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TED2013

Jared Diamond: How societies can grow old better

Džered Dajmond (Jared Diamond): Kako društva mogu bolje da ostare zajedno

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Postoji jedna ironija u današnjim nastojanjima ka produženju ljudskog veka: nije lako biti starija osoba u društvu okrenutom ka mladima. Stariji ljudi mogu ostatiti isključeni, bez značajnog posla i na minimalnim sredstvima. U svom intrigantnom govoru, Džered Dajmond se osvrće na to kako se različita društva odnose prema svojim starijima - neka bolje, neka gore - i predlaže da svi učimo iz ovog iskustva.

- Civilization scholar
Jared Diamond investigates why cultures prosper or decline -- and what we can learn by taking a broad look across many kinds of societies. Full bio

To give me an idea of how many of you here
Kako bih stekao utisak
kolikom broju vas ovde
00:12
may find what I'm about to tell you
ovo što ću vam reći
00:14
of practical value,
može biti od praktičnog značaja,
00:17
let me ask you please to raise your hands:
molim vas da podignete ruke:
00:18
Who here is either over 65 years old
oni ovde koji su stariji
od 65 godina
00:21
or hopes to live past age 65
ili se nadaju da će živeti
duže od 65 godina
00:24
or has parents or grandparents who did live
ili imaju roditelje
ili babu i dedu koji su
00:28
or have lived past 65,
preživeli duže
od 65. godine?
00:31
raise your hands please. (Laughter)
Molim vas da podignete ruke.
(Smeh)
00:33
Okay. You are the people to whom my talk
U redu. Vi ste oni
kojima će moj govor
00:36
will be of practical value. (Laughter)
biti od praktičnog značaja.
(Smeh)
00:38
The rest of you
Ostalima
00:40
won't find my talk personally relevant,
moj govor neće biti
lično značajan,
00:42
but I think that you will still find the subject
ali mislim da će vam
tema ipak biti
00:44
fascinating.
zapanjujuća.
00:46
I'm going to talk about growing older
Govoriću vam o starenju
00:47
in traditional societies.
u tradicionalnim društvima.
00:49
This subject constitutes just one chapter
Ovo čini
samo jedno poglavlje
00:51
of my latest book, which compares
u mojoj poslednjoj knjizi,
koja poredi
00:54
traditional, small, tribal societies
mala, tradicionalna,
plemenska društva
00:57
with our large, modern societies,
sa našim velikim,
modernim društvima
01:00
with respect to many topics
po pitanju mnogih tema
01:02
such as bringing up children,
kao što su
podizanje dece,
01:04
growing older, health, dealing with danger,
starenje, zdravlje,
nošenje sa opasnošću,
01:06
settling disputes, religion
rešavanje konflikata, religija
01:10
and speaking more than one language.
i znanje više od jednog jezika.
01:12
Those tribal societies, which constituted
Plemenska društva
koja su činila
01:15
all human societies for most of human history,
celokupno ljudsko drušvo
u većem delu ljudske istorije
01:18
are far more diverse than are our modern,
su mnogo raznolikija
od naših modernih,
01:21
recent, big societies.
savremenih, velikih društava.
01:24
All big societies that have governments,
Sva velika društva
koja imaju vladu
01:26
and where most people are strangers to each other,
i gde su većina ljudi
stranci jedni drugima
01:28
are inevitably similar to each other
su neizbežno
slična jedna drugima
01:31
and different from tribal societies.
i različita
od plemenskih zajednica.
01:33
Tribes constitute thousands of natural experiments
Plemena čine hiljade
prirodnih eksperimenata
01:36
in how to run a human society.
o tome kako upravljati
ljudskim društvom.
01:39
They constitute experiments from which we ourselves
Ona čine eksperimente
iz kojih mi
01:42
may be able to learn.
možemo da učimo.
01:45
Tribal societies shouldn't be scorned
Plemenska društva
ne treba nipodaštavati
01:47
as primitive and miserable,
kao primitivne i bedne,
01:49
but also they shouldn't be romanticized
ali ih ne treba
ni romantizovati
01:51
as happy and peaceful.
kao srećne i miroljubive.
01:53
When we learn of tribal practices,
Kada otkrivamo
plemenske običaje
01:55
some of them will horrify us,
neka od njih
nas prestrave,
01:58
but there are other tribal practices which,
ali postoje
i drugi plemenski običaji
01:59
when we hear about them,
kojima, kada čujemo za njih,
02:02
we may admire and envy
možemo da se
divimo i zavidimo na njima
02:03
and wonder whether we could adopt those practices
i da se zapitamo
da li treba i mi
02:05
ourselves.
da ih usvojimo.
02:07
Most old people in the U.S. end up living
Većina starijih ljudi u SAD živi
02:10
separately from their children
odvojeno od svoje dece
02:13
and from most of their friends
i većine svojih prijatelja
02:15
of their earlier years,
iz ranijih godina
02:17
and often they live in separate
retirements homes for the elderly,
i često žive odvojeno,
u staračkim domovima,
02:18
whereas in traditional societies,
dok u tradicionalnim društvima
02:22
older people instead live out their lives
umesto toga,
stariji ljudi proživljavaju svoj život
02:24
among their children, their other relatives,
među svojom decom,
ostalom rodbinom
02:27
and their lifelong friends.
i svojim dugogodišnjim prijateljima.
02:29
Nevertheless, the treatment of the elderly
Ipak, odnos prema starijima
02:32
varies enormously among traditional societies,
se ogromno razlikuje
među tradicionalnim društvima
02:34
from much worse to much better
od mnogo gorih
do mnogo boljih
02:37
than in our modern societies.
nego u našim
modernim društvima.
02:39
At the worst extreme, many traditional societies
U najgorem slučaju,
mnoga tradicionalna društva
02:42
get rid of their elderly
se ratosiljaju starijih
02:45
in one of four increasingly direct ways:
na jedan od četiri
rastući neposrednih načina:
02:47
by neglecting their elderly
zapostavljanjem starijih
02:50
and not feeding or cleaning them until they die,
i ukidanjem hrane ili higijene
dok ne umru,
02:52
or by abandoning them when the group moves,
ili njihovim napuštanjem
kada grupa krene dalje,
02:56
or by encouraging older people to commit suicide,
ili ohrabrivanjem starijih
da izvrše samoubistvo,
02:59
or by killing older people.
ili ubijanjem starijih ljudi.
03:02
In which tribal societies do children
U kojim plemenskim zajednicama deca
03:05
abandon or kill their parents?
napuštaju ili ubijaju roditelje?
03:07
It happens mainly under two conditions.
Uglavnom se to dešava
u dve okolnosti.
03:10
One is in nomadic, hunter-gather societies
Jedna su nomadske zajednice,
lovci i sakupljači,
03:13
that often shift camp
koje često menjaju mesto
03:16
and that are physically incapable
i koje su fizički sprečene
03:18
of transporting old people who can't walk
da prenose starije
koji ne mogu da hodaju,
03:20
when the able-bodied younger people already
jer sposobni mladi
03:23
have to carry their young children
moraju da nose svoju
malu decu
03:25
and all their physical possessions.
i sva njihova posedstva.
03:27
The other condition is in societies
Druga okolnost je u društvima
03:30
living in marginal or fluctuating environments,
koja žive u marginalnim
ili promenljivim uslovima
03:32
such as the Arctic or deserts,
kao što su Arktik ili pustinje,
03:36
where there are periodic food shortages,
gde se javljaju periodi
nestašice hrane
03:38
and occasionally there just isn't enough food
i povremeno nema
dovoljno hrane
03:41
to keep everyone alive.
kako bi svi preživeli.
03:43
Whatever food is available has to be reserved
Hrana koja je dostupna
mora da se sačuva
03:45
for able-bodied adults and for children.
za fizički sposobne odrasle
i za decu.
03:47
To us Americans, it sounds horrible
Nama ovo zvuči užasno,
03:52
to think of abandoning or killing
zamisliti da napustimo
ili ubijemo
03:55
your own sick wife or husband
našu bolesnu suprugu
ili muža
03:57
or elderly mother or father,
ili ostarelu majku ili oca,
03:59
but what could those traditional societies
ali šta bi te tradicionalne zajednice
04:01
do differently?
mogle da urade drugačije?
04:05
They face a cruel situation of no choice.
Susreću se sa okrutnim situacijama,
bez izbora.
04:07
Their old people had to do it to their own parents,
Stariji su morali to da urade
svojim roditeljima
04:10
and the old people know
i oni znaju
04:13
what now is going to happen to them.
da će se to sada
njima dogoditi.
04:15
At the opposite extreme
Suprotna krajnost
04:18
in treatment of the elderly, the happy extreme,
u odnosu prema starijima,
srećna krajnost,
04:20
are the New Guinea farming societies
su poljoprivredna društva
Nove Gvineje,
04:22
where I've been doing my fieldwork
for the past 50 years,
u kojima sam proteklih 50 godina
radio na terenu,
04:24
and most other sedentary traditional societies
kao i većina drugih
sedelačkih tradicionalnih društava
04:27
around the world.
širom sveta.
04:31
In those societies, older people are cared for.
U tim društvima
se brinu o starijima.
04:33
They are fed. They remain valuable.
Hrane ih.
Oni ostaju bitni.
04:36
And they continue to live in the same hut
Oni nastavljaju da žive
u istoj kolibi sa
04:38
or else in a nearby hut near their children,
ili u nekoj kolibi u blizini
svoje dece,
04:40
relatives and lifelong friends.
rodbine i starih prijatelja.
04:43
There are two main sets of reasons for this variation
Postoje dve velike grupe
uzroka ovih razlika
04:47
among societies in their treatment
između društava
u njihovom odnosu
04:49
of old people.
prema starijima.
04:52
The variation depends especially
Razlika se uglavnom zasniva
04:53
on the usefulness of old people
na korisnosti starijih
04:55
and on the society's values.
i na društvenim vrednostima.
04:57
First, as regards usefulness,
Što se tiče korisnosti,
05:00
older people continue to perform useful services.
stariji ljudi nastavljaju
da obavljaju korisne radnje.
05:02
One use of older people in traditional societies
Jedna od stvari u kojima su stariji
korisni u tradicionalnim društvima
05:05
is that they often are still effective
je to što su oni
i dalje efikasni
05:08
at producing food.
u stvaranju hrane.
05:10
Another traditional usefulness of older people
Druga tradicionalna
korist od starijih
05:12
is that they are capable of babysitting
je njihova sposobnost
da čuvaju decu,
05:15
their grandchildren,
njihove unuke,
05:18
thereby freeing up their own adult children,
čime oslobađaju
svoju odraslu decu,
05:20
the parents of those grandchildren,
roditelje tih unuka,
05:23
to go hunting and gathering
food for the grandchildren.
i oni mogu da love i sakupljaju
hranu za te unuke.
05:24
Still another traditional value of older people
Još jedna tradicionalna vrednost starijih
05:28
is in making tools, weapons, baskets,
je pravljenje alata,
oružja, korpi,
05:30
pots and textiles.
posuđa i tekstila.
05:33
In fact, they're usually the people who are best at it.
U stvari, oni su uglavnom ti
koji su najbolji u tome.
05:35
Older people usually are the leaders
Stariji ljudi su uglavnom vođe
05:38
of traditional societies,
tradicionalnih društava
05:41
and the people most knowledgeable about politics,
i oni znaju najviše o politici,
05:43
medicine, religion, songs and dances.
medicini, religiji,
pesmama i plesovima.
05:46
Finally, older people in traditional societies
Stariji ljudi
u tradicionalnim društvima
05:50
have a huge significance that would never occur
imaju ogromnu važnost
koju mi,
05:53
to us in our modern, literate societies,
u modernim, pismenim društvima
nikada ne bismo uvideli.
05:56
where our sources of information are books
Naši izvori informacija su knjige
06:00
and the Internet.
i internet.
06:03
In contrast, in traditional societies without writing,
Suprotno tome,
u tradicionalnim društvima bez pisma,
06:04
older people are the repositories of information.
stariji ljudi su skladište informacija.
06:08
It's their knowledge that spells the difference
Njihovo znanje
određuje razliku
06:11
between survival and death for their whole society
između preživljavanja i smrti
njihovog čitavog društva
06:14
in a time of crisis caused by rare events
u vremenima krize
prouzrokovane retkim događajima
06:18
for which only the oldest people alive
koje su samo najstariji živi ljudi
06:21
have had experience.
već iskusili.
06:23
Those, then, are the ways in which older people
To su načini
na koje su stariji ljudi
06:26
are useful in traditional societies.
korisni u tradicionalnim društvima.
06:28
Their usefulness varies and contributes
Njihova korisnost se razlikuje
i doprinosi
06:31
to variation in the society's treatment
razlikama u društvenom odnosu
06:34
of the elderly.
prema starijima.
06:36
The other set of reasons for variation
Druga grupa uzroka razlika
06:38
in the treatment of the elderly is
u odnosu prema starijima
06:40
the society's cultural values.
su kulturne vrednosti društva.
06:42
For example, there's particular emphasis
Na primer, u Istočnoj Aziji
06:45
on respect for the elderly in East Asia,
poseban naglasak je
na poštovanju starijih
06:47
associated with Confucius' doctrine
što se povezuje
sa Konfučijevom doktrinom
06:50
of filial piety, which means obedience,
privrženosti dece,
koja podrazumeva poslušnost,
06:53
respect and support for elderly parents.
poštovanje i podršku
starijim roditeljima.
06:57
Cultural values that emphasize
respect for older people
Kulturne vrednosti koje naglašavaju
poštovanje starijih
07:01
contrast with the low status of the elderly
su u kontrastu
sa niskim statusom starijih
07:05
in the U.S.
u SAD.
07:08
Older Americans are at a big disadvantage
Stariji Amerikanci su podređeniji
07:10
in job applications.
pri prijavi za posao.
07:12
They're at a big disadvantage in hospitals.
Manje su prioritetni u bolnicama.
07:14
Our hospitals have an explicit policy
Američke bolnice imaju
eksplicitnu politiku
07:17
called age-based allocation of healthcare resources.
nazvanu "raspodela zdravstvenih resursa
na osnovu godina".
07:20
That sinister expression means that
Ovaj grešni izraz znači da
07:25
if hospital resources are limited,
ako su bolnički resursi ograničeni,
07:27
for example if only one donor heart
na primer, ako se javi
samo jedno donorsko srce
07:30
becomes available for transplant,
za transplantaciju,
07:32
or if a surgeon has time to operate
ili ako hirurg
ima vremena da operiše
07:34
on only a certain number of patients,
samo određeni broj pacijenata,
07:36
American hospitals have an explicit policy
američke bolnice
imaju eksplicitnu politiku
07:38
of giving preference to younger patients
davanja prednosti mlađim
07:41
over older patients
naspram starijim pacijentima
07:44
on the grounds that younger patients are considered
na osnovu toga što se
mlađi pacijenti smatraju
07:45
more valuable to society
vrednijim društvu,
07:48
because they have more years of life ahead of them,
jer imaju više godina
života pred sobom,
07:50
even though the younger patients have fewer years
iako mlađi pacijenti
imaju manje godina
07:53
of valuable life experience behind them.
vrednog životnog iskustva
za sobom.
07:56
There are several reasons for this low status
Postoji nekoliko razloga
ovako niskog statusa
08:00
of the elderly in the U.S.
starijih u SAD.
08:02
One is our Protestant work ethic
Jedna je
protestantska radna etika,
08:04
which places high value on work,
koja visoko vrednuje rad,
08:07
so older people who are no longer working
tako da stariji ljudi
koji više ne rade
08:10
aren't respected.
ne dobijaju poštovanje.
08:12
Another reason is our American emphasis
Još jedan razlog
je američki naglasak
08:14
on the virtues of self-reliance and independence,
na vrline oslanjanja
na sopstvene snage i nezavisnosti,
08:17
so we instinctively look down on older people
tako da mi automatski
podređujemo starije ljude,
08:20
who are no longer self-reliant and independent.
koji postaju zavisni
i nisu više samostalni.
08:23
Still a third reason is our American cult of youth,
Treći razlog je
američki kult mladosti
08:27
which shows up even in our advertisements.
koji se javlja
čak i u reklamama.
08:31
Ads for Coca-Cola and beer always depict
Reklame za Koka-kolu i pivo
uvek prikazuju
08:34
smiling young people,
nasmejane mlade ljude,
08:37
even though old as well as young people
iako stariji, isto kao i mladi,
08:38
buy and drink Coca-Cola and beer.
kupuju i piju
Koka-kolu i pivo.
08:40
Just think, what's the last time you saw
Razmislite samo.
Kada ste poslednji put videli
08:43
a Coke or beer ad depicting smiling people
reklamu za Kolu ili pivo
koja prikazuje nasmejane ljude
08:45
85 years old? Never.
u 85. godini?
Nikad.
08:47
Instead, the only American ads
Umesto toga,
jedine američke reklame
08:50
featuring white-haired old people
koje prikazuju sede starije ljude
08:52
are ads for retirement homes and pension planning.
su reklame za staračke domove
i penzioni plan.
08:54
Well, what has changed in the status
Šta je ono što se
promenilo u statusu
08:58
of the elderly today
starijih danas
09:00
compared to their status in traditional societies?
u odnosu na njihov status
u tradicionalnim društvima?
09:02
There have been a few changes for the better
Desilo se nekoliko
promena na bolje
09:05
and more changes for the worse.
i mnogo promena na gore.
09:07
Big changes for the better
Velike promene na bolje
09:10
include the fact that today we enjoy
uključuju činjenicu
da danas uživamo
09:11
much longer lives,
u mnogo dužim životima,
09:13
much better health in our old age,
mnogo boljem zdravlju
u poznom dobu
09:15
and much better recreational opportunities.
i mnogo boljim mogućnostima
za rekreaciju.
09:18
Another change for the better is that we now have
Još jedna promena na bolje
je da sada imamo
09:21
specialized retirement facilities
specijalizovane ustanove za starije
09:24
and programs to take care of old people.
i programe koji se
brinu za starije ljude.
09:26
Changes for the worse begin with the cruel reality
Promene na gore počinju
sa surovom stvarnošću
09:30
that we now have
sa kojom se sada suočavamo -
09:33
more old people and fewer young people
više starijih i manje mladih
09:34
than at any time in the past.
nego u bilo kom trenutku u prošlosti.
09:37
That means that all those old people
To znači da su svi ti stariji ljudi
09:40
are more of a burden on the few young people,
veći teret manjem broju
mladih ljudi
09:41
and that each old person has less individual value.
i da svaka starija osoba nosi
manju ličnu vrednost.
09:44
Another big change for the worse
in the status of the elderly
Još jedna velika promena na gore
u statusu starijih
09:48
is the breaking of social ties with age,
je prekidanje društvenih veza
s godinama,
09:51
because older people, their children,
jer se stariji ljudi, njihova deca
09:54
and their friends,
i njihovi prijatelji
09:56
all move and scatter independently of each other
svi sele i raspršuju
nezavisno jedni od drugih
09:57
many times during their lives.
mnogo puta tokom njihovih života.
10:00
We Americans move on the average
Amerikanci se sele prosečno
10:02
every five years.
svakih pet godina.
10:04
Hence our older people are likely
Zbog toga će naši stariji
sa velikom verovatnoćom
10:06
to end up living distant from their children
završiti živeći daleko
od svoje dece
10:08
and the friends of their youth.
i prijatelja iz mladosti.
10:10
Yet another change for the worse
in the status of the elderly
Još jedna promena na gore
u statusu starijih
10:13
is formal retirement from the workforce,
je zakonom određeno
penzionisanje
10:16
carrying with it a loss of work friendships
koje sa sobom nosi
gubitak prijateljstava
10:20
and a loss of the self-esteem associated with work.
i gubitak samopouzdanja
vezanog za rad.
10:23
Perhaps the biggest change for the worse
Možda najveća promena na gore
10:27
is that our elderly are objectively
je to što su naši stariji objektivno
10:29
less useful than in traditional societies.
manje korisni nego
u tradicionalnim društvima.
10:32
Widespread literacy means that they are no longer
Široko rasprostranjena pismenost
znači da oni više nisu
10:36
useful as repositories of knowledge.
korisni kao skladišta znanja.
10:38
When we want some information,
Kada želimo neku informaciju,
10:41
we look it up in a book or we Google it
potražićemo je u knjizi
ili na Guglu
10:43
instead of finding some old person to ask.
umesto da potražimo
neku stariju osobu i pitamo je.
10:45
The slow pace of technological change
Spori napredak tehnološkog razvoja
10:49
in traditional societies
u tradicionalnim društvima
10:51
means that what someone learns there as a child
znači da je ono
što neko nauči kao dete
10:53
is still useful when that person is old,
i dalje korisno kada ta osoba ostari,
10:56
but the rapid pace of technological change today
a brzi tok tehnološkog razvoja danas
10:58
means that what we learn as children
znači da ono što naučimo kao deca
11:02
is no longer useful 60 years later.
postaje beskorisno 60 godina kasnije.
11:04
And conversely, we older people are not fluent
Kao posledica toga mi,
stariji ljudi, ne poznajemo
11:07
in the technologies essential for surviving
tehnologije neophodne
za preživljavanje
11:09
in modern society.
u modernom društvu.
11:12
For example, as a 15-year-old,
Na primer,
kao petnaestogodišnjak
11:14
I was considered outstandingly
good at multiplying numbers
bio sam izvanredno dobar
u množenju,
11:16
because I had memorized the multiplication tables
jer sam zapamtio tablice množenja
11:20
and I know how to use logarithms
i znam kako da koristim logaritme
11:23
and I'm quick at manipulating a slide rule.
i brz sam u upotrebi logaritmara.
11:25
Today, though, those skills are utterly useless
Danas su, pak, te veštine
potpuno nepotrebne,
11:28
because any idiot
jer bilo koji idiot
11:31
can now multiply eight-digit numbers
može da množi
osmocifrene brojeve
11:34
accurately and instantly with a pocket calculator.
tačno i trenutno
uz pomoć džepnog digitrona.
11:36
Conversely, I at age 75
Kao posledica toga,
ja sa 75
11:39
am incompetent at skills
sam nekompetentan
u veštinama
11:41
essential for everyday life.
potrebnim za svakodnevni život.
11:44
My family's first TV set in 1948
Prvi TV moje porodice 1948.
11:46
had only three knobs that I quickly mastered:
imao je samo tri dugmeta
11:49
an on-off switch, a volume knob,
za uključivanje i isključivanje,
jačinu
11:52
and a channel selector knob.
i odabir kanala.
11:55
Today, just to watch a program
Danas, samo da bih
odgledao program
11:57
on the TV set in my own house,
na televizoru u mojoj kući
11:59
I have to operate a 41-button TV remote
moram da rukujem
daljinskim sa 41 dugmetom
12:02
that utterly defeats me.
što me potpuno poražava.
12:05
I have to telephone my 25-year-old sons
Moram da nazovem
svoje 25-ogodišnje sinove
12:07
and ask them to talk me through it
i zamolim ih mi da mi pomognu
12:10
while I try to push those wretched 41 buttons.
dok pokušavam da ispritiskam
tih 41 mizernih dugmića.
12:13
What can we do to improve the lives of the elderly
Šta možemo da učinimo
da poboljšamo živote starijih
12:18
in the U.S., and to make better use of their value?
u SAD i bolje iskoristimo
njihove vrednosti?
12:20
That's a huge problem.
To je ogroman problem.
12:24
In my remaining four minutes today,
U svoja preostala četiri minuta danas
12:26
I can offer just a few suggestions.
mogu da vam ponudim
samo neke predloge.
12:28
One value of older people is that they are
Jedna od vrednosti starijih je
12:31
increasingly useful as grandparents
da su sve više i više
korisni kao babe i dede
12:33
for offering high-quality childcare
nudeći visoko kvalitetnu brigu o deci
12:36
to their grandchildren, if they choose to do it,
svojim unucima,
ako odaberu to da rade,
12:38
as more young women enter the workforce
pošto sve više mladih žena
počinje da radi
12:41
and as fewer young parents of either gender
i sve manje mladih roditelja oba pola
12:44
stay home as full-time caretakers of their children.
ostaje kod kuće da se stara
o svojoj deci tokom čitavog dana.
12:46
Compared to the usual alternatives
Poređeno sa uobičajenim alternativama
12:50
of paid babysitters and day care centers,
plaćanja bejbi-sitera i obdaništa,
12:52
grandparents offer superior, motivated,
babe i dede nude bolju, motivisanu
12:56
experienced child care.
brigu o deci, sa iskustvom.
12:59
They've already gained experience
from raising their own children.
Oni su već stekli iskustvo
odgajanjem sopstvene dece.
13:01
They usually love their grandchildren,
U većini slučajeva
oni vole svoje unuke
13:05
and are eager to spend time with them.
i željni su da provode vreme s njima.
13:07
Unlike other caregivers,
Za razliku od drugih staratelja,
13:10
grandparents don't quit their job
babe i dede ne napuštaju svoj posao,
13:12
because they found another job with higher pay
jer su našli bolji,
sa većom platom
13:14
looking after another baby.
čuvajući neko drugo dete.
13:17
A second value of older people is paradoxically
Druga vrednost starijih je,
paradoksalno,
13:20
related to their loss of value
povezana sa gubitkom njihove vrednosti
13:23
as a result of changing world
conditions and technology.
kao posledica promena
u svetskim uslovima i tehnologiji.
13:25
At the same time, older people have gained
Istovremeno, stariji ljudi su dobili
13:30
in value today precisely because
na vrednosti danas upravo
13:32
of their unique experience of living conditions
zbog njihovog jedinstvenog
iskustva u životnim uslovima
13:34
that have now become rare
koji su sada postali retki
13:37
because of rapid change, but that could come back.
zbog brzine promena,
ali koji bi se mogli vratiti.
13:39
For example, only Americans now in their 70s
Na primer, samo Amerikanci
koji su sada u svojim 70-im
13:42
or older today can remember
ili su stariji
se danas sećaju
13:45
the experience of living through a great depression,
iskustva življenja
tokom velike depresije,
13:47
the experience of living through a world war,
iskustva života
tokom svetskog rata,
13:51
and agonizing whether or not
brige da li će ili neće
13:53
dropping atomic bombs would be more horrible
atomska bomba biti gora
13:56
than the likely consequences
of not dropping atomic bombs.
nego posledica nebacanja
atomskih bombi.
13:59
Most of our current voters and politicians
Većina sadašnjih glasača i političara
14:03
have no personal experience of any of those things,
nemaju lično iskustvo u tim stvarima,
14:05
but millions of older Americans do.
ali milioni starijih Amerikanaca
ga imaju.
14:08
Unfortunately, all of those terrible situations
Nažalost, sve te užasne situacije
14:11
could come back.
bi mogle da se ponove.
14:13
Even if they don't come back,
A čak i da se ne ponove,
14:15
we have to be able to plan for them
moramo da budemo sposobni
da planiramo za njih
14:16
on the basis of the experience of what they were like.
na osnovu iskustva
kakve su nekada bile.
14:18
Older people have that experience.
Stariji ljudi imaju to iskustvo.
14:21
Younger people don't.
Mlađi ljudi nemaju.
14:23
The remaining value of older people
Vrednost starijih
14:25
that I'll mention involves recognizing that
koju ću još spomenuti
uključuje prepoznavanje da
14:26
while there are many things that older people
iako postoji mnogo stvari koje stariji
14:29
can no longer do,
više ne mogu da rade,
14:31
there are other things that they can do
postoje druge stvari
koje mogu da rade
14:33
better than younger people.
bolje od mladih ljudi.
14:34
A challenge for society is
to make use of those things
Izazov za društvo je da iskoristi te stvari
14:37
that older people are better at doing.
koje stariji bolje rade.
14:39
Some abilities, of course, decrease with age.
Neke sposobnosti, naravno,
nestaju godinama.
14:42
Those include abilities at tasks
One uključuju sposobnosti
u zadacima
14:45
requiring physical strength and stamina,
koji zahtevaju
fizičku snagu i izdržljivost,
14:48
ambition, and the power of novel reasoning
ambiciju i moć inovativnog razmišljanja
14:51
in a circumscribed situation,
u specifičnim situacijama,
14:55
such as figuring out the structure of DNA,
kao što je pronalaženje strukture DNK,
14:57
best left to scientists under the age of 30.
što je najbolje prepustiti
naučnicima ispod 30.
15:00
Conversely, valuable attributes
Kao posledica toga,
vredne osobine
15:03
that increase with age include experience,
koje rastu sa godinama
uključuju iskustvo,
15:05
understanding of people and human relationships,
razumevanje ljudi i međuljudskih odnosa,
15:09
ability to help other people
sposobnost za pomaganje drugima
15:12
without your own ego getting in the way,
bez uplitanja sopstvenog ega
15:14
and interdisciplinary thinking about large databases,
i interdisciplinarno razmišljanje
o velikim bazama podataka
15:16
such as economics and comparative history,
kao što su ekonomija
i komparativna istorija,
15:20
best left to scholars over the age of 60.
što je bolje ostaviti
stručnjacima preko 60.
15:23
Hence older people are
much better than younger people
Zbog toga su stariji ljudi
mnogo bolji od mlađih
15:26
at supervising, administering, advising,
u nadgledanju, administraciji,
savetovanju,
15:28
strategizing, teaching, synthesizing,
osmišljanju strategija,
podučavanju, sintezi
15:32
and devising long-term plans.
i razvoju dugoročnih planova.
15:36
I've seen this value of older people
Video sam ovu vrednost starijih ljudi
15:39
with so many of my friends in their 60s,
u velikom broju svojih prijatelja
u njihovim 60-im
15:41
70s, 80s and 90s,
70-im, 80-im i 90-im
15:43
who are still active as investment managers,
koji su i dalje aktivni
kao investicioni menadžeri,
15:45
farmers, lawyers and doctors.
poljoprivrednici, advokati i lekari.
15:48
In short, many traditional societies
Ukratko, mnoga tradicionalna društva
15:51
make better use of their elderly
bolje iskorišćavaju starije
15:54
and give their elderly more satisfying lives
i pružaju im ispunjenije živote
15:56
than we do in modern, big societies.
nego što to mi činimo u modernim,
velikim društvima.
15:59
Paradoxically nowadays,
Paradoksalno, danas
16:02
when we have more elderly people than ever before,
kada imamo više starijih
nego ikada pre
16:04
living healthier lives and with better medical care
koji žive zdravije živote
sa boljom zdravstvenom negom
16:06
than ever before,
nego ikada pre
16:09
old age is in some respects more miserable
starost je u nekim pogledima bednija
16:11
than ever before.
nego ikada pre.
16:13
The lives of the elderly are widely recognized
Životi starijih su naširoko prepoznati
16:15
as constituting a disaster area
kao područja katastrofe
16:18
of modern American society.
u modernom američkom društvu.
16:20
We can surely do better by learning
Sigurno možemo biti bolji ako učimo
16:23
from the lives of the elderly
iz života starijih
16:25
in traditional societies.
u tradicionalnim društvima.
16:26
But what's true of the lives of the elderly
Ali ono što je istinito za živote starijih
16:28
in traditional societies
u tradicionalnim društvima
16:30
is true of many other features
je istinito i za druge osobine
16:32
of traditional societies as well.
tradicionalnih društava.
16:34
Of course, I'm not advocating that we all give up
Naravno, nisam zagovornik napuštanja
16:36
agriculture and metal tools
poljoprivrede i metalnih oruđa
16:39
and return to a hunter-gatherer lifestyle.
i vraćanja lovu i sakupljanju.
16:41
There are many obvious respects
Postoji mnogo očiglednih aspekata
16:44
in which our lives today are far happier
zbog kojih su naši životi danas
daleko srećniji
16:45
than those in small, traditional societies.
od onih u malim,
tradicionalnim društvima.
16:48
To mention just a few examples,
Napomenuo bih samo neke primere,
16:51
our lives are longer, materially much richer,
naši životi su duži,
materijalno znatno bogatiji
16:53
and less plagued by violence
i manje mučeni nasiljem
16:56
than are the lives of people in traditional societies.
nego životi ljudi
u tradicionalnim društvima.
16:58
But there are also things to be admired
Ali postoje i stvari
kojima se treba diviti
17:01
about people in traditional societies,
kod ljudi u tradicionalnim društvima
17:04
and perhaps to be learned from them.
i možda učiti iz njih.
17:06
Their lives are usually socially much richer
Njihovi životi su uglavnom
značajno društveno bogatiji
17:08
than our lives,
nego naši životi,
17:11
although materially poorer.
iako materijalno siromašniji.
17:12
Their children are more self-confident,
Njihova deca imaju
više samopouzdanja,
17:15
more independent, and more socially skilled
nezavisnija su i imaju
više socijalnih veština
17:18
than are our children.
nego naša deca.
17:20
They think more realistically
about dangers than we do.
Razmišljaju realističnije
o opasnostima nego mi.
17:23
They almost never die of diabetes, heart disease,
Skoro nikada ne umiru od
dijabetesa, srčanih oboljenja,
17:26
stroke, and the other noncommunicable diseases
šloga ili drugih nezaraznih bolesti,
17:30
that will be the causes of death of almost
koje će biti uzrok smrti
17:33
all of us in this room today.
skoro svih nas u ovoj prostoriji danas.
17:36
Features of the modern lifestyle
predispose us to those diseases,
Osobine savremenog života
nas predodređuju tim bolestima,
17:39
and features of the traditional lifestyle
a osobine tradicionalnih društava
17:43
protect us against them.
nas štite od njih.
17:45
Those are just some examples of what we can learn
To su samo neki primeri
toga šta možemo da naučimo
17:47
from traditional societies.
od tradicionalnih društava.
17:50
I hope that you will find it as fascinating
Nadam se da vam biti
isto toliko zapanjujuće
17:52
to read about traditional societies
da čitate o tradicionalnim društvima
17:54
as I found it to live in those societies.
kao što je meni bilo
da živim među njima.
17:56
Thank you.
Hvala vam.
17:59
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
18:01
Translated by Aniko Kovac
Reviewed by Mile Živković

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About the speaker:

Jared Diamond - Civilization scholar
Jared Diamond investigates why cultures prosper or decline -- and what we can learn by taking a broad look across many kinds of societies.

Why you should listen

In his books Guns, Germs and Steel and Collapse (and the popular PBS and National Geographic documentaries they inspired), big-picture scholar Jared Diamond explores civilizations and why they all seem to fall. Now in his latest book, The World Until Yesterday, Diamond examines small, traditional, tribal societies -- and suggests that modern civilization is only our latest solution to survival.
 
Diamond’s background in evolutionary biology, geography and physiology informs his integrated vision of human history. He posits that success -- and failure -- depends on how well societies adapt to their changing environment.

More profile about the speaker
Jared Diamond | Speaker | TED.com