ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Sam Richards - Sociologist
Sam Richards is a sociologist and teacher of the largest race relations course in the US. He argues that empathy is the core of sociology.

Why you should listen

Identifying himself as "an iconoclast from Toledo, Ohio," and identified by David Horowitz as one of the "101 Most Dangerous Academics in America," Sam Richards is one of the most provocative, and popular, sociology teachers in the country. Every year 725 students at Penn State University take his course on race and ethnic relations, where he attacks, with humor and courage, questions most would choose to avoid.

He is also the founder of the World in Conversation project. Every year, more than 7,000 students participate in its mission is to create a conscious dialogue around the politically incorrect thoughts of the participants, bringing them out in the open for inspection.

More profile about the speaker
Sam Richards | Speaker | TED.com
TEDxPSU

Sam Richards: A radical experiment in empathy

山姆・理查兹:一个关于换位思考的激进试验

Filmed:
1,762,213 views

在TEDxPSU上,社会学家山姆・理查兹一步步引导在场的美国听众开始了一段具有挑战性的思索之旅。这个挑战就是:美国人是否能理解-不是去认同而是理解-伊拉克武装分子的动机?由此说开,有没有人真的能理解并换位思考?
- Sociologist
Sam Richards is a sociologist and teacher of the largest race relations course in the US. He argues that empathy is the core of sociology. Full bio

Double-click (or triple-click) the English transcript below to play the video.

00:15
My students学生们 often经常 ask me,
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我的学生常问我
00:18
"What is sociology社会学?"
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“什么是社会学?”
00:20
And I tell them, "It's the study研究
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我说,“社会学研究的是
00:22
of the way in which哪一个 human人的 beings众生
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人类是如何被
00:24
are shaped成形 by things that they don't see."
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无形的东西所塑造。”
00:27
And they say, "So how can I be a sociologist社会学家?
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然后他们问,“怎么才能成为社会学家?
00:31
How can I understand理解 those invisible无形 forces军队?"
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怎样才能理解那些看不见的力量?”
00:33
And I say, "Empathy同情.
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我说:“换位思考。”
00:35
Start开始 with empathy同情.
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由此开始
00:37
It all begins开始 with empathy同情.
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一切源自换位思考
00:40
Take yourself你自己 out of your shoes,
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从你自己的立场走出
00:42
put yourself你自己 into the shoes of another另一个 person."
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从别人的立场看问题
00:44
Here, I'll give you an example.
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举个例子
00:47
So I imagine想像 my life:
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我曾设想
00:49
if a hundred years年份 ago
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如果一百年前
00:51
China中国 had been the most powerful强大 nation国家 in the world世界
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中国成为了世界第一强国
00:53
and they came来了 to the United联合的 States状态
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他们来了美国
00:55
in search搜索 of coal煤炭,
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搜寻煤矿
00:57
and they found发现 it, and, in fact事实, they found发现 lots of it right here.
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后来他们发现了,还发现了不少
01:00
And pretty漂亮 soon不久, they began开始 shipping运输 that coal煤炭,
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他们就很快开始了运输那些煤
01:03
ton by ton,
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一吨又一吨
01:05
rail car汽车 by rail car汽车, boatload勿庸置疑 by boatload勿庸置疑,
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一车接一车 一船挨一船
01:08
back to China中国 and elsewhere别处 around the world世界.
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运回中国和世界各地
01:12
And they got fabulously惊人 wealthy富裕 in doing so.
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他们由此而发家
01:15
And they built内置 beautiful美丽 cities城市
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他们靠着煤炭
01:17
all powered动力 on that coal煤炭.
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建起了美丽的城市
01:22
And back here in the United联合的 States状态,
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然后回头看看美国
01:25
we saw economic经济 despair绝望, deprivation剥夺.
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这里经济萧条不景气
01:27
This is what I saw.
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我看到了这些
01:29
I saw people struggling奋斗的 to get by,
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人们勉强糊口度日
01:32
not knowing会心 what was what and what was next下一个.
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无助而没有未来
01:35
And then I asked myself the question.
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然后就问问自己
01:37
I say, "How's怎么样 it possible可能 that we could be so poor较差的 here in the United联合的 States状态,
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“美国怎么变这么穷了?
01:40
because the coal煤炭 is such这样 a wealthy富裕 resource资源,
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煤炭是多么值钱的资源
01:42
it's so much money?"
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值这么多钱呢。”
01:44
And I realized实现,
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然后我意识到
01:46
because the Chinese中文 ingratiated献媚 themselves他们自己
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是中国讨好了
01:49
with a small ruling裁决 class here in the United联合的 States状态
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一小部分美国的统治阶级
01:52
who stole偷了 all of that money and all of that wealth财富 for themselves他们自己.
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而这一小部分人得到了所有的好处
01:56
And the rest休息 of us, the vast广大 majority多数 of us,
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其余的大部分人,我们大多数人
01:58
struggle斗争 to get by.
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都是挣扎糊口
02:00
And the Chinese中文 gave this small ruling裁决 elite原种
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中国给这些统治阶级精英们
02:03
loads负载 of military军事 weapons武器 and sophisticated复杂的 technology技术
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大量的军备武器和尖端科技
02:06
in order订购 to ensure确保 that people like me
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以保证我们这样的普通民众
02:09
would not speak说话 out against反对 this relationship关系.
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不敢公然表示不满
02:13
Does this sound声音 familiar?
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这个故事听着挺耳熟吧?
02:16
And they did things like train培养 Americans美国人
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然后他们就训练了一帮美国人
02:18
to help protect保护 the coal煤炭.
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来保护煤矿
02:20
And everywhere到处, were symbols符号 of the Chinese中文 --
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到处都是中国的标志-
02:23
everywhere到处, a constant不变 reminder提醒.
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遍布每一个角落
02:26
And back in China中国,
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再说说中国
02:28
what do they say in China中国?
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中国人对此这么看呢?
02:30
Nothing. They don't talk about us. They don't talk about the coal煤炭.
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只字不提。他们不谈论我们,不谈论煤矿
02:33
If you ask them,
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你要是问问中国人
02:35
they'll他们会 say, "Well, you know the coal煤炭, we need the coal煤炭.
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他们会说:“这个,煤很重要啊,我们需要煤。
02:37
I mean, come on, I'm not going to turn down my thermostat恒温器.
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你可别指望我调低我家暖气的温度
02:40
You can't expect期望 that."
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那绝对不可能。”
02:43
And so I get angry愤怒, and I get pissed生气,
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于是我火了 气愤了
02:46
as do lots of average平均 people.
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大多数人都会
02:48
And we fight斗争 back, and it gets得到 really ugly丑陋.
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我们就开始抗议 愈演愈烈
02:51
And the Chinese中文 respond响应 in a very ugly丑陋 way.
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中国的回应方式也很不友好
02:55
And before we know it, they send发送 in the tanks坦克
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我们还没回过神他们就把坦克派过来了
02:58
and then send发送 in the troops军队,
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然后派来了军队
03:00
and lots of people are dying垂死,
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很多人战死
03:02
and it's a very, very difficult situation情况.
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状况越来越糟
03:07
Can you imagine想像 what you would feel
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你能换位思考
03:10
if you were in my shoes?
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想象我的感受吗?
03:12
Can you imagine想像 walking步行 out of this building建造
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你能想象走出大门
03:15
and seeing眼看 a tank坦克 sitting坐在 out there
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见外面停了一辆坦克
03:17
or a truck卡车 full充分 of soldiers士兵?
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或者一卡车士兵?
03:20
And just imagine想像 what you would feel.
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想象你的感受
03:22
Because you know why they're here, and you know what they're doing here.
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你知道他们冲什么来,清楚他们的所为
03:25
And you just feel the anger愤怒 and you feel the fear恐惧.
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你肯定感到又气又悲了
03:29
If you can, that's empathy同情 -- that's empathy同情.
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如果你能感受到这一点-这就是换位思考了
03:32
You've left your shoes, and you've stood站在 in mine.
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你从自己的立场转换到我的立场
03:35
And you've got to feel that.
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你就能换位思考了
03:37
Okay, so that's the warm up.
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这是个热身
03:39
That's the warm up.
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只是热身
03:41
Now we're going to have
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现在我们就要开始
03:43
the real真实 radical激进 experiment实验.
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真正激进的试验
03:45
And so for the remainder of my talk, what I want you to do
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下面我希望你们
03:48
is put yourselves你自己 in the shoes
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从一个
03:50
of an ordinary普通 Arab阿拉伯 Muslim穆斯林
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居住在中东的普通穆斯林的
03:53
living活的 in the Middle中间 East --
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角度出发
03:55
in particular特定, in Iraq伊拉克.
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具体点,就是伊拉克
03:59
And so to help you,
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为了让你进入状态
04:01
perhaps也许 you're a member会员 of this middle中间 class family家庭 in Baghdad巴格达 --
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假设你就来自一个住在巴格达的中产家庭
04:05
and what you want is the best最好 for your kids孩子.
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你希望你的孩子有好的环境
04:08
You want your kids孩子 to have a better life.
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你希望孩子有更好的生活
04:10
And you watch the news新闻, you pay工资 attention注意,
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你看新闻关心时事
04:12
you read the newspaper报纸, you go down to the coffee咖啡 shop with your friends朋友,
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你看报纸,和朋友去咖啡厅
04:15
and you read the newspapers报纸 from around the world世界.
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阅读世界各地的报纸
04:17
And sometimes有时 you even watch satellite卫星,
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有时候还看看卫星电视
04:19
CNNCNN, from the United联合的 States状态.
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美国的CNN
04:21
So you have a sense of what the Americans美国人 are thinking思维.
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你大概知道美国人的一般观点
04:23
But really, you just want a better life for yourself你自己.
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但是,你也就只是希望自己过得好点
04:26
That's what you want.
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那才是你想要的
04:28
You're Arab阿拉伯 Muslim穆斯林 living活的 in Iraq伊拉克.
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你是住在伊拉克的阿拉伯穆斯林
04:30
You want a better life for yourself你自己.
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你想过更好的生活
04:32
So here, let me help you.
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现在 让我帮你
04:34
Let me help you with some things
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让我来帮你整理一下
04:36
that you might威力 be thinking思维.
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你的思绪
04:38
Number one: this incursion侵入 into your land土地
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第一,在过去的二十年中
04:41
these past过去 20 years年份, and before,
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甚至更早,你的祖国遭受入侵
04:43
the reason原因 anyone任何人 is interested有兴趣 in your land土地, and particularly尤其 the United联合的 States状态,
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是因为所有人,特别是美国人都盯住了
04:46
it's oil.
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石油
04:48
It's all about oil; you know that, everybody每个人 knows知道 that.
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根源就在石油 天下皆知
04:51
People here back in the United联合的 States状态 know it's about oil.
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美国人也知道是因为石油
04:54
It's because somebody else其他
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因为别人在打着
04:56
has a design设计 for your resource资源.
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你的资源的算盘
04:59
It's your resource资源; it's not somebody else's别人的.
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这资源是你的不是别人的
05:02
It's your land土地; it's your resource资源.
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这是你的国土 你的资源
05:05
Somebody else其他 has a design设计 for it.
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有人动了心眼儿
05:07
And you know why they have a design设计?
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他们为什么要打这个算盘?
05:09
You know why they have their eyes眼睛 set on it?
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他们为什么动这个心眼儿?
05:11
Because they have an entire整个 economic经济 system系统
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因为他们的经济体系
05:13
that's dependent依赖的 on that oil --
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建于石油之上
05:15
foreign国外 oil,
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进口石油
05:17
oil from other parts部分 of the world世界 that they don't own拥有.
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从别的国家抢过去的石油
05:20
And what else其他 do you think about these people?
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你对这些人有什么想法
05:22
The Americans美国人, they're rich丰富.
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这些美国人真有钱
05:24
Come on, they live生活 in big houses房屋, they have big cars汽车,
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住着大房子 开着好车
05:26
they all have blond金发 hair头发, blue蓝色 eyes眼睛, they're happy快乐.
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个个金发碧眼 快乐似神仙
05:28
You think that. It's not true真正, of course课程,
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你这么想么,这不一定是真的
05:30
but that's the media媒体 impression印象, and that's like what you get.
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但这是媒体传递的印象,这是你听到看到的
05:33
And they have big cities城市,
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美国有大都市
05:35
and the cities城市 are all dependent依赖的 on oil.
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这些大都市都依靠石油
05:39
And back home, what do you see?
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回了自家,看到是什么?
05:41
Poverty贫穷, despair绝望, struggle斗争.
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贫穷,绝望,挣扎
05:43
Look, you don't live生活 in a wealthy富裕 country国家.
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你的国家不富裕
05:46
This is Iraq伊拉克.
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这是伊拉克
05:50
This is what you see.
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这是你每日所见
05:52
You see people struggling奋斗的 to get by.
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人们勉强糊口度日
05:54
I mean, it's not easy简单; you see a lot of poverty贫穷.
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过日子不容易,到处是贫困
05:56
And you feel something about this.
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对此你肯定有自己的想法
05:58
These people have designs设计 for your resource资源,
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这些人盘算着你的资源
06:00
and this is what you see?
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而这是他们的样子
06:02
Something else其他 you see that you talk about --
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这些你谈论的话题
06:04
Americans美国人 don't talk about this, but you do.
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美国人并不谈起
06:06
There's this thing, this militarization军国主义化 of the world世界,
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比如,世界的军事化
06:09
and it's centered中心 right in the United联合的 States状态.
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是以美国为中心
06:11
And the United联合的 States状态
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而且美国的军费
06:13
is responsible主管 for almost几乎 one half
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占世界军费开支的
06:16
of the world's世界 military军事 spending开支 --
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二分之一
06:18
four percent百分 of the world's世界 population人口.
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他们才有世界人口的四分之一
06:20
And you feel it; you see it every一切 day.
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你每天都能看到感受到这些
06:23
It's part部分 of your life.
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这是你生活的一部分
06:25
And you talk about it with your friends朋友.
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你和朋友聊起这些
06:27
You read about it.
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你读到这些东西
06:30
And back when Saddam萨达姆 Hussein侯赛因 was in power功率,
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萨达姆・侯赛因当权的时候
06:33
the Americans美国人 didn't care关心 about his crimes犯罪.
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美国人可没关心他的罪行
06:36
When he was gassing毒气 the Kurds库尔德人 and gassing毒气 Iran伊朗,
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他对库尔人和伊朗人用毒气的时候
06:38
they didn't care关心 about it.
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他们可一声没吭
06:40
When oil was at stake赌注,
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一旦出现了石油危机
06:42
somehow不知何故, suddenly突然, things mattered要紧.
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美国人就突然开始大发慈悲
06:47
And what you see, something else其他,
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你就看到了
06:49
the United联合的 States状态,
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美国
06:51
the hub枢纽 of democracy民主 around the world世界,
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这个世界民主的中心
06:53
they don't seem似乎 to really be
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他们并不总是
06:55
supporting支持 democratic民主的 countries国家 all around the world世界.
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世界各民主国家的后盾
06:59
There are a lot of countries国家, oil-producing石油生产 countries国家,
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很多产油国
07:02
that aren't very democratic民主的, but supported支持的 by the United联合的 States状态.
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他们不民主,但这不妨碍美国支持他们
07:05
That's odd.
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这就奇怪了
07:07
Oh, these incursions入侵, these two wars战争,
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这么多次入侵,两次战争
07:10
the 10 years年份 of sanctions制裁,
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十年制裁
07:12
the eight years年份 of occupation占用,
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八年占领
07:16
the insurgency暴动 that's been unleashed如虎添翼 on your people,
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对人民发动的反叛
07:19
the tens of thousands数千, the hundreds数以百计 of thousands数千
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成百上千的
07:22
of civilian平民 deaths死亡,
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平民死亡
07:27
all because of oil.
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只因石油
07:30
You can't help but think that.
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你无法不去想这些
07:32
You talk about it.
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谈起这些
07:34
It's in the forefront第一线 of your mind心神 always.
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在你脑中开始占据主要
07:37
You say, "How is that possible可能?"
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你说:“怎么能这样?”
07:40
And this man, he's every一切 man --
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这个人,他可以是任何人-
07:43
your grandfather祖父, your uncle叔叔,
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你的祖父,你的叔叔,
07:45
your father父亲, your son儿子,
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你的父亲,你的儿子,
07:47
your neighbor邻居, your professor教授, your student学生.
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你的邻居,你的教授,你的学生
07:50
Once一旦 a life of happiness幸福 and joy喜悦
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曾经有着幸福和快乐
07:53
and suddenly突然, pain疼痛 and sorrow悲哀.
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都化为了悲伤和痛苦
07:56
Everyone大家 in your country国家
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你的国家的每一个人
07:59
has been touched感动 by the violence暴力,
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都生活在暴力的阴影下
08:02
the bloodshed流血, the pain疼痛,
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流血 痛苦
08:04
the horror恐怖, everybody每个人.
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恐惧,笼罩每一个人
08:06
Not a single person in your country国家
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你的国家里
08:09
has not been touched感动.
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无一个人可置身事外
08:11
But there's something else其他.
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还有件事
08:13
There's something else其他 about these people,
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在伊拉克的这些美国人
08:15
these Americans美国人 who are there.
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这些人还有个特征
08:17
There's something else其他 about them that you see -- they don't see themselves他们自己.
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这个特征你看到了而他们没有意识到
08:20
And what do you see? They're Christians基督徒.
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你发现了吗,他们是基督徒
08:23
They're Christians基督徒.
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他们是基督徒
08:25
They worship崇拜 the Christian基督教 God, they have crosses十字架, they carry携带 Bibles圣经.
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他们崇拜基督教之神,他们带着十字架和圣经
08:28
Their Bibles圣经 have a little insignia徽章
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他们的圣经上有一个
08:30
that says "U.S. Army军队" on them.
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写着“美军”的徽章
08:34
And their leaders领导者, their leaders领导者:
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他们的领导者
08:37
before they send发送 their sons儿子 and daughters女儿
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在他们把他们的儿女
08:39
off to war战争 in your country国家 --
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送上你的国家的战场-
08:41
and you know the reason原因 --
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而你深知原因-
08:43
before they send发送 them off,
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在他们出发之前
08:45
they go to a Christian基督教 church教会, and they pray祈祷 to their Christian基督教 God,
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他们去教堂,向基督的神祈祷
08:47
and they ask for protection保护 and guidance指导 from that god.
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祈求他们的神的指引和保护
08:50
Why?
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为什么?
08:52
Well, obviously明显, when people die in the war战争,
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显然,战争肯定会死人
08:56
they are Muslims穆斯林, they are Iraqis伊拉克人 --
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死的是穆斯林,是伊拉克人-
08:58
they're not Americans美国人.
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他们不是美国人
09:00
You don't want Americans美国人 to die. Protect保护 our troops军队.
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他们可不希望美国人死,得祈求保护他们的军队
09:03
And you feel something about that --
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你会感受到这些-
09:05
of course课程 you do.
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肯定会
09:07
And they do wonderful精彩 things.
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美军做了些好事
09:09
You read about it, you hear about it.
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你读到听说了
09:11
They're there to build建立 schools学校 and help people, and that's what they want to do.
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他们建造学校,帮助人们,这是他们想做的
09:13
They do wonderful精彩 things, but they also do the bad things,
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他们做了好事,但也做了坏事
09:15
and you can't tell the difference区别.
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你看不出区别
09:17
And this guy, you get a guy like LtLT. Gen. William威廉 Boykin博伊金.
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当你看到一个像这个威廉姆・博金上尉的人
09:21
I mean, here's这里的 a guy who says that your God is a false God.
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说你的神是虚假的
09:24
Your God's an idol偶像; his God is the true真正 God.
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你的神只是个偶像,他的神才是真正的神
09:26
The solution to the problem问题 in the Middle中间 East, according根据 to him,
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他的解决中东问题的方案
09:29
is to convert兑换 you all to Christianity基督教 --
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就是把你们所有人都变成基督徒-
09:31
just get rid摆脱 of your religion宗教.
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背弃你自己的宗教
09:33
And you know that. Americans美国人 don't read about this guy.
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你知道这些 美国人不知道
09:35
They don't know anything about him, but you do.
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他们对他一无所知,但你知道
09:38
You pass通过 it around. You pass通过 his words around.
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你告诉别人他说的话
09:40
I mean this is serious严重. You're afraid害怕.
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你十分害怕
09:43
He was one of the leading领导 commanders指挥官 in the second第二 invasion侵入 of Iraq伊拉克.
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这个人是第二次对伊拉克入侵的一个指挥官
09:46
And you're thinking思维, "God, if this guy is saying that,
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你想:“天啊,要是这个家伙这么想
09:49
then all the soldiers士兵 must必须 be saying that."
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那他的手下肯定也都是这么想的。”
09:51
And this word here,
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这个词
09:53
George乔治 Bush衬套 called this war战争 a crusade运动.
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乔治・布什称这场入侵为十字军东征
09:55
Man, the Americans美国人, they're just like, "Ah, crusade运动.
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美国人一听,“哦,圣战啊
09:57
Whatever随你. I don't know."
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管他呢。”
09:59
You know what it means手段.
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但你知道圣战意味着什么
10:01
It's a holy war战争 against反对 Muslims穆斯林.
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这是对穆斯林的圣战
10:03
Look, invade入侵, subdue征服 them, take their resources资源.
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看着吧,侵略了他们,降服他们,夺走他们的资源
10:06
If they won't惯于 submit提交, kill them.
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不屈就杀
10:08
That's what this is about.
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这就是圣战
10:10
And you're thinking思维, "My God, these Christians基督徒 are coming未来 to kill us."
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你想,“天哪,这些基督徒要来取我们性命。”
10:13
This is frightening可怕的.
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这是多么可怕
10:15
You feel frightened受惊. Of course课程 you feel frightened受惊.
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你吓坏了,肯定吓坏了
10:18
And this man, Terry特里 Jones琼斯:
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这个人,泰瑞・琼斯:
10:21
I mean here's这里的 a guy who wants to burn烧伤 Korans可兰经, right?
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他要烧了所有的古兰经
10:23
And the Americans美国人: "Ah, he's a knucklehead博傻.
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美国人说:“他是个蠢货。
10:25
He's a former前任的 hotel旅馆 manager经理;
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他以前是个酒店经理,
10:27
he's got three-dozen三打 members会员 of his church教会."
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他的教堂只有三十来个人。”
10:29
They laugh him off. You don't laugh him off.
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他们付之一笑,你不会
10:31
Because in the context上下文 of everything else其他,
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因为在那个环境下
10:33
all the pieces fit适合.
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这说辞十分有道理
10:35
I mean, of course课程, this is how Americans美国人 take it,
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当然那只是美国人的想法
10:37
so people all over the Middle中间 East, not just in your country国家,
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但在中东,不仅仅是你的国家
10:39
are protesting抗议.
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都在抗议
10:41
"He wants to burn烧伤 Korans可兰经, our holy book.
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“他要烧了我们的圣经古兰经
10:43
These Christians基督徒, who are these Christians基督徒?
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这些基督徒当他们是谁?
10:45
They're so evil邪恶, they're so mean --
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他们太邪恶卑鄙了-
10:47
this is what they're about."
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这些人就是这样的。”
10:49
This is what you're thinking思维 as an Arab阿拉伯 Muslim穆斯林,
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这就是你作为一个阿拉伯穆斯林的想法
10:51
as an Iraqi伊拉克人.
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作为一个伊拉克人
10:53
Of course课程 you're going to think this.
256
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你当然会这么想
10:55
And then your cousin表姐
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然后你堂兄弟说
10:57
says, "Hey cuz的Cuz, check out this website网站.
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“兄弟,看看这个网站
10:59
You've got to see this -- Bible圣经 Boot Camp.
259
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圣经训练营
11:01
These Christians基督徒 are nuts坚果.
260
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这些基督徒真是疯了
11:03
They're training训练 their little kids孩子 to be soldiers士兵 for Jesus耶稣.
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他们在训练自己的小孩成为上帝的士兵
11:06
And they take these little kids孩子 and they run them through通过 these things
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他们把那些想法灌输给小孩子
11:08
till直到 they teach them how to say, "Sir先生, yes, sir先生,"
263
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让他们只会言听计从
11:10
and things like grenade手榴弹 toss折腾 and weapons武器 care关心 and maintenance保养.
264
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还教他们怎么扔手榴弹和维护武器
11:13
And go to the website网站.
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然后继续看网站
11:15
It says "U.S. Army军队" right on it.
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上头写着”美国军队“
11:17
I mean, these Christians基督徒, they're nuts坚果. How would they do this to their little kids孩子?"
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这些基督徒真是疯了,他们怎么能这么对待孩子?”
11:20
And you're reading this website网站.
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你看着这个网站
11:22
And of course课程, Christians基督徒 back in the United联合的 States状态, or anybody任何人,
269
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而美国的基督徒,或者随便谁
11:25
says, "Ah, this is some little, tiny church教会 in the middle中间 of nowhere无处."
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只会说:“这是个荒唐名不见经传的小小教堂”
11:27
You don't know that.
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但你可不知道
11:29
For you, this is like all Christians基督徒.
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对你来说这就代表了所有基督徒
11:32
It's all over the Web卷筒纸, Bible圣经 Boot Camp.
273
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网上铺天盖地都是,圣经训练营
11:34
And look at this:
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再看看这个
11:36
they even teach their kids孩子 --
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他们甚至教小孩子
11:38
they train培养 them in the same相同 way the U.S. Marines海军陆战队员 train培养.
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他们用美国海军陆战队的方法来训练小孩
11:40
Isn't that interesting有趣.
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这真是开了眼了
11:42
And it scares恐慌 you, and it frightens惊吓 you.
278
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这吓坏你了
11:44
So these guys, you see them.
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你看到这些人
11:46
You see, I, Sam山姆 Richards理查兹, I know who these guys are.
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我,山姆・理查茲,我知道这些人
11:49
They're my students学生们, my friends朋友.
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他们是我的学生,我的朋友
11:51
I know what they're thinking思维: "You don't know."
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我知道他们在想什么,但你一无所知。
11:53
When you see them,
283
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你看到他们
11:55
they're something else其他, they're something else其他.
284
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就变成了别的什么
11:58
That's what they are to you.
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他们对你来说是这个
12:01
We don't see it that way in the United联合的 States状态,
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在美国我们不这么看
12:04
but you see it that way.
287
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但是你会
12:09
So here.
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那么
12:11
Of course课程, you got it wrong错误.
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当然,你意会错了
12:13
You're generalizing泛化. It's wrong错误.
290
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你一般化了你的推理,你错了
12:16
You don't understand理解 the Americans美国人.
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你不了解美国人
12:18
It's not a Christian基督教 invasion侵入.
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这不是基督徒入侵
12:20
We're not just there for oil; we're there for lots of reasons原因.
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我们取那儿不光为了石油,还有其他很多原因
12:22
You have it wrong错误. You've missed错过 it.
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你想错了
12:24
And of course课程, most of you don't support支持 the insurgency暴动;
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当然,很多人不支持武装暴动
12:27
you don't support支持 killing谋杀 Americans美国人;
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你并不支持杀掉美国人
12:29
you don't support支持 the terrorists恐怖分子.
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也不支持恐怖分子
12:31
Of course课程 you don't. Very few少数 people do.
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你当然不,很少有人支持暴力
12:33
But some of you do.
299
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但有些人支持
12:36
And this is a perspective透视.
300
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这是一个看法
12:39
Okay, so now, here's这里的 what we're going to do.
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好的,现在我们要做的
12:41
Step outside of your shoes
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就是放开
12:43
that you're in right now
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你现在的立场
12:45
and step back into your normal正常 shoes.
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回到你正常的角色中
12:47
So everyone's大家的 back in the room房间, okay.
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大家都回到这个屋子来
12:49
Now here comes the radical激进 experiment实验.
306
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激进的试验来了
12:51
So we're all back home.
307
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我们都回了家
12:53
This photo照片: this woman女人,
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这张照片,这个女人
12:55
man, I feel her.
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我能感受她的感受
12:57
I feel her.
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我理解她
12:59
She's my sister妹妹,
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她是我的姐妹
13:01
my wife妻子, my cousin表姐, my neighbor邻居.
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我的妻子,我的堂姐,我的邻居
13:04
She's anybody任何人 to me.
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她是我周围的人
13:06
These guys standing常设 there, everybody每个人 in the photo照片,
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照片里的每一个人
13:08
I feel this photo照片, man.
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我都能设身处地地理解他们
13:11
So here's这里的 what I want you to do.
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接下来我要你们做的
13:13
Let's go back to my first example of the Chinese中文.
317
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就是回到第一个中国的例子
13:17
So I want you to go there.
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希望你想像一下
13:19
So it's all about coal煤炭, and the Chinese中文 are here in the United联合的 States状态.
319
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中国人在美国攫取煤矿
13:22
And what I want you to do is picture图片 her as a Chinese中文 woman女人
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你们把她想像成一个中国女人
13:24
receiving接收 a Chinese中文 flag
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她正在接收中国国旗
13:27
because her loved喜爱 one has died死亡 in America美国
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因为她爱的人在美国的煤矿起义中
13:30
in the coal煤炭 uprising起义.
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死去了
13:32
And the soldiers士兵 are Chinese中文,
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士兵都是中国人
13:34
and everybody每个人 else其他 is Chinese中文.
325
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其他也是中国人
13:36
As an American美国, how do you feel about this picture图片?
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作为一个美国人,你对这样照片作何感想?
13:41
What do you think about that scene现场?
327
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你怎么去看这个场景?
13:46
Okay, try this. Bring带来 it back.
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好的 我们再回来
13:48
This is the scene现场 here.
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这个场景
13:50
It's an American美国, American美国 soldiers士兵,
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一个美国人,美国士兵
13:52
American美国 woman女人 who lost丢失 her loved喜爱 one
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一个在中东-伊拉克或阿富汗
13:54
in the Middle中间 East -- in Iraq伊拉克 or Afghanistan阿富汗.
332
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失去了爱人的美国女人
13:57
Now, put yourself你自己 in the shoes,
333
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现在把你自己
13:59
go back to the shoes
334
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放回到
14:01
of an Arab阿拉伯 Muslim穆斯林 living活的 in Iraq伊拉克.
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一个伊拉克的阿拉伯穆斯林角度去看
14:05
What are you feeling感觉 and thinking思维
336
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你对这张照片的
14:08
about this photo照片,
337
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和这个女人
14:10
about this woman女人?
338
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3000
有何看法
14:20
Okay,
339
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好的
14:22
now follow跟随 me on this,
340
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2000
现在跟着我
14:24
because I'm taking服用 a big risk风险 here.
341
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因为我在冒很大的险
14:26
And so I'm going to invite邀请 you to take a risk风险 with me.
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我也邀请你和我一起冒险
14:29
These gentlemen绅士 here, they're insurgents叛乱分子.
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这两名男子,他们是叛乱分子
14:31
They were caught抓住 by the American美国 soldiers士兵,
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他们要杀美国士兵
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trying to kill Americans美国人.
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被抓住了
14:35
And maybe they succeeded成功. Maybe they succeeded成功.
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也许他们成功了,也许没有
14:38
Put yourself你自己 in the shoes
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把你自己想像成
14:40
of the Americans美国人 who caught抓住 them.
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抓他们的士兵
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Can you feel the rage愤怒?
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你感到愤怒吗?
14:46
Can you feel that you just want to take these guys
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你会想抓住他们
14:48
and wring their necks脖子?
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并扭断他们的脖子吗?
14:50
Can you go there?
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你能做到吗?
14:52
It shouldn't不能 be that difficult.
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这并不会太难
14:54
You just -- oh, man.
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你就是恨得牙痒痒
14:59
Now, put yourself你自己 in their shoes.
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现在,假设你是叛乱者
15:05
Are they brutal野蛮 killers杀手
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他们是野蛮的杀手
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or patriotic爱国 defenders捍卫者?
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亦或是爱国者?
15:10
Which哪一个 one?
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哪个?
15:13
Can you feel their anger愤怒,
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能感受到他们的愤怒
15:16
their fear恐惧,
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恐惧
15:18
their rage愤怒
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还有愤慨吗
15:20
at what has happened发生 in their country国家?
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对发生在他们国家的一切的怒火吗?
15:22
Can you imagine想像
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你能否想像
15:24
that maybe one of them in the morning早上
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也许他们中的一个
15:27
bent弯曲 down to their child儿童 and hugged拥抱 their child儿童
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早上弯下身拥抱自己的孩子
15:30
and said, "Dear, I'll be back later后来.
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说:“宝贝,待会儿见。
15:34
I'm going out to defend保卫 your freedom自由, your lives生活.
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我要去保护你的自由,你的生命。
15:37
I'm going out to look out for us,
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我去保护我们自己
15:41
the future未来 of our country国家."
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保护国家的未来。”
15:43
Can you imagine想像 that?
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你能想象吗?
15:45
Can you imagine想像 saying that?
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你能想象去说这些吗?
15:48
Can you go there?
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能吗?
15:52
What do you think they're feeling感觉?
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你觉得他们是怎么想的
16:02
You see, that's empathy同情.
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你看,这就是换位思考
16:04
It's also understanding理解.
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也是理解
16:07
Now, you might威力 ask,
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现在你也许会问
16:09
"Okay, Sam山姆, so why do you do this sort分类 of thing?
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“山姆,你这么干是为什么?
16:12
Why would you use this example of all examples例子?"
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为什么要用这两个例子?”
16:14
And I say, because ... because.
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我说,因为
16:17
You're allowed允许 to hate讨厌 these people.
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你可以憎恨这些人
16:19
You're allowed允许 to just hate讨厌 them
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你可以用全身每一点力气
16:22
with every一切 fiber纤维 of your being存在.
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去恨他们
16:24
And if I can get you
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如果我能让你们
16:26
to step into their shoes
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设身处地
16:28
and walk步行 an inch英寸,
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从他们的角度
16:30
one tiny inch英寸,
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做些许思考
16:32
then imagine想像 the kind of sociological社会学的 analysis分析
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那么假设你能把这样的社会学分析
16:35
that you can do in all other aspects方面 of your life.
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运用到你生活的各方面
16:39
You can walk步行 a mile英里
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你就能做到更多
16:41
when it comes to understanding理解
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如果你能理解
16:43
why that person's人的 driving主动 40 miles英里 per hour小时
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为什么那人以四十迈的速度
16:46
in the passing通过 lane车道,
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超车
16:49
or your teenage青少年 son儿子,
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或者你十来岁的儿子
16:51
or your neighbor邻居 who annoys惹恼 you
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或者你的邻居
16:53
by cutting切割 his lawn草坪 on Sunday星期日 mornings早晨.
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在周日早上割草烦到了你
16:55
Whatever随你 it is, you can go so far.
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不管是什么,你能运用换位思考
16:58
And this is what I tell my students学生们:
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这就是我告诉学生的
17:00
step outside of your tiny, little world世界.
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走出你自己的小世界
17:04
Step inside of the tiny, little world世界
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走进别人的
17:06
of somebody else其他.
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小世界
17:08
And then do it again and do it again and do it again.
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不停地尝试
17:12
And suddenly突然 all these tiny, little worlds世界,
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最终这些小世界
17:14
they come together一起 in this complex复杂 web卷筒纸.
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就会交织成一张大网
17:16
And they build建立 a big, complex复杂 world世界.
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他们构成了一个巨大的复杂的世界
17:19
And suddenly突然, without realizing实现 it,
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突然间,不知不觉中
17:21
you're seeing眼看 the world世界 differently不同.
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世界在眼中就不同了
17:24
Everything has changed.
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一切都变了
17:26
Everything in your life has changed.
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你生命里的每一件事都变了
17:28
And that's, of course课程, what this is about.
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这当然是我的目的所在
17:31
Attend出席 to other lives生活,
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关注别人的生活
17:34
other visions愿景.
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别人的视角
17:36
Listen to other people,
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倾听别人
17:38
enlighten开导 ourselves我们自己.
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启迪自我
17:41
I'm not saying
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我不是说
17:43
that I support支持 the terrorists恐怖分子 in Iraq伊拉克,
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我支持伊拉克的恐怖分子
17:45
but as a sociologist社会学家,
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而是作为一名社会学家
17:47
what I am saying
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我是说
17:49
is I understand理解.
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我能够理解
17:53
And now perhaps也许 -- perhaps也许 -- you do too.
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也许,也许,现在你也可以了
17:57
Thank you.
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谢谢
17:59
(Applause掌声)
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(掌声)
Translated by Chunxiang Qian
Reviewed by Stephanie Zhou

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ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Sam Richards - Sociologist
Sam Richards is a sociologist and teacher of the largest race relations course in the US. He argues that empathy is the core of sociology.

Why you should listen

Identifying himself as "an iconoclast from Toledo, Ohio," and identified by David Horowitz as one of the "101 Most Dangerous Academics in America," Sam Richards is one of the most provocative, and popular, sociology teachers in the country. Every year 725 students at Penn State University take his course on race and ethnic relations, where he attacks, with humor and courage, questions most would choose to avoid.

He is also the founder of the World in Conversation project. Every year, more than 7,000 students participate in its mission is to create a conscious dialogue around the politically incorrect thoughts of the participants, bringing them out in the open for inspection.

More profile about the speaker
Sam Richards | Speaker | TED.com