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Rory Sutherland: Perspective is everything

Rory Sutherland: Sve je u perspektivi

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Okolnosti u našem životu mogu biti manje značajne od načina na koji ih mi doživljavamo, kaže Rory Sutherland. Na TEDx-u u Ateni, izlaže svoju ubjedljivu tezu o tome kako se ključ za sreću nalazi u promjeni načina na koji gledamo na stvari.

- Advertising guru
Rory Sutherland stands at the center of an advertising revolution in brand identities, designing cutting-edge, interactive campaigns that blur the line between ad and entertainment. Full bio

What you have here
Ovo što držim u ruci
00:16
is an electronic cigarette.
je elektronska cigareta.
00:18
It's something that's, since it was invented a year or two ago,
Otkad su je izumili, prije godinu-dvije,
00:21
has given me untold happiness.
neizmjerno me usrećila.
00:25
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
00:27
A little bit of it, I think, is the nicotine,
Mislim da je to malim dijelom zbog nikotina,
00:28
but there's something much bigger than that.
ali postoji jedan mnogo veći razlog.
00:30
Which is ever since, in the U.K., they banned smoking in public places,
Naime, otkada su u Velikoj Britaniji zabranili pušenje na javnim mjestima
00:32
I've never enjoyed a drinks party ever again.
ja više nikada nisam uživao na niti jednoj zabavi .
00:37
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
00:41
And the reason, I only worked out just the other day,
A razlog sam tek neki dan shvatio.
00:42
which is when you go to a drinks party
Kada odete na nekakvu zabavu,
00:46
and you stand up and you hold a glass of red wine
stojite sa čašom crnog vina u ruci
00:48
and you talk endlessly to people,
i provodite vrijeme u beskrajnim razgovorima
00:50
you don't actually want to spend all the time talking.
zapravo i ne želite svo vrijeme provesti u razgovoru.
00:51
It's really, really tiring.
To je zaista, zaista zamorno.
00:54
Sometimes you just want to stand there silently, alone with your thoughts.
Nekad poželite samo stajati u miru, sami sa svojim mislima.
00:56
Sometimes you just want to stand in the corner and stare out of the window.
Nekad poželite stati u kut, i gledati kroz prozor.
01:00
Now the problem is, when you can't smoke,
No, problem je u tome da, kada ne pušite,
01:04
if you stand and stare out of the window on your own,
i sami stojite u kutu i gledate kroz prozor
01:07
you're an antisocial, friendless idiot.
drugi misle da ste nedruštveni idiot koji nema prijatelja.
01:11
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
01:14
If you stand and stare out of the window on your own with a cigarette,
Ali, ako gledate kroz prozor sa cigaretom u ruci
01:15
you're a fucking philosopher.
e, onda ste prokleti filozof.
01:19
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
01:22
(Applause)
(Pljesak)
01:24
So the power of reframing things
Snaga stavljanja stvari u nove okvire
01:29
cannot be overstated.
ne može se precijeniti.
01:34
What we have is exactly the same thing, the same activity,
U ovom slučaju radi se o istoj stvari, istoj radnji
01:37
but one of them makes you feel great
no, od jedne se osjećate odlično,
01:41
and the other one, with just a small change of posture,
a od druge, uz samo malu promjenu stava,
01:43
makes you feel terrible.
se osjećate užasno.
01:46
And I think one of the problems with classical economics
I mislim da je jedan od problema klasične ekonomije taj
01:49
is it's absolutely preoccupied with reality.
što je ona apsolutno zaokupljena sa stvarnošću
01:51
And reality isn't a particularly good guide to human happiness.
a stvarnost nije baš dobar vodič na putu ka ljudskoj sreći.
01:54
Why, for example,
Zašto su, na primjer,
01:59
are pensioners much happier
umirovljenici mnogo sretniji
02:01
than the young unemployed?
od mladih nezaposlenih?
02:04
Both of them, after all, are in exactly the same stage of life.
Napokon, i jedni i drugi su u potpuno jednakom položaju.
02:06
You both have too much time on your hands and not much money.
Imaju mnogo slobodnog vremena i ne baš previše novaca.
02:10
But pensioners are reportedly very, very happy,
No, umirovljenici su jako, jako sretni
02:13
whereas the unemployed are extraordinarily unhappy and depressed.
dok su, nasuprot njima, nezaposleni izuzetno nesretni i deprimirani ljudi.
02:16
The reason, I think, is that the pensioners believe they've chosen to be pensioners,
Mislim da je razlog tomu taj da umirovljenici vjeruju da su oni odabrali da budu umirovljenici
02:20
whereas the young unemployed
dok se mladi nezaposleni
02:24
feel it's been thrust upon them.
osjećaju kao da im je to nametnuto.
02:26
In England the upper middle classes have actually solved this problem perfectly,
U Engleskoj je gornja srednja klasa taj problem savršeno riješila
02:29
because they've re-branded unemployment.
i to tako da su brendirali nezaposlenost.
02:33
If you're an upper-middle-class English person,
Ako ste Englez koji pripada gornjoj srednjoj klasi
02:36
you call unemployment "a year off."
nezaposlenost nazivate "slobodnom godinom".
02:38
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
02:41
And that's because having a son who's unemployed in Manchester
A to je zato što je u Manchesteru
02:43
is really quite embarrassing,
sramota imati nezaposlenog sina.
02:47
but having a son who's unemployed in Thailand
Ali, ako imate nezaposlenog sina u Tajlandu
02:49
is really viewed as quite an accomplishment.
to možete smatrati velikim postignućem.
02:52
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
02:54
But actually the power to re-brand things --
No, zapravo, moć da se stvari preimenuju--
02:56
to understand that actually our experiences, costs, things
razumijevanje da naša iskustva, cijene, stvari
02:58
don't actually much depend on what they really are,
zapravo i ne ovise o onome što one zaista i jesu
03:03
but on how we view them --
nego o tome kako mi na njih gledamo--
03:06
I genuinely think can't be overstated.
Ja zaista vjerujem da se to ne može previše naglašavati.
03:08
There's an experiment I think Daniel Pink refers to
Daniel Pink spominje eksperiment
03:10
where you put two dogs in a box
u kojem stavite dva psa u kutiju
03:13
and the box has an electric floor.
koja ima ožičeno dno.
03:16
Every now and then an electric shock is applied to the floor,
Svako malo kroz pod pustite struju, proizvedete strujni udar
03:20
which pains the dogs.
koji psima prouzročuje bol.
03:25
The only difference is one of the dogs has a small button in its half of the box.
Jedina je razlika u tome što jedan pas u svojoj polovici kutije ima malo dugme.
03:27
And when it nuzzles the button, the electric shock stops.
Kada pas pritisne dugme, strujni udar prestane.
03:32
The other dog doesn't have the button.
Drugi pas nema to dugme.
03:36
It's exposed to exactly the same level of pain as the dog in the first box,
Oba psa su izložena jednakj razini boli, ali drugi pas
03:39
but it has no control over the circumstances.
nema nikakve kontrole nad okolnostima.
03:43
Generally the first dog can be relatively content.
Generalno gledano, prvi je pas relativno zadovoljan.
03:46
The second dog lapses into complete depression.
Drugi pas pada u potpunu depresiju.
03:50
The circumstances of our lives may actually matter less to our happiness
Okolnosti u našem životu mogu imati manje utjecaja na našu sreću
03:54
than the sense of control we feel over our lives.
od osjećaja kontrole koju imamo u našim životima.
03:59
It's an interesting question.
Zanimljivo.
04:03
We ask the question -- the whole debate in the Western world
Pitamo se -- u zapadnom svijetu vodi se debata
04:06
is about the level of taxation.
o visini poreza.
04:09
But I think there's another debate to be asked,
Ali, ja mislim da bi se trebalo raspravljati o tome
04:11
which is the level of control we have over our tax money.
kakvu kontrolu imamo nad tim novcem kojeg plaćamo.
04:13
That what costs us 10 pounds in one context can be a curse.
Nešto što nas košta 10 funti u jednom kontekstu može biti prokletstvo.
04:17
What costs us 10 pounds in a different context we may actually welcome.
U drugačijem kontekstu to je zapravo može biti poželjno i dobrodošlo.
04:21
You know, pay 20,000 pounds in tax toward health
Znate, kada platite 20,000 funti u porezu za zdravstvo
04:27
and you're merely feeling a mug.
to vam se čini kao kap u moru.
04:31
Pay 20,000 pounds to endow a hospital ward
Ali, ako poklonite 20,000 funti štićenicima neke bolnice
04:33
and you're called a philanthropist.
smatrati će vas filantropom.
04:37
I'm probably in the wrong country to talk about willingness to pay tax.
Vjerojatno sam u krivoj zemlji da bi govorio o voljnosti da se plaća porez.
04:39
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
04:43
So I'll give you one in return. How you frame things really matters.
Dat ću vam jedan drugi primjer. Zaista je važno kako oblikujemo stvari.
04:45
Do you call it the bailout of Greece
Je li to spašavanje Grčke,
04:50
or the bailout of a load of stupid banks which lent to Greece?
ili spašavanje grupe glupih banaka koje su novac posudile Grčkoj?
04:53
Because they are actually the same thing.
Zato što su to iste stvari.
04:56
What you call them actually affects
Kako ih nazivate utječe na to
04:59
how you react to them, viscerally and morally.
kako ćete na njih reagirati, instiktivno i moralno.
05:01
I think psychological value is great to be absolutely honest.
Da budem iskren, mislim da je psihološka vrijednost nešto odlično.
05:05
One of my great friends, a professor called Nick Chater,
Jedan od mojih dobrih prijatelja, Nick Chater,
05:08
who's the Professor of Decision Sciences in London,
profesor Znanosti o odlučivanju (Decision Scienses) u Londonu,
05:11
believes that we should spend far less time
vjeruje da bismo trebali provoditi puno manje vremena
05:14
looking into humanity's hidden depths
u proučavanju skrivenih ljudskih dubina
05:17
and spend much more time exploring the hidden shallows.
i puno više vremena proučavati skrivene plićake.
05:19
I think that's true actually.
I ja se s time slažem.
05:22
I think impressions have an insane effect
Mislim da dojmovi mogu imati nevjerojatan učinak
05:23
on what we think and what we do.
na to kako mislimo i što radimo.
05:26
But what we don't have is a really good model of human psychology.
Ali, ono što nemamo je jedan zaista dobar model psihologije čovjeka.
05:28
At least pre-Kahneman perhaps,
Odnosno, do Kahnemana
05:33
we didn't have a really good model of human psychology
nismo imali dobar model psihologije čovjeka
05:35
to put alongside models of engineering, of neoclassical economics.
koji bi stajao pored modela strojarstva, ili neoklasične ekonomije.
05:38
So people who believed in psychological solutions didn't have a model.
Ljudi koji su vjerovali u psihološka rješenja nisu imali nikakav model.
05:42
We didn't have a framework.
Nismo imali okvir.
05:46
This is what Warren Buffett's business partner Charlie Munger calls
To je ono što Warrenn Buffet, poslovni partner Charlija Mungera, naziva
05:48
"a latticework on which to hang your ideas."
"rešetka za okačiti ideje."
05:51
Engineers, economists, classical economists
Inženjeri, ekonomisti, klasični ekonomisti,
05:53
all had a very, very robust existing latticework
svi su oni imali veoma, veoma čvrste rešetke
05:57
on which practically every idea could be hung.
na koje se mogla okačiti gotovo svaka ideja.
06:00
We merely have a collection of random individual insights
Mi smo imali samo zbirku individualnih uvida
06:03
without an overall model.
bez sveobuhvatnog modela.
06:06
And what that means is that in looking at solutions,
A to znači da smo prilkom traženja rješenja
06:09
we've probably given too much priority
pridavali previše pažnje onome što zovemo
06:13
to what I call technical engineering solutions, Newtonian solutions,
tehničkim rješenjima, njutonovskim rješenjima,
06:16
and not nearly enough to the psychological ones.
a ni približno dovoljno psihološkim.
06:20
You know my example of the Eurostar.
Poznat vam je moj primjer sa Eurostarom.
06:23
Six million pounds spent to reduce the journey time
Šest milijuna funti potrošeno je da bi se put između Londona i Pariza
06:25
between Paris and London by about 40 minutes.
skratio za oko 40 minuta.
06:27
For 0.01 percent of this money you could have put WiFi on the trains,
Za 0.01 posto tog novca moglo se vlakove opremiti bežičnim internetom,
06:31
which wouldn't have reduced the duration of the journey,
što ne bi skratilo vrijeme puta,
06:36
but would have improved its enjoyment and its usefullness far more.
ali bi se povećala korisnost i ugodnost.
06:38
For maybe 10 percent of the money,
Za možda 10 posto tog novca
06:42
you could have paid all of the world's top male and female supermodels
mogli bi platiti sve vrhunske svjetske muške i ženske modele
06:44
to walk up and down the train handing out free Chateau Petrus to all the passengers.
da hodaju gore dolje po vlaku i putnicima toče besplatno vino.
06:48
You'd still have five [million] pounds in change,
Ostalo bi vam 5 milijardi funti ,
06:53
and people would ask for the trains to be slowed down.
a ljudi bi vas još i molili da vlakove usporite.
06:56
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
06:59
Why were we not given the chance
Zašto nam nisu dali šansu
07:02
to solve that problem psychologically?
da riješimo problem psihološki?
07:05
I think it's because there's an imbalance, an asymmetry,
Mislim da je to zato što imamo disbalans, asimetriju
07:07
in the way we treat creative, emotionally-driven psychological ideas
između načina na koji postupamo s kreativnim, psihološkim idejama utemeljenim na emotivnim porivima
07:10
versus the way we treat rational, numerical, spreadsheet-driven ideas.
i načina na koji postupamo sa racionalnim, numeričkim idejama koje temeljimo na tabelama.
07:14
If you're a creative person, I think quite rightly,
Ako ste kreativna osoba, mislim da s pravom trebate
07:20
you have to share all your ideas for approval
iznositi svoje ideje da bi ih prihvatili ljudi
07:22
with people much more rational than you.
koji su puno racionalniji od vas samih.
07:24
You have to go in and you have to have a cost-benefit analysis,
Morate napraviti troškovnik, analizu dobiti,
07:26
a feasibility study, an ROI study and so forth.
studije izvedivosti, studije o povratku uloženog i tako dalje.
07:30
And I think that's probably right.
I mislim da je to u redu.
07:33
But this does not apply the other way around.
Ali, to ne vrijedi i obrnuto.
07:35
People who have an existing framework,
Ljudi koji imaju određeni postojeći okvir,
07:38
an economic framework, an engineering framework,
ekonomski okvir, inženjerski okvir,
07:40
feel that actually logic is its own answer.
misle da je logika rješenje sam po sebi.
07:43
What they don't say is, "Well the numbers all seem to add up,
Oni ne kažu: "Pa, brojevi se, eto, slažu
07:46
but before I present this idea, I'll go and show it to some really crazy people
ali idem najprije iznesti svoju ideju nekim stvarno ludim ljudima
07:49
to see if they can come up with something better."
da vidim da li će oni smisliti nešto bolje."
07:52
And so we, artificially I think, prioritize
I tako,na umjetan način, dajemo prednost
07:55
what I'd call mechanistic ideas over psychological ideas.
tim tzv. mehanističkim idejama umjesto psihološkim idejama.
07:58
An example of a great psychological idea:
Jedan primjer odlične psihološke ideje:
08:02
The single best improvement in passenger satisfaction on the London Underground per pound spent
Najveće poboljšanje zadovoljstva putnika Londonske podzemne željeznice na svaku potrošenu funtu
08:05
came when they didn't add any extra trains nor change the frequency of the trains,
dogodio se, ne onda kad su dodani novi vlakovi ili se promijenila frekvencija vlakova,
08:10
they put dot matrix display board on the platforms.
već onda kada su postavljeni zasloni ne kojima se vidi gdje se nalaze vlakovi.
08:15
Because the nature of a wait
Zbog toga što sama priroda čekanja
08:18
is not just dependent on its numerical quality, its duration,
ne ovisi samo o svom numeričkom svojstvu, o trajanju,
08:21
but on the level of uncertainty you experience during that wait.
već i o nivou neizvjesnosti koju osjećate dok čekate.
08:24
Waiting seven minutes for a train with a countdown clock
Čekati vlak sedam minuta dok gledate u sat koji odbrojava
08:27
is less frustrating and irritating
je manje frustrirajuće i iritantno
08:30
than waiting four minutes, knuckle-biting
nego kada čekate, grizete nokte i mislite si:
08:32
going, "When's this train going to damn well arrive?"
"Kad će već jednom stići taj prokleti vlak"
08:34
Here's a beautiful example of a psychological solution deployed in Korea.
Evo jednog divnog primjera psihološkog rješenja primijenjenog u Koreji.
08:38
Red traffic lights have a countdown delay.
Crvena svjetla na semaforu sa odbrojavanjem.
08:41
It's proven to reduce the accident rate in experiments.
Dokazano se smanjuje broj nesreća.
08:44
Why? Because road rage, impatience and general irritation
Zašto? Zato što se bijes na cesti, nestrpljenje i izirtiranost
08:47
are massively reduced when you can actually see the time you have to wait.
jako smanjuju kada vidite koliko još morate čekati.
08:50
In China, not really understanding the principle behind this,
U Kini baš i nisu shvatili princip koji stoji iza toga
08:55
they applied the same principle to green traffic lights.
pa su tehniku primijenili na zelena svjetla.
08:58
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
09:01
Which isn't a great idea.
Što baš i nije bila sjajna ideja.
09:04
You're 200 yards away, you realize you've got five seconds to go, you floor it.
Udaljeni ste 200 metara, vidite da imate još nekoliko sekundi, i nagazite na gas.
09:07
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
09:11
The Koreans, very assiduously, did test both.
Marljivi su Korenaci zapravo testirali obje mogućnosti.
09:13
The accident rate goes down when you apply this to red traffic lights;
Kada ovo primijenite na crveno prometno svjetlo, broj nesreća se smanjuje,
09:17
it goes up when you apply it to green traffic lights.
a kada primijenite na zeleno svjetlo, broj nesreća se povećava.
09:20
This is all I'm asking for really in human decision making,
To je sve što ja tražim, da se prilikom odlučivanja
09:23
is the consideration of these three things.
uzmu u obzir te tri stvari.
09:26
I'm not asking for the complete primacy of one over the other.
Ne tražim da jedna ima prevlast nad ostalima.
09:28
I'm merely saying that when you solve problems,
Samo kažem da biste kada pristupate problemu
09:31
you should look at all three of these equally
trebali uzeti u obzir sve tri jednako
09:33
and you should seek as far as possible
i, koliko god je to moguće,
09:35
to find solutions which sit in the sweet spot in the middle.
tražiti rješenja koja se nalaze u slatkoj sredini.
09:38
If you actually look at a great business,
Ako pogledate zaista uspješne poslove,
09:41
you'll nearly always see all of these three things coming into play.
skoro uvijek ćete vidjeti da su u igri sve tri stvari.
09:43
Really, really successful businesses --
Zaista uspješne kompanije--
09:46
Google is great, great technological success,
Google je ogroman, ogroman tehnološki uspjeh
09:49
but it's also based on a very good psychological insight:
ali je isto tako baziran da veoma dobroj psihološkoj bazi:
09:51
People believe something that only does one thing
Ljudi vjeruju da kada nešto radi samo jednu stvar
09:54
is better at that thing than something that does that thing and something else.
onda to radi bolje od nečega što radi tu istu stvar i još nešto drugo.
09:58
It's an innate thing called goal dilution.
To je urođena osobina, zove se razrjeđivanje cilja.
10:02
Ayelet Fishbach has written a paper about this.
Ayelet Fishbach je o tome napisao rad.
10:05
Everybody else at the time of Google, more or less,
U vrijeme Google-a svi ostali su manje-više
10:07
was trying to be a portal.
željeli postati portali.
10:10
Yes, there's a search function,
Da, imate funkciju "traži",
10:11
but you also have weather, sports scores, bits of news.
ali isto tako imate i vrijeme, sportske rezultate, malo vijesti.
10:12
Google understood that if you're just a search engine,
U Google-u su shvatili da će, ako ste samo pretraživač,
10:16
people assume you're a very, very good search engine.
ljudi pretpostaviti da ste jako, jako dobar pretraživač.
10:19
All of you know this actually
Svima vama je to poznato
10:22
from when you go in to buy a television.
iz situacije kada kupujemo televizor.
10:24
And in the shabbier end of the row of flat screen TVs
I negdje na zadnjoj polici dućana sa televizorima sa ravnim ekranom
10:26
you can see are these rather despised things called combined TV and DVD players.
može se vidjeti one prezira vrijedne stvari koje se zovu kombinirani TV i DVD.
10:29
And we have no knowledge whatsoever of the quality of those things,
Mi o kvaliteti tih stvari ne znamo ništa,
10:34
but we look at a combined TV and DVD player and we go, "Uck.
ali, pogledamo te kombinirane TV-e i DVD-e i kažemo "Bljak!
10:37
It's probably a bit of a crap telly and a bit rubbish as a DVD player."
Vjerojatno je to nekakvo smeće od televizije i smeće od DVD-a zajedno."
10:41
So we walk out of the shops with one of each.
I izlazimo iz trgovine sa po jednim komadom DVD-a i TV-a.
10:46
Google is as much a psychological success as it is a technological one.
Google je podjednako psihološki i tehnološki uspjeh.
10:48
I propose that we can use psychology to solve problems
Predlažem da koristimo psihologiju kod rješavanja problema
10:53
that we didn't even realize were problems at all.
koje nismo ni prepoznali.
10:56
This is my suggestion for getting people to finish their course of antibiotics.
Kako nagovoriti ljude da do kraja popiju propisanu dozu antibiotika?
10:59
Don't give them 24 white pills.
Nemojte im dati 24 bijele tablete.
11:02
Give them 18 white pills and six blue ones
Dajte im 18 bijelih i 6 plavih
11:05
and tell them to take the white pills first and then take the blue ones.
i kažite im da najprije popiju bijele tablete, a zatim da uzmu plave.
11:07
It's called chunking.
To se zove formiranje skupine.
11:11
The likelihood that people will get to the end is much greater
Vjerojatnost da će netko popiti dozu do kraja mnogo je veća
11:13
when there is a milestone somewhere in the middle.
kada je na sredini nekakva prekretnica.
11:16
One of the great mistakes, I think, of economics
Jedna od većih grešaka u ekonomiji, po mom mišljenju,
11:19
is it fails to understand that what something is,
je ta da ne uspjeva razumijeti da je svaka stvar,
11:22
whether it's retirement, unemployment, cost,
bilo da je mirovina, nezaposlenost, cijena,
11:24
is a function, not only of its amount, but also its meaning.
skup svoje količine i brojeva i značenja.
11:28
This is a toll crossing in Britain.
Ovo su naplatne kućice u Velikoj Britaniji.
11:33
Quite often queues happen at the tolls.
Česte su kolone na njima.
11:36
Sometimes you get very, very severe queues.
Nekada jako, jako duge kolone.
11:39
You could apply the same principle actually, if you like,
Isti princip se može primijeniti
11:41
to the security lanes in airports.
kod sigurnosnih provjera na aerodromima.
11:43
What would happen if you could actually pay twice as much money to cross the bridge,
Što bi se desilo kada biste mogli platiti dvostruko da prijeđete most
11:45
but go through a lane that's an express lane?
ali kroz traku koja bi bila ekspres traka?
11:49
It's not an unreasonable thing to do. It's an economically efficient thing to do.
To uopće nije nerazumno. I ekonomski je efikasno.
11:51
Time means more to some people than others.
Vrijeme nekim ljudima vrijedi više.
11:55
If you're waiting trying to get to a job interview,
Ukoliko idete na razgovor za posao
11:57
you'd patently pay a couple of pounds more to go through the fast lane.
rado ćete platili par funti više kako biste stigli na vrijeme.
12:00
If you're on the way to visit your mother in-law,
Ukoliko ste krenuli u posjet punici
12:04
you'd probably prefer to stay on the left.
vjerojatno ćete ostati u lijevoj traci.
12:07
The only problem is if you introduce this economically efficient solution,
Problem je u tome da ako uvedete ekonomski efikasno rješenje
12:11
people hate it.
ljudi će ga mrziti.
12:15
Because they think you're deliberately creating delays at the bridge
Misliti će da namjerno stvarate kolone vozila
12:17
in order to maximize your revenue,
da biste si povećali prihode.
12:20
and "Why on earth should I pay to subsidize your imcompetence?"
i misliti će: "Zašto bi, zaboga, ja subvencionirao vašu nesposobnost?"
12:21
On the other hand, change the frame slightly
S druge strane, ako samo malo promijenite okvir
12:25
and create charitable yield management,
i napravite od toga nekakav dobrovoljni prilog
12:27
so the extra money you get goes not to the bridge company, it goes to charity,
tako da višak novca ne ide vlasniku mosta, već da ide u dobrotvorne svrhe
12:30
and the mental willingness to pay completely changes.
stav ljudi će se u potpunosti promijeniti.
12:35
You have a relatively economically efficient solution,
Dobili ste relativno efikasno ekonomsko rješenje
12:38
but one that actually meets with public approval
koje javnost odobrava
12:42
and even a small degree of affection,
a svaki, pa i najmanji stupanj naklonosti
12:44
rather than being seen as bastardy.
je bolji od toga da na vas gledaju kao na pokvarenjake.
12:46
So where economists make the fundamental mistake
Dakle, ono u čemu ekonomisti najviše griješe
12:49
is they think that money is money.
jest kada misle da je novac samo novac.
12:52
Actually my pain experienced in paying five pounds
Zapravo, moja bol kada plaćam 5 funti
12:55
is not just proportionate to the amount,
nije proporcionalna samo iznosu,
13:00
but where I think that money is going.
već i načinu na koji će se novac utrošiti.
13:02
And I think understanding that could revolutionize tax policy.
Razumijevanje te činjenice napravilo bi revoluciju u poreznoj politici.
13:04
It could revolutionize the public services.
I revoluciju u javnim službama
13:07
It could really change things quite significantly.
Zaista bi moglo bitno izmijeniti stvari.
13:10
Here's a guy you all need to study.
Djela ovog čovjeka trebali bi svi proučiti.
13:12
He's an Austrian school economist
Pripadnik je "austrijske škole ekonomije"
13:15
who was first active in the first half of the 20th century in Vienna.
koja je djelovala u prvoj polovici 20-tog stoljeća.
13:16
What was interesting about the Austrian school
Ono što je zanimljivo kod austrijske škole
13:22
is they actually grew up alongside Freud.
jest to, da se razvijala u vrijeme Freuda.
13:24
And so they're predominantly interested in psychology.
I zato ih je pretežno zanimala psihologija.
13:27
They believed that there was a discipline called praxeology,
Vjerovali su da postoji disciplina koju su zvali prakseologija
13:29
which is a prior discipline to the study of economics.
koja bi bila prethodnica ekonomije.
13:34
Praxeology is the study of human choice, action and decision making.
Prakseologija se bavi proučavanjem izbora, djelovanja i donošenja odluka.
13:36
I think they're right.
Mislim da su u pravu.
13:41
I think the danger we have in today's world
Mislim da danas realnu opasnost predstavlja to
13:43
is we have the study of economics
što znanost o ekonomiji sama sebe drži važnijom
13:45
considers itself to be a prior discipline to the study of human psychology.
od znanosti o ljudskoj psihologiji.
13:47
But as Charlie Munger says, "If economics isn't behavioral,
Kako kaže Charlie Munger: "Ako ekonomija nema veze s ponašanjem,
13:51
I don't know what the hell is."
onda ja ne znam što ima."
13:54
Von Mises, interestingly, believes economics is just a subset of psychology.
Von Mises vjeruje da je ekonomija samo grana psihologije.
13:56
I think he just refers to economics as
On smatra da je ekonomija
14:03
"the study of human praxeology under conditions of scarcity."
"znanost ljudske prakseologije u uvjetima nestašice."
14:05
But von Mises, among many other things,
No von Mises, između ostalog, koristi analogiju
14:08
I think uses an analogy which is probably the best justification and explanation
koja je najbolje opravdanje i tumačenje
14:11
for the value of marketing, the value of perceived value
vrijednosti na tržištu, percipirane vrijednosti
14:17
and the fact that we should actually treat it as being absolutely equivalent
i činjenice da bismo tu vrijednost trebali tretirati jednako
14:20
to any other kind of value.
kao i bilo koju drugu vrijednost.
14:24
We tend to, all of us -- even those of us who work in marketing --
Imamo naviku--čak i mi koji radimo u marketingu--
14:26
to think of value in two ways.
razmišljati o vrijednosti na dva načina.
14:28
There's the real value,
Imamo pravu vrijednost,
14:30
which is when you make something in a factory and provide a service,
kao kada se nešto proizvede u tvornici ili kada se pruža usluga,
14:31
and then there's a kind of dubious value,
i imamo drugu, nekakvu sumnjivu vrijednost,
14:33
which you create by changing the way people look at things.
koju dobivamo kada promijenimo način na koji ljudi gledaju na stvar.
14:35
Von Mises completely rejected this distinction.
Von Mises je u potpunosti odbacio tu razliku
14:38
And he used this following analogy.
i dao sljedeću analogiju.
14:41
He referred actually to strange economists called the French Physiocrats,
Pozvao se na čudne ekonomiste tzv. Francuske fiziokrate
14:42
who believed that the only true value was what you extracted from the land.
koji su vjerovali da je jedina prava vrijednost ona koju dobijete od zemlje.
14:48
So if you're a shepherd or a quarryman or a farmer,
Dakle ako ste ovčar, radnik u kamenolomu ili poljoprivrednik
14:52
you created true value.
onda stvarate pravu vrijednost.
14:54
If however, you bought some wool from the shepherd
Međutim, ukoliko ste od ovčara kupili vunu
14:56
and charged a premium for converting it into a hat,
i naplatili maržu zato što ste od vune napravili šešir
14:59
you weren't actually creating value,
niste stvorili pravu vrijednost,
15:02
you were exploiting the shepherd.
već iskorištavate stočara.
15:04
Now von Mises said that modern economists make exactly the same mistake
Von Mises drži da moderni ekonomisti rade istu pogrešku
15:06
with regard to advertising and marketing.
kod oglašavanja i marketinga.
15:10
He says, if you run a restaurant,
Naime, ukoliko ste u restoranu,
15:12
there is no healthy distinction to be made
ne možete razlikovati vrijednost
15:15
between the value you create by cooking the food
koju ste dobili pripremanjem hrane
15:17
and the value you create by sweeping the floor.
od vrijednosti koju ste dobili čišćenjem podova.
15:19
One of them creates, perhaps, the primary product --
Jedno je stvorilo primarni proizvod,
15:21
the thing we think we're paying for --
ono što plaćamo,
15:25
the other one creates a context
no drugo je stvorilo okruženje
15:26
within which we can enjoy and appreciate that product.
u kojem u proizvodu možemo uživati.
15:28
And the idea that one of them should actually have priority over the other
I ideja da bi jedan trebao imati prioritet nad drugim
15:31
is fundamentally wrong.
je iz temelja pogrešna.
15:34
Try this quick thought experiment.
Probajte jedan mali misaoni pokus.
15:36
Imagine a restaurant that serves Michelin-starred food,
Zamislite restoran koji poslužuje vrhunski spremljenu hranu,
15:37
but actually where the restaurant smells of sewage
ali koji smrdi po kanalizaciji
15:40
and there's human feces on the floor.
a na podu je ljudski izmet.
15:43
The best thing you can do there to create value
Najbolja stvar koju možete napraviti da stvorite novu vrijednost
15:47
is not actually to improve the food still further,
nije da još poboljšate hranu,
15:49
it's to get rid of the smell and clean up the floor.
nego da se riješite smrada i očistite pod.
15:52
And it's vital we understand this.
Od velikog je značaja da to shvatimo.
15:56
If that seems like some strange, abstruse thing,
Ako vam se to čini malo čudno ili nejasno,
15:59
in the U.K., the post office had a 98 percent success rate
britanska pošta imala je postotak uspješnosti 98 posto
16:02
at delivering first-class mail the next day.
prilikom dostave hitnih pošiljaka sljedeći dan.
16:06
They decided this wasn't good enough
Smatrali su da im to nije dovoljno,
16:09
and they wanted to get it up to 99.
željeli su postotak dići na 99 posto.
16:11
The effort to do that almost broke the organization.
Pokušaj u tome umalo ih je uništio.
16:13
If at the same time you'd gone and asked people,
Međutim, da su umjesto toga probali upitati ljude
16:17
"What percentage of first-class mail arrives the next day?"
"Što mislite koliki se postotak pošiljki dostavi sljedeći dan?"
16:20
the average answer, or the modal answer would have been 50 to 60 percent.
najčešći odgovor bio bi 50 do 60 posto.
16:24
Now if your perception is much worse than your reality,
E sada, ukoliko je vaša predodžba mnogo gora od stvarnosti
16:28
what on earth are you doing trying to change the reality?
zašto, zaboga, mijenjati stvarnost?
16:31
That's like trying to improve the food in a restaurant that stinks.
To je isto kao da pokušate poboljšati hranu u restoranu koji smrdi.
16:34
What you need to do
Ono što trebate napraviti jest,
16:38
is first of all tell people
najprije reći ljudima
16:40
that 98 percent of mail gets there the next day, first-class mail.
da se 98 posto hitnih pošiljki dostavi slijedeći dan.
16:42
That's pretty good.
To je prilično dobro.
16:46
I would argue, in Britain there's a much better frame of reference,
Rekao bih, da je u Velikoj Britaniji dobar i sljedeći pristup:
16:48
which is to tell people
kažete ljudima da se u Velikoj Britaniji
16:51
that more first-class mail arrives the next day
više pošte dostavi sljedeći dan
16:52
in the U.K. than in Germany.
nego u Njemačkoj.
16:54
Because generally in Britain if you want to make us happy about something,
Naime, ukoliko želite usrećiti Britance,
16:56
just tell us we do it better than the Germans.
samo im kažite da nešto rade bolje od Nijemaca.
16:59
(Laughter)
(Smijeh)
17:01
(Applause)
(Pljesak)
17:03
Choose your frame of reference and the perceived value
Izaberite svoj okvir i percipiranu vrijednost
17:05
and therefore the actual value is completely tranformed.
i to će u potpunosti transformirati pravu vrijednost.
17:10
It has to be said of the Germans
Za Nijemce se treba reći
17:13
that the Germans and the French are doing a brilliant job
da zajedno sa Francuzima rade izuzetan posao
17:15
of creating a united Europe.
na ujedinjavanju Europe.
17:17
The only thing they don't expect is they're uniting Europe
Jedino što ne očekuju to da je baza ujedinjene Europe
17:19
through a shared mild hatred of the French and Germans.
uzajamna blaga netrpeljivosti Francuza i Nijemaca.
17:21
But I'm British, that's the way we like it.
Ali, ja sam Britanac, a mi volimo da je to tako.
17:24
What you also notice is that in any case our perception is leaky.
Vjerojatno ste primijetili da je u bilo kojem slučaju naša precepcija nepotpuna.
17:27
We can't tell the difference between the quality of the food
Ne možemo razlikovati kvalitetu hrane
17:32
and the environment in which we consume it.
od okoline u kojoj je konzumiramo.
17:35
All of you will have seen this phenomenon
Svi ste svjedočili tom fenomenu
17:37
if you have your car washed or valeted.
kad ste odvezli auto u praonicu.
17:39
When you drive away, your car feels as if it drives better.
Na odlasku iz praone, čini vam se da auto bolje ide.
17:41
And the reason for this,
Razlog tomu,
17:45
unless my car valet mysteriously is changing the oil
osim ako u praoni nisu promijenili i ulje
17:47
and performing work which I'm not paying him for and I'm unaware of,
i izvršili popravke za koje ja ne znam i koje ne plaćam.
17:50
is because perception is in any case leaky.
jest taj da je percepcija nepotpuna.
17:53
Analgesics that are branded are more effective at reducing pain
Analgetici poznatih marki, efikasniji su kod uklanjanja boli
17:55
than analgesics that are not branded.
od analgetika nepoznatih proizvođača.
17:59
I don't just mean through reported pain reduction,
I ne govorim samo o subjektivnom doživljaju boli,
18:02
actual measured pain reduction.
već o rezultatima mjerenja visine boli.
18:04
And so perception actually is leaky in any case.
Dakle, percepcija je nepotpuna.
18:06
So if you do something that's perceptually bad in one respect,
I zato, ako napravite nešto što je percepcijski loše u jednom smislu
18:10
you can damage the other.
naštetit ćete i drugom.
18:14
Thank you very much.
Hvala lijepa.
18:16
(Applause)
(Pljesak)
18:17
Translated by SIBELA KESAC
Reviewed by Senzos Osijek

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About the speaker:

Rory Sutherland - Advertising guru
Rory Sutherland stands at the center of an advertising revolution in brand identities, designing cutting-edge, interactive campaigns that blur the line between ad and entertainment.

Why you should listen

From unlikely beginnings as a classics teacher to his current job as Vice Chairman of Ogilvy Group, Rory Sutherland has created his own brand of the Cinderella story. He joined Ogilvy & Mather's planning department in 1988, and became a junior copywriter, working on Microsoft's account in its pre-Windows days. An early fan of the Internet, he was among the first in the traditional ad world to see the potential in these relatively unknown technologies.

An immediate understanding of the possibilities of digital technology and the Internet powered Sutherland's meteoric rise. He continues to provide insight into advertising in the age of the Internet and social media through his blog at Campaign's Brand Republic site, his column "The Wiki Man" at The Spectator and his busy Twitter account.

More profile about the speaker
Rory Sutherland | Speaker | TED.com