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TED2012

Brian Greene: Is our universe the only universe?

Brajan Grin (Brian Greene): Da li je naš univerzum jedini univerzum?

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Da li postoji više od jednog univerzuma? U ovom vizuelno bogatom, uzbudljivom predavanju, Brajan Grin nam govori o tome kako su nerešena pitanja fizike (počevši od ključnog: šta je izazvalo Veliki prasak?) dovela do teorije da je naš univerzum samo jedan od mnogih u "multiverzumu".

- Physicist
Brian Greene is perhaps the best-known proponent of superstring theory, the idea that minuscule strands of energy vibrating in a higher dimensional space-time create every particle and force in the universe. Full bio

A few months ago
Pre nekoliko meseci
00:15
the Nobel Prize in physics
Nobelovu nagradu iz fizike dobila su
00:17
was awarded to two teams of astronomers
dva tima astronoma
00:19
for a discovery that has been hailed
za otkriće koje je proglašeno
00:21
as one of the most important
jednim od najvažnijih
00:24
astronomical observations ever.
astronomskih zapažanja ikada.
00:26
And today, after briefly describing what they found,
Danas, nakon što vam ukratko objasnim šta su našli,
00:28
I'm going to tell you about a highly controversial framework
pričaću vam o veoma kontraverznom okviru
00:30
for explaining their discovery,
za objašnjavanje njihovog otkrića,
00:33
namely the possibility
naime mogućnost
00:36
that way beyond the Earth,
da veoma daleko od Zemlje,
00:38
the Milky Way and other distant galaxies,
Mlečnog puta i ostalih udaljenih galaksija,
00:40
we may find that our universe
možemo utvrditi da naš univerzum
00:43
is not the only universe,
nije jedini univerzum,
00:45
but is instead
već je umesto toga
00:47
part of a vast complex of universes
deo ogromnog kompleksa univerzuma
00:49
that we call the multiverse.
koji nazivamo multiverzum.
00:51
Now the idea of a multiverse is a strange one.
Ideja multiverzuma je čudna.
00:53
I mean, most of us were raised to believe
Većina nas je odgajana da misli
00:56
that the word "universe" means everything.
da reč "univerzum" označava sve.
00:58
And I say most of us with forethought,
Namerno kažem većina nas,
01:01
as my four-year-old daughter has heard me speak of these ideas since she was born.
jer svojoj četvorogodišnjoj kćeri pričam
o ovim idejama od kada se rodila.
01:04
And last year I was holding her
Prošle godine sam je nosio
01:07
and I said, "Sophia,
i rekao: "Sofija,
01:09
I love you more than anything in the universe."
volim te više od svega u univerzumu."
01:11
And she turned to me and said, "Daddy,
Ona me pogledala i rekla: "Tata,
01:14
universe or multiverse?"
u univerzumu ili multiverzumu?"
01:16
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
01:18
But barring such an anomalous upbringing,
Ali ako izuzmemo takvo nestandardno odgajanje,
01:21
it is strange to imagine
teško je zamisliti
01:24
other realms separate from ours,
druge svetove odvojene od našeg,
01:26
most with fundamentally different features,
većinu sa bitno drugačijim karakteristikama,
01:28
that would rightly be called universes of their own.
koji bi sa pravom mogli da se nazovu posebni univerzumi.
01:30
And yet,
A ipak,
01:33
speculative though the idea surely is,
koliko god da je ova ideja spekulativna,
01:35
I aim to convince you
moj je cilj da vas ubedim
01:37
that there's reason for taking it seriously,
da postoji razlog zašto da je shvatite ozbiljno,
01:39
as it just might be right.
pošto možda bude tačna.
01:41
I'm going to tell the story of the multiverse in three parts.
Ispričaću priču o multiverzumu u tri dela.
01:43
In part one,
U prvom delu,
01:46
I'm going to describe those Nobel Prize-winning results
opisaću rezultate za koje je
dobijena Nobelova nagrada
01:48
and to highlight a profound mystery
i naglasiću duboku misteriju
01:50
which those results revealed.
koju su ti rezultati otkrili.
01:52
In part two,
U drugom delu,
01:54
I'll offer a solution to that mystery.
dajem rešenje ove misterije.
01:56
It's based on an approach called string theory,
Ono se zasniva na pristupu nazvanom teorija struna
01:58
and that's where the idea of the multiverse
i tu se ideja o multiverzumu
02:00
will come into the story.
uključuje u ovu priču.
02:02
Finally, in part three,
Na kraju, u trećem delu,
02:04
I'm going to describe a cosmological theory
opisaću kosmološku teoriju
02:06
called inflation,
koja se zove inflacija,
02:08
which will pull all the pieces of the story together.
koja će spojiti sve delove priče.
02:10
Okay, part one starts back in 1929
Ok, prvi deo počinje 1929.
02:13
when the great astronomer Edwin Hubble
kada je veliki astronom Edvin Habl
02:17
realized that the distant galaxies
shvatio da se sve daleke galaksije
02:19
were all rushing away from us,
brzo udaljavaju od nas
02:22
establishing that space itself is stretching,
i time je utvrdio da se sam svemir širi,
02:24
it's expanding.
da se proširuje.
02:26
Now this was revolutionary.
To je bilo nešto revolucionarno.
02:28
The prevailing wisdom was that on the largest of scales
Tada je bilo uvreženo mišljenje da je u najvećoj meri
02:31
the universe was static.
svemir statičan.
02:34
But even so,
Ali ipak,
02:36
there was one thing that everyone was certain of:
u jedno su svi bili sigurni:
02:38
The expansion must be slowing down.
širenje mora da se usporava.
02:41
That, much as the gravitational pull of the Earth
Kao što sila teže Zemlje
02:44
slows the ascent of an apple tossed upward,
usporava uspon jabuke bačene uvis,
02:47
the gravitational pull
tako sila težnje
02:50
of each galaxy on every other
svake galaksije koja utiče na sve ostale
02:52
must be slowing
mora da usporava
02:54
the expansion of space.
širenje svemira.
02:56
Now let's fast-forward to the 1990s
Sada hajde da uzbrzamo do 1990-ih
02:58
when those two teams of astronomers
kada su ta dva tima astronoma
03:01
I mentioned at the outset
koje sam spomenuo na početku,
03:03
were inspired by this reasoning
inspirisana ovim razmišljanjem,
03:05
to measure the rate
izmerila stopu
03:07
at which the expansion has been slowing.
po kojoj se širenje usporava.
03:09
And they did this
To su učinili
03:11
by painstaking observations
mukotrpnim zapažanjima
03:13
of numerous distant galaxies,
brojnih udaljenih galaksija,
03:15
allowing them to chart
što im je omogućilo da prate
03:17
how the expansion rate has changed over time.
kako se stopa širenja promenila tokom vremena.
03:19
Here's the surprise:
I evo iznenađenja:
03:22
They found that the expansion is not slowing down.
utvrdili su da se širenje ne usporava.
03:25
Instead they found that it's speeding up,
Umesto toga utvrdili su da se ubrzava,
03:28
going faster and faster.
da je sve brže i brže.
03:30
That's like tossing an apple upward
To je kao da bacite jabuku na gore
03:32
and it goes up faster and faster.
i ona se sve više ubrzava.
03:34
Now if you saw an apple do that,
Kada biste videli jabuku da se tako kreće,
03:36
you'd want to know why.
hteli biste da znate zašto.
03:38
What's pushing on it?
Šta je gura na gore?
03:40
Similarly, the astronomers' results
Slično tome, rezultati astronoma
03:42
are surely well-deserving of the Nobel Prize,
su sigurno zaslužili Nobelovu nagradu,
03:44
but they raised an analogous question.
ali postavljaju analogno pitanje.
03:47
What force is driving all galaxies
Koja sila utiče na sve galaksije
03:51
to rush away from every other
da se međusobno udaljavaju
03:53
at an ever-quickening speed?
sve većom brzinom?
03:56
Well the most promising answer
Odgovor koji najviše obećava
03:59
comes from an old idea of Einstein's.
je stara Ajnštajnova ideja.
04:01
You see, we are all used to gravity
Vidite, svi smo navikli na gravitaciju
04:04
being a force that does one thing,
kao silu koja radi jednu stvar,
04:06
pulls objects together.
međusobno privlači stvari.
04:09
But in Einstein's theory of gravity,
Ali prema Ajnštajnovoj teoriji gravitacije,
04:11
his general theory of relativity,
njegovoj opštoj teoriji relativiteta,
04:13
gravity can also push things apart.
gravitacija može takođe da razdvaja stvari.
04:15
How? Well according to Einstein's math,
Kako? Prema Ajnštajnovoj matematici,
04:18
if space is uniformly filled
ako je svemir uniformno popunjen
04:21
with an invisible energy,
nevidljivom energijom,
04:23
sort of like a uniform, invisible mist,
nečemu nalik uniformnoj, nevidljivoj magli,
04:25
then the gravity generated by that mist
onda gravitacija koju ta magla generiše
04:28
would be repulsive,
mora da bude odbojna,
04:31
repulsive gravity,
odbojna gravitacija,
04:33
which is just what we need to explain the observations.
što je upravo to što nam treba
da objasnimo ova zapažanja.
04:35
Because the repulsive gravity
Jer odbojna gravitacija
04:38
of an invisible energy in space --
nevidljive energije u svemiru --
04:40
we now call it dark energy,
koju sada zovemo tamnom energijom,
04:42
but I've made it smokey white here so you can see it --
ovde sam je prikazao dimno-belom
tako da možete da je vidite -
04:44
its repulsive gravity
njena odbojna gravitacija
04:47
would cause each galaxy to push against every other,
bi uticala na to da se svaka galaksija
odbija od svih ostalih
04:49
driving expansion to speed up,
i tako ubrzava širenje,
04:51
not slow down.
a ne usporava.
04:53
And this explanation
I ovo širenje
04:55
represents great progress.
predstavlja veliki napredak.
04:57
But I promised you a mystery
Ali obećao sam vam misteriju
04:59
here in part one.
u prvom delu.
05:02
Here it is.
Evo je.
05:04
When the astronomers worked out
Kada su astronomi izračunali
05:06
how much of this dark energy
koliko te tamne energije
05:08
must be infusing space
mora da prožima prostor
05:11
to account for the cosmic speed up,
da bi se kosmos ubrzao,
05:13
look at what they found.
otkrili su sledeće.
05:15
This number is small.
Ovo je mali broj.
05:24
Expressed in the relevant unit,
Izražen u relevantnoj jedinici,
05:26
it is spectacularly small.
on je spektakularno mali.
05:28
And the mystery is to explain this peculiar number.
Misterija je objasniti ovaj čudan broj.
05:30
We want this number
Želimo da ovaj broj
05:33
to emerge from the laws of physics,
nastane iz zakona fizike,
05:35
but so far no one has found a way to do that.
ali do sada to nikome nije uspelo.
05:37
Now you might wonder,
Možete se zapitati,
05:40
should you care?
zašto je to važno?
05:43
Maybe explaining this number
Možda je objašnjenje ovog broja
05:45
is just a technical issue,
samo tehničko pitanje,
05:47
a technical detail of interest to experts,
tehnički podatak zanimljiv stručnjacima,
05:49
but of no relevance to anybody else.
bez važnosti za nas ostale.
05:52
Well it surely is a technical detail,
To svakako jeste tehnički podatak,
05:54
but some details really matter.
ali neki podaci stvarno jesu važni.
05:57
Some details provide
Neki podaci daju
05:59
windows into uncharted realms of reality,
uvid u neistražene svetove realnosti
06:01
and this peculiar number may be doing just that,
i ovaj čudan broj možda upravo to čini,
06:03
as the only approach that's so far made headway to explain it
jer kao jedini način koji je do sada
to uspešno objašnjavao,
06:06
invokes the possibility of other universes --
poziva se na mogućnost postojanja drugih univerzuma -
06:09
an idea that naturally emerges from string theory,
ideja koja prirodno proističe iz teorije struna,
06:12
which takes me to part two: string theory.
što me uvodi u drugi deo: teoriju struna.
06:15
So hold the mystery of the dark energy
Zato nemojte zaboraviti negde u pozadini
06:18
in the back of your mind
misteriju tamne materije,
06:22
as I now go on to tell you
dok vam budem pričao o
06:24
three key things about string theory.
tri ključne stvari teorije struna.
06:26
First off, what is it?
Kao prvo, šta je to?
06:29
Well it's an approach to realize Einstein's dream
To je pristup ka ostvarivanju Ajnštanovog sna
06:31
of a unified theory of physics,
o jedinstvenoj teoriji u fizici,
06:34
a single overarching framework
jednom sveobuhvatnom okviru
06:37
that would be able to describe
koji bi mogao da opiše
06:39
all the forces at work in the universe.
sve sile koje deluju u univerzumu.
06:41
And the central idea of string theory
Centralna ideja teorije struna
06:43
is quite straightforward.
je prilično jednostavna.
06:45
It says that if you examine
Ona kaže da ako ispitujete
06:47
any piece of matter ever more finely,
bilo koji delić materije sve detaljnije,
06:49
at first you'll find molecules
prvo ćete naći molekule,
06:51
and then you'll find atoms and subatomic particles.
a onda atome i subatomske čestice.
06:53
But the theory says that if you could probe smaller,
Prema ovoj teoriji, ako biste mogli
da ispitujete još sitnije
06:56
much smaller than we can with existing technology,
nego što možemo postojećom tehnologijom,
06:58
you'd find something else inside these particles --
našli biste još nešto u ovim česticama -
07:01
a little tiny vibrating filament of energy,
sićušno, vibrirajuće vlakno energije,
07:04
a little tiny vibrating string.
sićušnu vibrirajuću strunu.
07:07
And just like the strings on a violin,
I baš kao strune na violini,
07:10
they can vibrate in different patterns
one mogu da vibriraju na različite načine
07:12
producing different musical notes.
proizvodeći različite muzičke note.
07:14
These little fundamental strings,
Ove male fundamentalne strune,
07:16
when they vibrate in different patterns,
kada vibriraju na različite načine,
07:18
they produce different kinds of particles --
proizvode različite vrste čestica --
07:20
so electrons, quarks, neutrinos, photons,
tako se elektroni, kvarkovi, neutrini, fotoni,
07:22
all other particles
sve ostale čestice
07:24
would be united into a single framework,
ujedinjuju u jedan okvir,
07:26
as they would all arise from vibrating strings.
pošto svi proističu iz vibrirajućih struna.
07:28
It's a compelling picture,
To je zanimljiva slika,
07:31
a kind of cosmic symphony,
neke vrste kosmičke simfonije,
07:34
where all the richness
gde svo bogatstvo
07:36
that we see in the world around us
koje vidimo u svetu oko nas
07:38
emerges from the music
nastaje iz muzike
07:40
that these little, tiny strings can play.
koje ove sićušne strune mogu da sviraju.
07:42
But there's a cost
Ali postoji cena
07:45
to this elegant unification,
ovog elegantnog ujedinjenja
07:47
because years of research
jer su godine istraživanja
07:49
have shown that the math of string theory doesn't quite work.
pokazale da matematika teorije struna
ne funkcioniše baš sasvim.
07:51
It has internal inconsistencies,
Postoje interne nedoslednosti,
07:54
unless we allow
osim ako dopustimo
07:56
for something wholly unfamiliar --
nešto potpuno nepoznato --
07:58
extra dimensions of space.
dodatne dimenzije prostora.
08:01
That is, we all know about the usual three dimensions of space.
Svi znamo za tri standardne dimenzije prostora.
08:04
And you can think about those
Možete ih zamisliti
08:07
as height, width and depth.
kao visinu, širinu i dubinu.
08:09
But string theory says that, on fantastically small scales,
Ali teorija struna kaže da na fantastično maloj skali,
08:12
there are additional dimensions
postoje dodatne dimenzije
08:15
crumpled to a tiny size so small
zgužvane na tako malu veličinu
08:17
that we have not detected them.
da ih nismo detektovali.
08:19
But even though the dimensions are hidden,
Ali čak iako su dimenzije skrivene,
08:21
they would have an impact on things that we can observe
one bi uticale na stvari koje možemo primetiti
08:23
because the shape of the extra dimensions
jer oblik dodatnih dimenzija
08:26
constrains how the strings can vibrate.
ograničava kako strune vibriraju.
08:29
And in string theory,
A u teoriji struna,
08:32
vibration determines everything.
vibracije određuju sve.
08:34
So particle masses, the strengths of forces,
Tako bi masa čestica, jačina sila
08:37
and most importantly, the amount of dark energy
i najvažnije, količina tamne materije
08:39
would be determined
bila određena
08:42
by the shape of the extra dimensions.
oblikom dodatnih dimenzija.
08:44
So if we knew the shape of the extra dimensions,
Zato kada bismo znali oblik dodatnih dimenzija,
08:46
we should be able to calculate these features,
mogli bismo da izračunamo te karakteristike,
08:49
calculate the amount of dark energy.
da izračunamo količinu tamne energije.
08:52
The challenge
Izazov
08:55
is we don't know
je u tome što ne znamo
08:57
the shape of the extra dimensions.
oblik dodatnih dimenzija.
08:59
All we have
Sve što imamo
09:02
is a list of candidate shapes
je spisak kandidata oblika
09:04
allowed by the math.
koje dopušta matematika.
09:06
Now when these ideas were first developed,
Kada su ove ideje pri put razvijene,
09:09
there were only about five different candidate shapes,
bilo je samo oko pet različitih kandidata za oblike,
09:11
so you can imagine
pa možete zamisliti
09:13
analyzing them one-by-one
da ih analizirate jednog po jednog
09:15
to determine if any yield
kako biste utvrdili da li neki daje
09:17
the physical features we observe.
fizičke karakteristike koje smo zapazili.
09:19
But over time the list grew
Ali tokom vremena spisak se uvećao
09:21
as researchers found other candidate shapes.
jer su istraživači našli još kandidata za oblike.
09:23
From five, the number grew into the hundreds and then the thousands --
Sa pet, broj je porastao na stotine i onda hiljade -
09:25
A large, but still manageable, collection to analyze,
Što je veliki skup, ali koji se ipak može analizirati
09:28
since after all,
jer ipak
09:31
graduate students need something to do.
i postdiplomci moraju nešto da rade.
09:33
But then the list continued to grow
A onda je spisak nastavio da raste
09:36
into the millions and the billions, until today.
na milione i milijarde, do danas.
09:38
The list of candidate shapes
Spisak kandidata za oblike
09:41
has soared to about 10 to the 500.
je otišao za oko 10 na 500.
09:43
So, what to do?
I šta sada?
09:48
Well some researchers lost heart,
Neki istraživači su se obeshrabrili
09:51
concluding that was so many candidate shapes for the extra dimensions,
i zaključili da sa toliko kandidata
za oblike dodatnih dimenzija,
09:54
each giving rise to different physical features,
gde svaki daje različite fizičke karakteristike,
09:57
string theory would never make
teorija struna nikada neće dati
10:00
definitive, testable predictions.
konačna predviđanja koja se mogu testirati.
10:02
But others turned this issue on its head,
Ali drugi su obrnuli ovaj problem naglavačke
10:04
taking us to the possibility of a multiverse.
i uveli mogućnost multiverzuma.
10:08
Here's the idea.
Evo ideje.
10:10
Maybe each of these shapes is on an equal footing with every other.
Možda je svaki od ovih oblika jednak svim ostalima.
10:12
Each is as real as every other,
Svaki je realan kao i svaki drugi,
10:15
in the sense
u smislu
10:17
that there are many universes,
da postoje mnogi univerzumi,
10:19
each with a different shape, for the extra dimensions.
svi različitog oblika, za dodatne dimenzije.
10:21
And this radical proposal
Ovaj radikalni predlog
10:24
has a profound impact on this mystery:
je imao dubok uticaj na ovu misteriju:
10:26
the amount of dark energy revealed by the Nobel Prize-winning results.
količinu tamne energije koju su otkrili rezultati
za dobijenu Nobelovu nagradu.
10:29
Because you see,
Jer vidite,
10:32
if there are other universes,
ako postoje drugi univerzumi
10:34
and if those universes
i ako svaki taj univerzum
10:37
each have, say, a different shape for the extra dimensions,
ima različit oblik za dodatne dimenzije,
10:39
then the physical features of each universe will be different,
onda će fizičke karakteristike
svakog univerzuma biti različite
10:43
and in particular,
i konkretno,
10:45
the amount of dark energy in each universe
količina tamne energije u svakom univerzumu
10:47
will be different.
će se razlikovati.
10:49
Which means that the mystery
Što znači da bi misterija
10:51
of explaining the amount of dark energy we've now measured
objašnjenja količine tamne energije koju smo sada izmerili
10:53
would take on a wholly different character.
imala potpuno drugačiji karakter.
10:55
In this context,
U ovom kontekstu,
10:58
the laws of physics can't explain one number for the dark energy
zakoni fizike ne mogu da objasne
jedan broj za tamnu materiju
11:00
because there isn't just one number,
jer ne postoji samo jedan broj,
11:03
there are many numbers.
ima mnogo brojeva.
11:06
Which means
To znači
11:08
we have been asking the wrong question.
da smo postavljali pogrešno pitanje.
11:10
It's that the right question to ask is,
Pravo pitanje koje treba postaviti jeste,
11:13
why do we humans find ourselves in a universe
zašto se mi ljudi nalazimo u univerzumu
11:15
with a particular amount of dark energy we've measured
sa određenom količinom tamne materije koju smo izmerili
11:18
instead of any of the other possibilities
umesto bilo koje druge mogućnosti
11:21
that are out there?
koja postoji?
11:24
And that's a question on which we can make headway.
To je pitanje sa kojim možemo da napredujemo.
11:26
Because those universes
Jer u tim univerzumima
11:29
that have much more dark energy than ours,
koji imaju mnogo više tamne energije od naše,
11:31
whenever matter tries to clump into galaxies,
kad god materija proba da se grupiše u galaksije,
11:33
the repulsive push of the dark energy is so strong
snaga odbijanja tamne energije je toliko jaka
11:36
that it blows the clump apart
da razbija tu gomilu
11:39
and galaxies don't form.
i galaksije se ne formiraju.
11:41
And in those universes that have much less dark energy,
U tim univerzumima koji imaju
mnogo manje tamne energije,
11:43
well they collapse back on themselves so quickly
dolazi do unutrašnjeg kolapsa tako brzo
11:46
that, again, galaxies don't form.
da se galaksije opet ne formiraju.
11:48
And without galaxies, there are no stars, no planets
Bez galaksija, nema zvezda, nema planeta
11:51
and no chance
i nema šanse da
11:54
for our form of life
naš oblik života
11:56
to exist in those other universes.
postoji u tim drugim univerzumima.
11:58
So we find ourselves in a universe
Zato se nalazimo u univerzumu
12:00
with the particular amount of dark energy we've measured
sa određenom količinom tamne energije koju smo izmerili
12:02
simply because our universe has conditions
prosto zato što naš univerzum ima uslove
12:05
hospitable to our form of life.
koji su pogodni za naš oblik života.
12:08
And that would be that.
To bi bilo to.
12:12
Mystery solved,
Misterija rešena,
12:14
multiverse found.
multiverzum nađen.
12:16
Now some find this explanation unsatisfying.
Neki nisu zadovoljni ovim objašnjenjem.
12:18
We're used to physics
Navikli smo da nam fizika
12:23
giving us definitive explanations for the features we observe.
daje konačna objašnjenja odlika koje opažamo.
12:25
But the point is,
Ali poenta je u tome,
12:28
if the feature you're observing
da ako odlika koju zapažate
12:30
can and does take on
može da ima i ima
12:33
a wide variety of different values
niz različitih vrednosti
12:35
across the wider landscape of reality,
u širokom predelu realnosti,
12:37
then thinking one explanation
onda razmišljanje o jednom objašnjenju
12:40
for a particular value
za određnu vrednost
12:42
is simply misguided.
je jednostavno neispravno.
12:44
An early example
Rani primer
12:47
comes from the great astronomer Johannes Kepler
dolazi od velikog astronoma Johana Keplera
12:49
who was obsessed with understanding
koji je bio opsednut razumevanjem
12:52
a different number --
jednog drugog broja -
12:54
why the Sun is 93 million miles away from the Earth.
zašto je Sunce udaljeno 150 miliona km od Zemlje.
12:56
And he worked for decades trying to explain this number,
Decenijama je pokušavao da objasni ovaj broj,
13:00
but he never succeeded, and we know why.
ali nikada nije uspeo i znamo zašto.
13:03
Kepler was asking
Kepler je postavljao
13:06
the wrong question.
pogrešno pitanje.
13:08
We now know that there are many planets
Sada znamo da postoje mnoge planete
13:10
at a wide variety of different distances from their host stars.
koje su na različitim rastojanjima
od svojih matičnih zvezda.
13:13
So hoping that the laws of physics
Zato je nadanje da će zakoni fizike
13:16
will explain one particular number, 93 million miles,
objasniti jedan određeni broj, 150 miliona km,
13:19
well that is simply wrongheaded.
jednostavno pogrešno.
13:22
Instead the right question to ask is,
Umesto toga pravo pitanje jeste,
13:25
why do we humans find ourselves on a planet
zašto se ljudi nalaze na planeti,
13:27
at this particular distance,
na određenoj udaljenosti,
13:30
instead of any of the other possibilities?
umesto svih ostalih mogućnosti?
13:32
And again, that's a question we can answer.
I opet, to je pitanje na koje možemo da odgovorimo.
13:35
Those planets which are much closer to a star like the Sun
Sve one planete koje su mnogo bliže zvezdi poput Sunca
13:38
would be so hot
bile bi toliko tople
13:41
that our form of life wouldn't exist.
da naš oblik života ne bi postojao.
13:43
And those planets that are much farther away from the star,
A one planete koje su mnogo dalje od zvezde,
13:45
well they're so cold
one su toliko hladne
13:48
that, again, our form of life would not take hold.
da naš oblik života ne bi mogao da opstane.
13:50
So we find ourselves
Tako da se nalazimo
13:52
on a planet at this particular distance
na planeti pri ovoj određenoj udaljenosti
13:54
simply because it yields conditions
prosto jer nam daje uslove
13:56
vital to our form of life.
ključne za naš oblik života.
13:58
And when it comes to planets and their distances,
A kada su u pitanju planete i njihova udaljenost,
14:01
this clearly is the right kind of reasoning.
ovo je očigledno ispravan način razmišljanja.
14:04
The point is,
Poenta je,
14:08
when it comes to universes and the dark energy that they contain,
da kada su u pitanju univerzumi
i tamna energija koju sadrže,
14:10
it may also be the right kind of reasoning.
to takođe može biti ispravan način razmišljanja.
14:13
One key difference, of course,
Jedna ključna razlika, naravno,
14:17
is we know that there are other planets out there,
jeste da znamo da postoji još planeta,
14:20
but so far I've only speculated on the possibility
ali do sada smo samo spekulisali o mogućnosti
14:22
that there might be other universes.
da postoje drugi univerzumi.
14:25
So to pull it all together,
Znači da bismo sve spojili,
14:27
we need a mechanism
potreban nam je mehanizam
14:29
that can actually generate other universes.
koji stvarno generiše druge univerzume.
14:31
And that takes me to my final part, part three.
To me dovodi do mog konačnog dela, trećeg dela.
14:34
Because such a mechanism has been found
Jer su takav mehanizam pronašli
14:37
by cosmologists trying to understand the Big Bang.
kosmolozi koji pokušavaju
da razumeju Veliki prasak.
14:40
You see, when we speak of the Big Bang,
Vidite, kada govorimo o Velikom prasku,
14:43
we often have an image
često imamo sliku
14:45
of a kind of cosmic explosion
neke kosmičke eksplozije
14:47
that created our universe
koja je stvorila univerzum
14:49
and set space rushing outward.
i izbacila svemir napolje.
14:51
But there's a little secret.
Ali postoji mala tajna.
14:54
The Big Bang leaves out something pretty important,
Veliki prasak izostavlja nešto veoma važno,
14:56
the Bang.
prasak.
14:59
It tells us how the universe evolved after the Bang,
On nam govori o tome kako se univerzum
razvio nakon praska,
15:01
but gives us no insight
ali nam ne daje uvid
15:04
into what would have powered the Bang itself.
u to šta je dalo energiju samom prasku.
15:06
And this gap was finally filled
A ova rupa je konačno popunjena
15:10
by an enhanced version of the Big Bang theory.
boljom verzijom teorije Velikog praska.
15:12
It's called inflationary cosmology,
Zove se inflatorna kosmologija,
15:14
which identified a particular kind of fuel
koja je identifikovala određenu vrstu goriva
15:17
that would naturally generate
koje bi prirodno generisalo
15:21
an outward rush of space.
izbijanje prostora ka spolja.
15:23
The fuel is based on something called a quantum field,
Gorivo se zasniva na nečemu nazvanom kvantno polje,
15:25
but the only detail that matters for us
ali jedini podatak koji nam je važan
15:28
is that this fuel proves to be so efficient
jeste da je ovo gorivo toliko efikasno
15:31
that it's virtually impossible
da je praktično nemoguće
15:34
to use it all up,
da se sve potroši,
15:36
which means in the inflationary theory,
što znači da prema inflatornoj teoriji,
15:38
the Big Bang giving rise to our universe
Veliki prasak koji je stvorio naš univerzum
15:40
is likely not a one-time event.
verovatno nije jedinstveni događaj.
15:43
Instead the fuel not only generated our Big Bang,
Umesto toga gorivo je generisalo
ne samo naš Veliki prasak,
15:46
but it would also generate countless other Big Bangs,
već i bezbroj drugih Velikih praskova,
15:49
each giving rise to its own separate universe
svaki bi stvorio svoj posebni univerzum,
15:55
with our universe becoming but one bubble
a naš univerzum bi bio samo jedan mehur
15:58
in a grand cosmic bubble bath of universes.
u velikoj kosmičkoj peni za kupanje univerzuma.
16:00
And now, when we meld this with string theory,
Sada, kada spojimo ovo sa teorijom struna,
16:03
here's the picture we're led to.
evo slike do koje dolazimo.
16:05
Each of these universes has extra dimensions.
Svaki od ovih univerzuma ima dodatne dimenizije.
16:07
The extra dimensions take on a wide variety of different shapes.
Ekstra dimenzije imaju niz različitih oblika.
16:09
The different shapes yield different physical features.
Različiti oblici daju različite fizičke odlike.
16:12
And we find ourselves in one universe instead of another
I mi smo u jednom univerzumu umesto u drugom,
16:15
simply because it's only in our universe
jednostavno jer su samo u našem univerzumu
16:18
that the physical features, like the amount of dark energy,
fizičke odlike, kao što je količina tamne energije,
16:21
are right for our form of life to take hold.
pogodne za razvoj našeg oblika života.
16:24
And this is the compelling but highly controversial picture
Ovo je zanimljiva, ali veoma kontroverzna slika
16:28
of the wider cosmos
šireg kosmosa
16:31
that cutting-edge observation and theory
koju su nas najnovija zapažanja i teorija
16:33
have now led us to seriously consider.
naterali da ozbiljno razmotrimo.
16:35
One big remaining question, of course, is,
Ostaje jedno veliko pitanje, a to je,
16:39
could we ever confirm
da li bismo ikada mogli da potvrdimo
16:43
the existence of other universes?
postojanje drugih univerzuma?
16:46
Well let me describe
Objasniću vam
16:49
one way that might one day happen.
jedan način na koji bi to moglo da se dogodi.
16:51
The inflationary theory
Inflaciona teorija
16:54
already has strong observational support.
već ima jaku podršku iz zapažanja.
16:56
Because the theory predicts
Jer teorija predviđa
16:58
that the Big Bang would have been so intense
da bi Veliki prasak bio toliko intenzivan
17:00
that as space rapidly expanded,
da bi se dok se svemir brzo širio,
17:02
tiny quantum jitters from the micro world
sićušni kvantni titraji mikro sveta
17:05
would have been stretched out to the macro world,
proširli u makro svet,
17:07
yielding a distinctive fingerprint,
dajući upadljiv otisak,
17:10
a pattern of slightly hotter spots and slightly colder spots,
raspored blago toplijih tačaka i blago hladnijih tačaka,
17:13
across space,
širom svemira,
17:15
which powerful telescopes have now observed.
koji su sada zapazili jaki teleskopi.
17:17
Going further, if there are other universes,
Ako idemo dalje, ako postoji još univerzuma,
17:20
the theory predicts that every so often
teorija predviđa da se svako malo
17:23
those universes can collide.
ti univerzumi mogu sudariti.
17:25
And if our universe got hit by another,
I ako bi naš univerzum udario drugi,
17:27
that collision
taj sudar
17:29
would generate an additional subtle pattern
bi stvorio dodatan suptilan raspored
17:31
of temperature variations across space
temperaturnih varijacija širom svemira
17:33
that we might one day
koje bismo mogli jednog dana
17:35
be able to detect.
da detektujemo.
17:37
And so exotic as this picture is,
I ma koliko ova slika bila egzotična,
17:39
it may one day be grounded
jednog dana bi mogla biti zasnovana
17:42
in observations,
na opservacijama,
17:44
establishing the existence of other universes.
utvrđujući postojanje drugih univerzuma.
17:46
I'll conclude
Završiću sa
17:49
with a striking implication
bitnim implikacijama
17:51
of all these ideas
svih ovih ideja
17:54
for the very far future.
za veoma daleku budućnost.
17:56
You see, we learned
Vidite, naučili smo
17:58
that our universe is not static,
da naš univerzum nije statičan,
18:00
that space is expanding,
da se svemir širi,
18:02
that that expansion is speeding up
da se to širenje ubrzava
18:04
and that there might be other universes
i da možda postoji još univerzuma
18:06
all by carefully examining
samo pažljivim pregledanjem
18:08
faint pinpoints of starlight
slabašnih tačaka zvezdanog svetla
18:10
coming to us from distant galaxies.
koje dolazi do nas iz udaljenih galaksija.
18:12
But because the expansion is speeding up,
Pošto se širenje ubrzava,
18:15
in the very far future,
u veoma dalekoj budućnosti
18:18
those galaxies will rush away so far and so fast
te galaksije će se udaljiti toliko daleko i toliko brzo
18:20
that we won't be able to see them --
da nećemo moći da ih vidimo -
18:23
not because of technological limitations,
ne zbog tehnoloških ograničenja,
18:26
but because of the laws of physics.
već zbog zakona fizike.
18:28
The light those galaxies emit,
Svetlost koju te galaksije emituju,
18:30
even traveling at the fastest speed, the speed of light,
čak i kada putuju pri najbržoj brzini, brzini svetlosti,
18:32
will not be able to overcome
neće moći da premosti
18:35
the ever-widening gulf between us.
sve veći jaz između nas.
18:37
So astronomers in the far future
Zato astronomi u dalekoj budućnosti
18:40
looking out into deep space
koji gledaju u dalek svemir
18:42
will see nothing but an endless stretch
neće videti ništa osim beskonačnog prostranstva
18:44
of static, inky, black stillness.
statične, mastiljave, crne tišine.
18:47
And they will conclude
Oni će zaključiti
18:51
that the universe is static and unchanging
da je univerzum statičan i nepromenljiv
18:53
and populated by a single central oasis of matter
i nastanjen jednom centralnom oazom materije
18:55
that they inhabit --
koju oni nastanjuju -
18:58
a picture of the cosmos
slika kosmosa
19:00
that we definitively know to be wrong.
za koju definitivno znamo da je pogrešna.
19:02
Now maybe those future astronomers will have records
Možda će ti budući astronomi imati dokaze
19:05
handed down from an earlier era,
prenete iz ranijeg doba,
19:08
like ours,
poput našeg,
19:10
attesting to an expanding cosmos
koji potvrđuju da se kosmos širi
19:12
teeming with galaxies.
prepun galaksija.
19:14
But would those future astronomers
Ali da li će ti budući astronomi
19:16
believe such ancient knowledge?
verovati u to drevno znanje?
19:18
Or would they believe
Ili će verovati
19:21
in the black, static empty universe
u crni, statični prazni univerzum
19:23
that their own state-of-the-art observations reveal?
koji pokazuju njihova najnovija zapažanja?
19:26
I suspect the latter.
Nagađam da će biti ovo drugo.
19:30
Which means that we are living
Što znači da živimo
19:32
through a remarkably privileged era
u izuzetno privilegovanom dobu,
19:34
when certain deep truths about the cosmos
u kome su neke suštinske istine o kosmosu
19:37
are still within reach
i dalje na dohvat
19:39
of the human spirit of exploration.
ljudskog istraživačkog duha.
19:41
It appears that it may not always be that way.
Izgleda da možda neće uvek biti tako.
19:43
Because today's astronomers,
Jer današnji astronomi su,
19:48
by turning powerful telescopes to the sky,
usmeravajući jake teleskope ka nebu,
19:50
have captured a handful of starkly informative photons --
uhvatili nekolicinu veoma informativnih fotona -
19:53
a kind of cosmic telegram
vrstu kosmičkog telegrama
19:56
billions of years in transit.
milijardi godina u tranzitu.
19:59
and the message echoing across the ages is clear.
Poruka koja odzvanja kroz vekove je jasna.
20:01
Sometimes nature guards her secrets
Nekada priroda štiti svoje tajne
20:05
with the unbreakable grip
čvrstom rukom
20:08
of physical law.
fizičkog zakona.
20:10
Sometimes the true nature of reality beckons
Nekada nas prava priroda realnosti doziva
20:12
from just beyond the horizon.
negde preko horizonta.
20:16
Thank you very much.
Hvala vam puno.
20:19
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
20:21
Chris Anderson: Brian, thank you.
Kris Anderson: Brajane, hvala ti.
20:25
The range of ideas you've just spoken about
Raspon ideja o kojima si nam pričao
20:27
are dizzying, exhilarating, incredible.
je vrtoglav, uzbudljiv, neverovatan.
20:29
How do you think
Gde misliš
20:32
of where cosmology is now,
da je kosmologija sada,
20:34
in a sort of historical side?
sa istorijskog aspekta?
20:36
Are we in the middle of something unusual historically in your opinion?
Da li smo usred nečega istorijski
neobičnog, prema tebi?
20:38
BG: Well it's hard to say.
BG: Teško je reći.
20:41
When we learn that astronomers of the far future
Kada saznamo da astronomi u dalekoj budućnosti
20:43
may not have enough information to figure things out,
možda neće imati dovoljno informacija da saznaju stvari,
20:46
the natural question is, maybe we're already in that position
postavlja se pitanje, možda smo već u toj poziciji
20:49
and certain deep, critical features of the universe
i neke duboke, ključne odlike univerzuma
20:52
already have escaped our ability to understand
su već utekle našoj sposobnosti da ih razumemo
20:55
because of how cosmology evolves.
zbog načina na koji se kosmologija razvija.
20:58
So from that perspective,
Iz te perspektive,
21:00
maybe we will always be asking questions
možda ćemo uvek postavljati pitanja
21:02
and never be able to fully answer them.
i nikada nećemo moći u potpunosti da ih razumemo.
21:04
On the other hand, we now can understand
Sa druge strane, sada možemo da razumemo
21:06
how old the universe is.
koliko je star univerzum.
21:08
We can understand
Možemo razumeti
21:10
how to understand the data from the microwave background radiation
kako da razumemo podatke
mikrotalasnog pozadinskog zračenja
21:12
that was set down 13.72 billion years ago --
koje je poslato pre 13,72 milijardi godina -
21:15
and yet, we can do calculations today to predict how it will look
danas možemo da izračunamo
kako da predvidimo kako će izgledati
21:18
and it matches.
i poklapa se.
21:20
Holy cow! That's just amazing.
Tako mi svega! To je neverovatno.
21:22
So on the one hand, it's just incredible where we've gotten,
Sa jedne strane, potpuno je neverovatno dokle smo stigli,
21:24
but who knows what sort of blocks we may find in the future.
ali ko zna na kakve prepreke
možemo naići u budućnosti.
21:27
CA: You're going to be around for the next few days.
KA: Ti ćeš biti tu narednih par dana.
21:31
Maybe some of these conversations can continue.
Možda se neki od ovih razgovora mogu nastaviti.
21:34
Thank you. Thank you, Brian. (BG: My pleasure.)
Hvala ti. Hvala ti, Brajane.
(BG: Bilo mi je zadovoljstvo.)
21:36
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
21:38
Translated by Isidora Bacic
Reviewed by Tatjana Jevdjic

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About the speaker:

Brian Greene - Physicist
Brian Greene is perhaps the best-known proponent of superstring theory, the idea that minuscule strands of energy vibrating in a higher dimensional space-time create every particle and force in the universe.

Why you should listen

Greene, a professor of physics and mathematics at Columbia University, has focused on unified theories for more than 25 years, and has written several best-selling and non-technical books on the subject including The Elegant Universe, a Pulitzer finalist, and The Fabric of the Cosmos — each of which has been adapted into a NOVA mini-series. His latest book, The Hidden Reality, explores the possibility that our universe is not the only universe.

Greene believes science must be brought to general audiences in new and compelling ways, such as his live stage odyssey, Icarus at the Edge of Time, with original orchestral score by Philip Glass, and the annual World Science Festival, which he co-founded in 2008 with journalist Tracy Day.

More profile about the speaker
Brian Greene | Speaker | TED.com