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TED2013

Jared Diamond: How societies can grow old better

Jared Diamond: Kako društva mogu bolje stariti

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Iza posljednjih napora da se produži ljudski život krije se ironija: nije lako biti starija osoba u društvu okrenutom omladini. Stariji ljudi mogu postati izolirani, bez značajnog posla i sa vrlo malo novčanih sredstava. U ovom intrigantnom govoru, Jared Diamond objašnjava kako mnogo različitih društava tretira njihove starije članove -- neki bolje, neki gore -- i predlaže nam da se svi okoristimo njihovim iskustvom.

- Civilization scholar
Jared Diamond investigates why cultures prosper or decline -- and what we can learn by taking a broad look across many kinds of societies. Full bio

To give me an idea of how many of you here
Kako bih stekao utisak za koliko vas ovdje
00:12
may find what I'm about to tell you
će ovo o čemu ću vam govoriti biti
00:14
of practical value,
od praktične vrijednosti,
00:17
let me ask you please to raise your hands:
dozvolite mi da vas zamolim da podigne ruku
00:18
Who here is either over 65 years old
onaj ko ima više od 65 godina
00:21
or hopes to live past age 65
ili se nada da će živjeti više od 65
00:24
or has parents or grandparents who did live
ili ima roditelje ili baku i djeda koji su živjeli
00:28
or have lived past 65,
tačno ili više od 65,
00:31
raise your hands please. (Laughter)
podignite ruku, molim. (Smijeh)
00:33
Okay. You are the people to whom my talk
Uredu. Vi ste ljudi za koje će moj govor
00:36
will be of practical value. (Laughter)
biti od praktične vrijednosti. (Smijeh)
00:38
The rest of you
Ostatak prisutnih
00:40
won't find my talk personally relevant,
neće vidjeti ličnu povezanost sa mojim govorom
00:42
but I think that you will still find the subject
ali mislim da će vam ova tema ipak biti
00:44
fascinating.
fascinantna.
00:46
I'm going to talk about growing older
Govorit ću o starenju
00:47
in traditional societies.
u tradicionalnim društvima.
00:49
This subject constitutes just one chapter
Ova tema čini samo jedno poglavlje
00:51
of my latest book, which compares
moje najnovije knjige, koja upoređuje
00:54
traditional, small, tribal societies
tradicionalna, mala, plemenska društva
00:57
with our large, modern societies,
sa našim velikim, modernim društvima
01:00
with respect to many topics
uključujući mnoge teme
01:02
such as bringing up children,
poput odgajanja djece,
01:04
growing older, health, dealing with danger,
starenja, zdravlja, postupanja u slučaju opasnosti
01:06
settling disputes, religion
rješenja rasprava, religije
01:10
and speaking more than one language.
i poznavanja više od jednog jezika.
01:12
Those tribal societies, which constituted
Ta plemenska društva, koja su činila
01:15
all human societies for most of human history,
sva ljudska društva za većinu ljudske historije,
01:18
are far more diverse than are our modern,
su mnogo različitija nego naša moderna,
01:21
recent, big societies.
novija, velika društva.
01:24
All big societies that have governments,
Sva velika društva koja imaju vlade,
01:26
and where most people are strangers to each other,
i gdje se većina ljudi međusobno ne poznaje,
01:28
are inevitably similar to each other
neizbježno su slična jedna drugima
01:31
and different from tribal societies.
i različita su od plemenskih društava.
01:33
Tribes constitute thousands of natural experiments
Plemena sačinjavaju na
hiljade prirodnih eksperimenata
01:36
in how to run a human society.
o tome kako voditi ljudsko društvo.
01:39
They constitute experiments from which we ourselves
Oni sačinjavaju eksperimente od kojih mi sami
01:42
may be able to learn.
možda možemo dosta da naučimo.
01:45
Tribal societies shouldn't be scorned
Plemenska društva ne bi
trebalo podcjenjivati
01:47
as primitive and miserable,
i smatrati primitivnim i jadnim,
01:49
but also they shouldn't be romanticized
ali ona također ne bi trebala biti romantizovana
01:51
as happy and peaceful.
i smatrana sretnim i mirnim.
01:53
When we learn of tribal practices,
Kada učimo o plemenskim običajima,
01:55
some of them will horrify us,
neki od njih nas užasavaju,
01:58
but there are other tribal practices which,
ali postoje i drugi plemenski običaji kojima se,
01:59
when we hear about them,
kad čujemo za njih,
02:02
we may admire and envy
divimo i zavidimo na njima
02:03
and wonder whether we could adopt those practices
i razmišljamo o tome da li
bismo mogli takve običaje usvojiti
02:05
ourselves.
i mi sami.
02:07
Most old people in the U.S. end up living
Većina ljudi u SAD-u završe živeći
02:10
separately from their children
odvojeno od svoje djece
02:13
and from most of their friends
i većine svojih prijatelja
02:15
of their earlier years,
iz prijašnjih godina,
02:17
and often they live in separate
retirements homes for the elderly,
i oni često žive odvojeno u staračkim domovima,
02:18
whereas in traditional societies,
za razliku od tradicionalnih društava gdje
02:22
older people instead live out their lives
stariji ljudi žive svoje živote
02:24
among their children, their other relatives,
među njihovom djecom, njihovom ostalom rodbinom,
02:27
and their lifelong friends.
i njihovim doživotnim prijateljima.
02:29
Nevertheless, the treatment of the elderly
Ipak, način ophođenja prema starijim osobama
02:32
varies enormously among traditional societies,
uveliko se razlikuje među tradicionalnim društvima,
02:34
from much worse to much better
od mnogo goreg do mnogo boljeg
02:37
than in our modern societies.
nego u modernim društvima.
02:39
At the worst extreme, many traditional societies
U najgorem obliku, mnoga tradicionalna društva
02:42
get rid of their elderly
se rješavaju njihovih starijih
02:45
in one of four increasingly direct ways:
na jedan od četiri sve češće direktna načina:
02:47
by neglecting their elderly
zapostavljajući njihove starije
02:50
and not feeding or cleaning them until they die,
i odbijajući da ih hrane i čiste sve dok ne umru
02:52
or by abandoning them when the group moves,
ili napuštajući ih kada se grupa odseli
02:56
or by encouraging older people to commit suicide,
ili podstičući starije osobe da izvrše samoubistvo
02:59
or by killing older people.
ili ubijajući starije osobe.
03:02
In which tribal societies do children
U kojim plemenskih društvima djeca
03:05
abandon or kill their parents?
napuštaju ili ubijaju njihove roditelje?
03:07
It happens mainly under two conditions.
To se uglavnom dešava u jednom od dva slučaja.
03:10
One is in nomadic, hunter-gather societies
Jedan pripada nomadskim,
lovačko-sakupljačkim društvima
03:13
that often shift camp
koja često pomijeraju svoj kamp
03:16
and that are physically incapable
i koji su fizički nesposobni
03:18
of transporting old people who can't walk
da transportuju starije osobe koje ne mogu hodati
03:20
when the able-bodied younger people already
kada sposobne mlađe osobe već
03:23
have to carry their young children
moraju da nose svoju mladu djecu
03:25
and all their physical possessions.
i svu svoju materijalnu imovinu.
03:27
The other condition is in societies
Drugi slučaj je kada društva
03:30
living in marginal or fluctuating environments,
žive u marginalnim i promjenjivim okruženjima
03:32
such as the Arctic or deserts,
kao što su Arktik ili pustinje,
03:36
where there are periodic food shortages,
gdje dolazi do povremenih nestašica hrane,
03:38
and occasionally there just isn't enough food
i vrlo često nema dovoljno hrane
03:41
to keep everyone alive.
da održi sve u životu.
03:43
Whatever food is available has to be reserved
Sva hrana koja je na
raspolaganju mora biti sačuvana
03:45
for able-bodied adults and for children.
za sposobne odrasle osobe i djecu.
03:47
To us Americans, it sounds horrible
Za nas Amerikance, zvuči užasno
03:52
to think of abandoning or killing
da pomislimo o napuštanju ili ubijanju
03:55
your own sick wife or husband
naše vlastite bolesne žene ili muža
03:57
or elderly mother or father,
ili starije majke ili oca,
03:59
but what could those traditional societies
ali šta bi ova tradicionalna društva mogla da
04:01
do differently?
urade drugačije?
04:05
They face a cruel situation of no choice.
Oni se nalaze u surovim
uslovima gdje nemaju izbora.
04:07
Their old people had to do it to their own parents,
Njihovi stariji ljudi su to
morali uraditi svojim roditeljima
04:10
and the old people know
i stariji ljudi znaju
04:13
what now is going to happen to them.
šta će se sada dogoditi njima.
04:15
At the opposite extreme
Potpuno suprotan ekstrem
04:18
in treatment of the elderly, the happy extreme,
u ophođenju prema
starijim osobama, sretni ekstrem,
04:20
are the New Guinea farming societies
predstavljaju društva farmera u Novoj Gvineji
04:22
where I've been doing my fieldwork
for the past 50 years,
gdje sam radio terenski posao proteklih 50 godina,
04:24
and most other sedentary traditional societies
kao i većina drugih
starosjedilačkih tradicionalnih društava
04:27
around the world.
širom svijeta.
04:31
In those societies, older people are cared for.
U tim društima, o starijim ljudima se vodi briga.
04:33
They are fed. They remain valuable.
Nahranjeni su. Zadržavaju vrijednost.
04:36
And they continue to live in the same hut
I nastavljaju da žive u istim kolibama
04:38
or else in a nearby hut near their children,
ili u kolibama blizu onih njihove djece,
04:40
relatives and lifelong friends.
rođaka i doživotnih prijatelja.
04:43
There are two main sets of reasons for this variation
Postoje dvije glavne skupine razloga za ove razlike
04:47
among societies in their treatment
među društvima u njihovom odnosu
04:49
of old people.
prema starijim osobama.
04:52
The variation depends especially
Razlika ovisi naročito
04:53
on the usefulness of old people
o korisnosti starijih ljudi
04:55
and on the society's values.
i o vrijednostima unutar tog društva.
04:57
First, as regards usefulness,
Prvo, kada govorimo o korisnosti,
05:00
older people continue to perform useful services.
stariji ljudi nastavljaju da izvršavaju korisne dužnosti.
05:02
One use of older people in traditional societies
Jedna od upotreba starijih
ljudi u tradicionalnih društvima
05:05
is that they often are still effective
jeste ta da su oni često još uvijek efikasni
05:08
at producing food.
u proizvodnji hrane.
05:10
Another traditional usefulness of older people
Još jedna tradicionalna korist kod starijih ljudi
05:12
is that they are capable of babysitting
je ta da su u stanju čuvati djecu,
05:15
their grandchildren,
svoje unuke,
05:18
thereby freeing up their own adult children,
čime oslobađaju svoju odraslu djecu,
05:20
the parents of those grandchildren,
roditelje tih unuka,
05:23
to go hunting and gathering
food for the grandchildren.
kako bi išli u lov i sakupljanje hrane za unuke.
05:24
Still another traditional value of older people
Još jedna tradicionalna vrijednost starijih ljudi
05:28
is in making tools, weapons, baskets,
jeste u pravljenju alata, oružja, košara,
05:30
pots and textiles.
posuda i tkanina.
05:33
In fact, they're usually the people who are best at it.
Zapravo, oni su uglavnom
ljudi koji su u tome najbolji.
05:35
Older people usually are the leaders
Stariji ljudi su obično lideri
05:38
of traditional societies,
u tradicionalnim društvina
05:41
and the people most knowledgeable about politics,
i ljudi koji imaju najviše znanja o politici,
05:43
medicine, religion, songs and dances.
medicini, religiji, pjesmama i plesovima.
05:46
Finally, older people in traditional societies
Na kraju, stariji ljudi u tradicionalnim društvima
05:50
have a huge significance that would never occur
imaju ogroman značaj koji nikad ne bi bio prisutan
05:53
to us in our modern, literate societies,
u našim modernim, pismenim društvima,
05:56
where our sources of information are books
gdje su naši izvori informacija knjige
06:00
and the Internet.
i internet.
06:03
In contrast, in traditional societies without writing,
Sa druge strane, kod tradicionalnih
društava koja ne poznaju pisanje,
06:04
older people are the repositories of information.
stariji ljudi su skladišta informacija.
06:08
It's their knowledge that spells the difference
U njihovom znanju leži razlika
06:11
between survival and death for their whole society
između života i smrti za cijelo njihovo društvo
06:14
in a time of crisis caused by rare events
u vremenima kriza
prouzrokovanih rijetkim događajima
06:18
for which only the oldest people alive
za koja su jedino najstariji živi ljudi
06:21
have had experience.
imali određena iskustva.
06:23
Those, then, are the ways in which older people
To su, onda, načini na koje su stariji ljudi
06:26
are useful in traditional societies.
korisni u tradicionalnim društvima.
06:28
Their usefulness varies and contributes
Njihova korisnost varira i doprinosi
06:31
to variation in the society's treatment
razlikama u odnosu društva
06:34
of the elderly.
prema starijim osobama.
06:36
The other set of reasons for variation
Drugu skupinu razloga za varijacije
06:38
in the treatment of the elderly is
u ophođenju prema odraslima je
06:40
the society's cultural values.
u kulturnim vrijednostima društva.
06:42
For example, there's particular emphasis
Naprimjer, poseban naglasak se stavlja
06:45
on respect for the elderly in East Asia,
na poštovanje prema starijima u istočnoj Aziji
06:47
associated with Confucius' doctrine
vezano za Konfučijevu doktrinu
06:50
of filial piety, which means obedience,
dječije pobožnosti, što znači poslušnost,
06:53
respect and support for elderly parents.
poštovanje i podršku za starije roditelje.
06:57
Cultural values that emphasize
respect for older people
Kulturne vrijednosti koje
naglašavaju poštovanje prema starijim ljudima
07:01
contrast with the low status of the elderly
u suprotnosti su sa niskim statusom starijih osoba
07:05
in the U.S.
u SAD-u.
07:08
Older Americans are at a big disadvantage
Stariji Amerikanci su izloženi hendikepu
07:10
in job applications.
prilikom aplikacija za posao.
07:12
They're at a big disadvantage in hospitals.
Izloženi su velikom hendikepu u bolnicama.
07:14
Our hospitals have an explicit policy
Naše bolnice imaju eksplicitnu politiku
07:17
called age-based allocation of healthcare resources.
koju zovu raspodjelom
zdravstvenih resursa na osnovu dobi.
07:20
That sinister expression means that
Ova zlokoban izraz znači da
07:25
if hospital resources are limited,
ako su resursi neke bolnice ograničeni,
07:27
for example if only one donor heart
naprimjer, ako je samo jedno srce
07:30
becomes available for transplant,
spremno za transplantaciju,
07:32
or if a surgeon has time to operate
ili ako hirurg ima vremena da operiše
07:34
on only a certain number of patients,
samo određeni broj pacijenata,
07:36
American hospitals have an explicit policy
američke bolnice imaju izričitu politiku
07:38
of giving preference to younger patients
kojom se daje prednost mlađim pacijentima
07:41
over older patients
nad starijim pacijentima
07:44
on the grounds that younger patients are considered
iz razloga što se mlađi pacijenti smatraju
07:45
more valuable to society
vrijednijim za društvo
07:48
because they have more years of life ahead of them,
jer imaju mnogo više godina života pred njima,
07:50
even though the younger patients have fewer years
iako mlađi pacijenti imaju manje godina
07:53
of valuable life experience behind them.
izuzetno vrijednog iskustva iza njih.
07:56
There are several reasons for this low status
Postoji nekoliko razloga za ovako nizak status
08:00
of the elderly in the U.S.
starijih osoba u SAD-u.
08:02
One is our Protestant work ethic
Jedan od njih je naša protestantska radna etika
08:04
which places high value on work,
koja veliki značaj pridaje radu
08:07
so older people who are no longer working
tako da stariji ljudi koji više ne rade
08:10
aren't respected.
nisu poštovani.
08:12
Another reason is our American emphasis
Drugi razlog je naše američko isticanje
08:14
on the virtues of self-reliance and independence,
vrlina poput samooslanjanja i neovisnosti
08:17
so we instinctively look down on older people
tako da instinktivno potcjenjujemo starije ljude
08:20
who are no longer self-reliant and independent.
koji više nemaju vrline samooslanjanja i neovisnosti.
08:23
Still a third reason is our American cult of youth,
Također, treći razlog je naš američki kult mladosti
08:27
which shows up even in our advertisements.
koji se pojavljuje čak i u našim reklamama.
08:31
Ads for Coca-Cola and beer always depict
Reklame za Coca-Colu i pivo uvijek prikazuju
08:34
smiling young people,
nasmijane mlade ljude
08:37
even though old as well as young people
iako i stariji poput mlađih ljudi
08:38
buy and drink Coca-Cola and beer.
kupuju i piju Coca-Colu i pivo.
08:40
Just think, what's the last time you saw
Jednostavno razmislite, kada ste zadnji put vidjeli
08:43
a Coke or beer ad depicting smiling people
reklamu za Colu ili pivo
koja prikazuje nasmijane ljude
08:45
85 years old? Never.
od 85 godina? Nikad.
08:47
Instead, the only American ads
Umjesto toga, jedine američke reklame
08:50
featuring white-haired old people
koje koriste sijede stare ljude
08:52
are ads for retirement homes and pension planning.
su reklame za staračke domove i planiranje penzija.
08:54
Well, what has changed in the status
Dakle, šta je to promijenilo status
08:58
of the elderly today
starijih ljudi danas
09:00
compared to their status in traditional societies?
u odnosu na njihov status
u tradicionalnim društvima?
09:02
There have been a few changes for the better
Dogodilo se nekoliko promjena nabolje
09:05
and more changes for the worse.
i mnogo više promjena nagore.
09:07
Big changes for the better
Velike promjene nabolje
09:10
include the fact that today we enjoy
uključuju činjenice da danas uživamo u
09:11
much longer lives,
mnogo dužim životima,
09:13
much better health in our old age,
mnogo boljem zdravlju u našim starijim godinama
09:15
and much better recreational opportunities.
i mnogo boljim rekreacionim mogućnostima.
09:18
Another change for the better is that we now have
Još jedna promjena nabolje jeste to da sada imamo
09:21
specialized retirement facilities
specijalizirane ustanove za penzionere
09:24
and programs to take care of old people.
i programe njege za starije ljude.
09:26
Changes for the worse begin with the cruel reality
Promjene nagore počinju sa okrutnom stvarnošću
09:30
that we now have
da sada imamo
09:33
more old people and fewer young people
više starijih ljudi i manje mlađih ljudi
09:34
than at any time in the past.
nego ikada u prošlosti.
09:37
That means that all those old people
To znači da svi ti stariji ljudi čine
09:40
are more of a burden on the few young people,
veće opterećenje za manji broj mlađih ljudi
09:41
and that each old person has less individual value.
i da svaka starija osoba
ima manji individualni značaj.
09:44
Another big change for the worse
in the status of the elderly
Još jedna velika promjena nagore u stanju starijih
09:48
is the breaking of social ties with age,
je razbijanje socialnih veza sa godinama starosti
09:51
because older people, their children,
jer stariji ljudi, njihova djeca
09:54
and their friends,
i njihovi prijatelji
09:56
all move and scatter independently of each other
se svi sele i rasipaju neovisni jedni od drugih
09:57
many times during their lives.
mnogo puta u toku njihovih života.
10:00
We Americans move on the average
Mi Amerikanci se selimo u prosjeku
10:02
every five years.
svakih pet godina.
10:04
Hence our older people are likely
Stoga naši stariji ljudi imaju veću šansu
10:06
to end up living distant from their children
da završe živeći daleko od njihove djece
10:08
and the friends of their youth.
i prijatelja iz njihove mladosti.
10:10
Yet another change for the worse
in the status of the elderly
Još jedna promjena nagore u statusu starijih
10:13
is formal retirement from the workforce,
je formalno umirovljenje koje
10:16
carrying with it a loss of work friendships
uz sebe nosi i gubitak prijatelja sa posla
10:20
and a loss of the self-esteem associated with work.
i gubitak samopouzdanja vezanog uz posao.
10:23
Perhaps the biggest change for the worse
Vjerovatno najveća promjena nagore
10:27
is that our elderly are objectively
jeste ta da su naši stariji ljudi objektivno
10:29
less useful than in traditional societies.
manje korisni nego u tradicionalnim društvima.
10:32
Widespread literacy means that they are no longer
Rasprostranjena pismenost znači da oni više
10:36
useful as repositories of knowledge.
nisu korisni kao čuvari znanja.
10:38
When we want some information,
Kada želimo doći do neke informacije,
10:41
we look it up in a book or we Google it
potražimo je u knjizi ili je guglamo
10:43
instead of finding some old person to ask.
umjesto da za to
potražimo i pitamo neke starije osobe.
10:45
The slow pace of technological change
Spore tehnološke promjene
10:49
in traditional societies
u tradicionalnim društvima
10:51
means that what someone learns there as a child
znače da ono što neko nauči kao dijete
10:53
is still useful when that person is old,
ostaje korisno i kada ta osoba ostari,
10:56
but the rapid pace of technological change today
ali izuzetno brzi razvoj tehnologije danas
10:58
means that what we learn as children
znači da ono što naučimo kao djeca
11:02
is no longer useful 60 years later.
više nije korisno nakon 60 godina.
11:04
And conversely, we older people are not fluent
I obrnuto, mi stariji nismo vješti
11:07
in the technologies essential for surviving
u tehnologijama neophodnim za preživljavanje
11:09
in modern society.
u modernom društvu.
11:12
For example, as a 15-year-old,
Naprimjer, kao 15-togodišnjak,
11:14
I was considered outstandingly
good at multiplying numbers
bio sam smatran izuzetno dobrim u množenju brojeva
11:16
because I had memorized the multiplication tables
jer sam napamet naučio tablice množenja
11:20
and I know how to use logarithms
i znao sam kako da koristim logaritme
11:23
and I'm quick at manipulating a slide rule.
i bio sam brz u korištenju računaljke.
11:25
Today, though, those skills are utterly useless
Danas, međutim, te vještine
su u potpunosti beskorisne
11:28
because any idiot
jer bilo koji idiot
11:31
can now multiply eight-digit numbers
može pomnožiti osmocifrene brojeve
11:34
accurately and instantly with a pocket calculator.
precizno i u trenutku koristeći digitron.
11:36
Conversely, I at age 75
S druge strane, ja koji imam 75 godina
11:39
am incompetent at skills
sam nesposoban u vještinama
11:41
essential for everyday life.
neophodnim za svakodnevni život.
11:44
My family's first TV set in 1948
Prvi televizor koja je moja porodica imala 1948.
11:46
had only three knobs that I quickly mastered:
imao je samo tri prekidača koja sam brzo savladao:
11:49
an on-off switch, a volume knob,
prekidač za paljenje i gašenje, prekidač za kontrolu zvuka
11:52
and a channel selector knob.
i prekidač za odabir kanala.
11:55
Today, just to watch a program
Danas, samo kako bih gledao program
11:57
on the TV set in my own house,
na televizoru u vlastitoj kući,
11:59
I have to operate a 41-button TV remote
moram da koristim
daljinski upravljač sa 41-om tipkom
12:02
that utterly defeats me.
koji u potpunosti porazi.
12:05
I have to telephone my 25-year-old sons
Morao sam telefonirati mojim 25-ogodišnjim sinovima
12:07
and ask them to talk me through it
i zamoliti ih da mi pomažu
12:10
while I try to push those wretched 41 buttons.
dok pokušavam da pritisnem 41 bijednu tipku.
12:13
What can we do to improve the lives of the elderly
Šta možemo učiniti da poboljšamo živote starijih ljudi
12:18
in the U.S., and to make better use of their value?
u SAD-u i da bolje iskoristimo njihovu vrijednost?
12:20
That's a huge problem.
To je veliki problem.
12:24
In my remaining four minutes today,
U moje preostale četiri minute danas,
12:26
I can offer just a few suggestions.
mogu ponuditi samo nekoliko prijedloga.
12:28
One value of older people is that they are
Jedna od vrijednosti starijih ljudi jeste da su
12:31
increasingly useful as grandparents
sve više i više korisni kao djedovi i bake
12:33
for offering high-quality childcare
radi pružanja kvalitetne brige o djeci
12:36
to their grandchildren, if they choose to do it,
svojim unucima, ako odaberu da to rade,
12:38
as more young women enter the workforce
budući da sve više mladih žena ulazi u radni odnos
12:41
and as fewer young parents of either gender
i sve manje roditelja oba spola
12:44
stay home as full-time caretakers of their children.
ostaje kući kako bi brinulo o svojoj djeci.
12:46
Compared to the usual alternatives
U poređenju sa uobičajenim alternativama
12:50
of paid babysitters and day care centers,
plaćenih bejbisiterki i dnevnih centara za djecu,
12:52
grandparents offer superior, motivated,
djedovi i bake nude nadmoćniju, motiviraniju
12:56
experienced child care.
i iskusniju brigu o djeci.
12:59
They've already gained experience
from raising their own children.
Oni su već stekli dovoljno
iskustva odgajajući vlastitu djecu.
13:01
They usually love their grandchildren,
Oni obično vole svoje unuke
13:05
and are eager to spend time with them.
i željni su provesti vrijeme sa nijma.
13:07
Unlike other caregivers,
Za razliku od drugih njegovatelja,
13:10
grandparents don't quit their job
djedovi i bake ne napuštaju svoj posao
13:12
because they found another job with higher pay
jer su pronašli drugi posao sa većom platom
13:14
looking after another baby.
za brigu o drugoj bebi.
13:17
A second value of older people is paradoxically
Druga vrijednost starijih ljudi je paradoksalno
13:20
related to their loss of value
vezana za njihov gubitak vrijednosti
13:23
as a result of changing world
conditions and technology.
kao ishoda promjenjivih uslova i tehnologija u svijetu.
13:25
At the same time, older people have gained
U isto vrijeme, stariji ljudi su dobili
13:30
in value today precisely because
na vrijednosti danas konkretno radi
13:32
of their unique experience of living conditions
njihovih jedinstvenih iskustava
življenja u različitim uslovima
13:34
that have now become rare
koja su danas postala rijetka
13:37
because of rapid change, but that could come back.
zbog brzih promjena, ali bi se to moglo ponovo dogoditi.
13:39
For example, only Americans now in their 70s
Naprimjer, jedino Amerikanci koji su u njihovim 70-tim
13:42
or older today can remember
ili stariji od toga danas se mogu prisjećati
13:45
the experience of living through a great depression,
iskustva življenja tokom velike depresije,
13:47
the experience of living through a world war,
iskustva življenja tokom svjetskog rata
13:51
and agonizing whether or not
i agoniziranja da li bi
13:53
dropping atomic bombs would be more horrible
bacanje atomskih bombi bilo gore ili ne
13:56
than the likely consequences
of not dropping atomic bombs.
od mogućih posljedica nebacanja istih.
13:59
Most of our current voters and politicians
Većina današnjih glasača i političara
14:03
have no personal experience of any of those things,
nemaju lična iskustva u bilo kojim od ovih stvari,
14:05
but millions of older Americans do.
ali milioni starijih Amerikanaca imaju.
14:08
Unfortunately, all of those terrible situations
Nažalost, sve ove užasne situacije
14:11
could come back.
bi se mogle ponovo desiti.
14:13
Even if they don't come back,
Čak i ako se ne dese,
14:15
we have to be able to plan for them
mi moramo unaprijed praviti planove za njih
14:16
on the basis of the experience of what they were like.
na osnovu ranijih iskustava
o tome kako su one izgledale.
14:18
Older people have that experience.
Stariji ljudi imaju to iskustvo.
14:21
Younger people don't.
Mlađi ljudi nemaju.
14:23
The remaining value of older people
Preostala vrijednost starijh ljudi
14:25
that I'll mention involves recognizing that
koju ću spomenuti uključuje shvatanje da
14:26
while there are many things that older people
iako postoji mnogo stvari koje stariji ljudi
14:29
can no longer do,
više ne mogu raditi,
14:31
there are other things that they can do
postoje i druge stvari koje oni mogu raditi
14:33
better than younger people.
bolje od mlađih ljudi.
14:34
A challenge for society is
to make use of those things
Izazov za društvo jeste da iskoristi te stvari
14:37
that older people are better at doing.
koje stariji ljudi rade bolje.
14:39
Some abilities, of course, decrease with age.
Neke vještine, naravno, slabe godinama.
14:42
Those include abilities at tasks
To uključuje vještine u poslovima
14:45
requiring physical strength and stamina,
koji zahtijevaju fizičku snagu i kondiciju,
14:48
ambition, and the power of novel reasoning
ambicije i moć rasuđivanja
14:51
in a circumscribed situation,
u ograničenim situacijama
14:55
such as figuring out the structure of DNA,
poput otkrivanja strukture DNK
14:57
best left to scientists under the age of 30.
koju je najbolje ostaviti
naučnicima u njihovim 30-tim.
15:00
Conversely, valuable attributes
Sa druge strane, vrijedne osobine
15:03
that increase with age include experience,
koje se povećavaju sa godinama uključuju iskustvo,
15:05
understanding of people and human relationships,
razumijevanje ljudi i ljudskih odnosa,
15:09
ability to help other people
spremnost na pomoć drugim ljudima
15:12
without your own ego getting in the way,
bez ometanja od strane vlastitog ega
15:14
and interdisciplinary thinking about large databases,
i interdisciplinarno promišljanje
o velikim bazama podataka,
15:16
such as economics and comparative history,
poput ekonomije i komparativne historije,
15:20
best left to scholars over the age of 60.
koju je najbolje ostaviti učenjacima koji imaju preko 60 godina.
15:23
Hence older people are
much better than younger people
Prema tome, stariji ljudi su mnogo bolji od mlađih
15:26
at supervising, administering, advising,
u nadgledanju, upravljanju, savjetovanju,
15:28
strategizing, teaching, synthesizing,
strategisanju, podučavanju, sinteziranju
15:32
and devising long-term plans.
i razvijanju dugoročnih planova.
15:36
I've seen this value of older people
Uočio sam ovu vrijednost starijih ljudi
15:39
with so many of my friends in their 60s,
kod mnogo mojih prijatelja u njihovim 60-tim,
15:41
70s, 80s and 90s,
70-tim, 80-tim i 90-tim,
15:43
who are still active as investment managers,
koji su idalje aktivni kao menadžeri investicija,
15:45
farmers, lawyers and doctors.
farmeri, advokati i doktori.
15:48
In short, many traditional societies
Ukratko, mnoga tradicionalna društva
15:51
make better use of their elderly
bolje koriste svoje starije
15:54
and give their elderly more satisfying lives
i pružaju svojim starijim mnogo bolje živote
15:56
than we do in modern, big societies.
nego što to mi radimo u modernim, velikim društvima.
15:59
Paradoxically nowadays,
Paradoksalno, u današnjem vremenu,
16:02
when we have more elderly people than ever before,
kada imamo mnogo više starijih ljudi nego ikada prije,
16:04
living healthier lives and with better medical care
koji žive zdravijim životima i sa
boljom zdravstvenom njegom
16:06
than ever before,
nego ikada ranije,
16:09
old age is in some respects more miserable
starija dob je u nekim oblicima mnogo jadnija
16:11
than ever before.
nego ikada ranije.
16:13
The lives of the elderly are widely recognized
Životi starijih ljudi su nadaleko poznati
16:15
as constituting a disaster area
kao činioci katastrofalnog područja
16:18
of modern American society.
modernog američkog društva.
16:20
We can surely do better by learning
Zasigurno bismo mogli bolje postupiti učeći
16:23
from the lives of the elderly
iz života starijih ljudi
16:25
in traditional societies.
u tradicionalnim društvima.
16:26
But what's true of the lives of the elderly
Ono što je tačno kada je riječ o životima starijih ljudi
16:28
in traditional societies
u tradicionalnim društvima
16:30
is true of many other features
tačno je i za mnoge ostale odlike
16:32
of traditional societies as well.
tradicionalnih društava.
16:34
Of course, I'm not advocating that we all give up
Naravno, nisam pobornik toga da svi odustanemo
16:36
agriculture and metal tools
od argokulture i željeznog alata
16:39
and return to a hunter-gatherer lifestyle.
i vratimo se lovačko-sakupljačkom načinu života.
16:41
There are many obvious respects
Postoji mnogo očiglednih aspekata
16:44
in which our lives today are far happier
u kojima su današnji životu mnogo sretniji
16:45
than those in small, traditional societies.
od onih u malim, tradicionalnim društvima.
16:48
To mention just a few examples,
Da spomenem samo nekoliko primjera,
16:51
our lives are longer, materially much richer,
naši životi su duži, materijalno bogatiji
16:53
and less plagued by violence
i manje ugroženi nasiljem
16:56
than are the lives of people in traditional societies.
nego životi ljudi u tradicionalnim društvima.
16:58
But there are also things to be admired
Međutim, postoje i stvari koje se trebaju cijeniti
17:01
about people in traditional societies,
kod ljudi u tradicionalnim društvima
17:04
and perhaps to be learned from them.
i koje bi vjerovatno trebalo naučiti od njih.
17:06
Their lives are usually socially much richer
Njihovi životi su uglavnom socijalno mnogo bogatiji
17:08
than our lives,
od naših života,
17:11
although materially poorer.
iako su materijalno siromašniji.
17:12
Their children are more self-confident,
Njihova djeca imaju više samopouzdanja,
17:15
more independent, and more socially skilled
više neovisnosti i više socijalnih vještina
17:18
than are our children.
nego naša djeca.
17:20
They think more realistically
about dangers than we do.
Oni mnogo realnije razmišljaju
o opasnostima nego što to mi radimo.
17:23
They almost never die of diabetes, heart disease,
Oni gotovo da nikada ne
umiru od dijabetesa, srčanih bolesti,
17:26
stroke, and the other noncommunicable diseases
infarkta i drugih bolesti koje nisu zarazne
17:30
that will be the causes of death of almost
a koje će biti uzrokom smrti gotovo
17:33
all of us in this room today.
svih nas u ovoj sobi danas.
17:36
Features of the modern lifestyle
predispose us to those diseases,
Odlikama modernog načina
života, predodređeni smo za te bolesti,
17:39
and features of the traditional lifestyle
a odlike tradicionalnog načina života
17:43
protect us against them.
nas od njih štite.
17:45
Those are just some examples of what we can learn
To su samo neki od primjera šta možemo da naučimo
17:47
from traditional societies.
od tradicionalnih društava.
17:50
I hope that you will find it as fascinating
Nadam se da će vam biti fascinantno
17:52
to read about traditional societies
čitati o tradicionalnim društvima
17:54
as I found it to live in those societies.
kao što je meni bilo živjeti u njima.
17:56
Thank you.
Hvala vam.
17:59
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
18:01
Translated by Muamer Seljubac
Reviewed by Ema Bilbija Zulic

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About the speaker:

Jared Diamond - Civilization scholar
Jared Diamond investigates why cultures prosper or decline -- and what we can learn by taking a broad look across many kinds of societies.

Why you should listen

In his books Guns, Germs and Steel and Collapse (and the popular PBS and National Geographic documentaries they inspired), big-picture scholar Jared Diamond explores civilizations and why they all seem to fall. Now in his latest book, The World Until Yesterday, Diamond examines small, traditional, tribal societies -- and suggests that modern civilization is only our latest solution to survival.
 
Diamond’s background in evolutionary biology, geography and physiology informs his integrated vision of human history. He posits that success -- and failure -- depends on how well societies adapt to their changing environment.

More profile about the speaker
Jared Diamond | Speaker | TED.com