13:26
He fought till the end, increasingly passionate
Borio se do kraja, strastveno je
13:30
that to combat corruption and poverty,
tvrdio da kako bi se borili protiv
korupcije i siromaštva,
13:35
not only did government officials need to be honest,
ne trebaju samo vladini službenici biti iskreni,
13:39
but citizens needed to join together
nego se i građani moraju ujediniti
13:43
to make their voices heard.
kako bi se njihov glas čuo.
13:46
These became the two bookends of his life,
To su postala dva kraja njegova života,
13:49
and the journey he traveled in between
a put koji je prešao između
13:54
mirrored the changing development landscape.
zrcalio je izmijenjeni i unaprijeđeni krajolik.
13:57
Today, I'm inspired by these changes, and I'm excited
Ja sam inspiriran ovim promjenama i uzbuđen
14:02
that at the World Bank, we are embracing
što u Svjetskoj banci prihvaćamo
14:07
these new directions, a significant departure
ove nove smjernice, značajan pomak
14:10
from my work in Uganda 20 years ago.
od mog rada u Ugandi prije 20 godina.
14:13
We need to radically open up development
Moramo radikalno otvoriti razvitak
14:17
so knowledge flows in multiple directions,
tako da znanje teče u više smjerova,
14:20
inspiring practitioners, so aid becomes transparent,
inspirira praktikante, tako da pomoć postane transparentna,
14:23
accountable and effective, so governments open up
odgovorna i efektivna, tako da se vlade otvore
14:28
and citizens are engaged and empowered
i građani postanu uključeni i dobiju moć
14:32
with reformers in government.
u reformama koje provodi vlada.
14:36
We need to accelerate these shifts.
Moramo ubrzati ove promjene.
14:38
If we do, we will find that the collective voices
Ako to napravimo, vidjet ćemo da će se glasovi
14:41
of the poor will be heard in Bihar,
siromašnih čuti u Biharu,
14:46
in Uganda, and beyond.
Ugandi i dalje.
14:50
We will find that textbooks and teachers
Vidjet ćemo da će se knjige i učitelji
14:52
will show up in schools for their children.
pojaviti u školama za svoju djecu.
14:56
We will find that these children, too,
Ta djeca će, također,
15:00
have a real chance of breaking their way out of poverty.
imati stvarnu priliku za izlazak iz siromaštva.
15:04
Thank you. (Applause)
Hvala vam. (Pljesak)
15:10
(Applause)
(Pljesak)
15:13
Translated by Ivan Lovas
Reviewed by Ivan Stamenkovic

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About the speaker:

Sanjay Pradhan - Development Leader
Sanjay Pradhan is vice president of the World Bank Institute, helping leaders in developing countries learn skills for reform, development and good governance.

Why you should listen

The World Bank Institute is the part of the World Bank that focuses on "capacity" -- the piece of polite jargon that masks a big question: How do countries learn? And in a state with a history of corruption, failure and debt, how can leaders -- both public and private-sector -- gain the ability to grow, build, govern? The WBI teaches those skills, focusing on the key force behind real change: building teams and coalitions.

Sanjay Pradhan joined the WBI in 2008, and has worked since then to refine its strategy into three interconnected plans: Open Knowledge, Collaborative Governance, and Innovative Solutions. He is an advocate of transparency and openness as development tools.

More profile about the speaker
Sanjay Pradhan | Speaker | TED.com