ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Sam Richards - Sociologist
Sam Richards is a sociologist and teacher of the largest race relations course in the US. He argues that empathy is the core of sociology.

Why you should listen

Identifying himself as "an iconoclast from Toledo, Ohio," and identified by David Horowitz as one of the "101 Most Dangerous Academics in America," Sam Richards is one of the most provocative, and popular, sociology teachers in the country. Every year 725 students at Penn State University take his course on race and ethnic relations, where he attacks, with humor and courage, questions most would choose to avoid.

He is also the founder of the World in Conversation project. Every year, more than 7,000 students participate in its mission is to create a conscious dialogue around the politically incorrect thoughts of the participants, bringing them out in the open for inspection.

More profile about the speaker
Sam Richards | Speaker | TED.com
TEDxPSU

Sam Richards: A radical experiment in empathy

山姆·理查茲:關於同理心的激進實驗

Filmed:
1,762,213 views

在TEDxPSU大會上,社會學家山姆·理查茲一步一步地引導在座的美國人走過一個很有挑戰性的思維過程。這個挑戰就是:美國人能不能理解——不是贊同,而是理解——伊拉克武裝動亂者的動機?退而廣之,有沒有人真的能夠理解並與以同理心對待他人?
- Sociologist
Sam Richards is a sociologist and teacher of the largest race relations course in the US. He argues that empathy is the core of sociology. Full bio

Double-click (or triple-click) the English transcript below to play the video.

00:15
My students學生們 often經常 ask me,
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我的學生經常問我,
00:18
"What is sociology社會學?"
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「甚麼是社會學?」
00:20
And I tell them, "It's the study研究
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我告訴他們,「它是研究
00:22
of the way in which哪一個 human人的 beings眾生
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人類是如何
00:24
are shaped成形 by things that they don't see."
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被自己看不見的東西所塑造的學科。」
00:27
And they say, "So how can I be a sociologist社會學家?
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然後他們問:「那我要如何成為一個社會學家?
00:31
How can I understand理解 those invisible無形 forces軍隊?"
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我如何理解那些看不見的力量?」
00:33
And I say, "Empathy同情.
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我就會回答說:「同理心,
00:35
Start開始 with empathy同情.
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從同理心開始
00:37
It all begins開始 with empathy同情.
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一切源自同理心。
00:40
Take yourself你自己 out of your shoes,
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從你自己固有的角落走出來,
00:42
put yourself你自己 into the shoes of another另一個 person."
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從別人的角度來看問題。」
00:44
Here, I'll give you an example.
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我來給你舉個例子。
00:47
So I imagine想像 my life:
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我曾經設想,
00:49
if a hundred years年份 ago
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如果一百年前,
00:51
China中國 had been the most powerful強大 nation國家 in the world世界
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當中國是世界上最強大的國家的時候,
00:53
and they came來了 to the United聯合的 States狀態
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他們來到美國
00:55
in search搜索 of coal煤炭,
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搜尋煤炭
00:57
and they found發現 it, and, in fact事實, they found發現 lots of it right here.
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然後他們找到了,並且,他們找到很多。
01:00
And pretty漂亮 soon不久, they began開始 shipping運輸 that coal煤炭,
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很快,他們開始運輸那些煤礦,
01:03
ton by ton,
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一噸又一噸,
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rail car汽車 by rail car汽車, boatload勿庸置疑 by boatload勿庸置疑,
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一車又一車,一船又一船,
01:08
back to China中國 and elsewhere別處 around the world世界.
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運回中國及世界其他地方。
01:12
And they got fabulously驚人 wealthy富裕 in doing so.
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他們因此變得非常富有。
01:15
And they built內置 beautiful美麗 cities城市
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他們用煤炭作為能源動力,
01:17
all powered動力 on that coal煤炭.
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建造了美麗的城市。
01:22
And back here in the United聯合的 States狀態,
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我們把視線轉回美國,
01:25
we saw economic經濟 despair絕望, deprivation剝奪.
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我們看到的是經濟蕭條破敗。
01:27
This is what I saw.
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這是我看到的。
01:29
I saw people struggling奮鬥的 to get by,
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我看到人們掙扎着糊口,
01:32
not knowing會心 what was what and what was next下一個.
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茫然無措,求助無門。
01:35
And then I asked myself the question.
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然後我就會問自己
01:37
I say, "How's怎麼樣 it possible可能 that we could be so poor較差的 here in the United聯合的 States狀態,
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「美國怎麼會變得這麼貧窮?
01:40
because the coal煤炭 is such這樣 a wealthy富裕 resource資源,
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因為我們的煤炭資源是這樣的有價值,
01:42
it's so much money?"
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值很多錢。」
01:44
And I realized實現,
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然後我意識到,
01:46
because the Chinese中文 ingratiated獻媚 themselves他們自己
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原來是因為中國對於
01:49
with a small ruling裁決 class here in the United聯合的 States狀態
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美國小部分統治階層投其所好,
01:52
who stole偷了 all of that money and all of that wealth財富 for themselves他們自己.
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這小部分同志階層自己取得了這些煤炭帶來的財富。
01:56
And the rest休息 of us, the vast廣大 majority多數 of us,
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其餘大部分美國人,我們這些普通人
01:58
struggle鬥爭 to get by.
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掙扎着糊口。
02:00
And the Chinese中文 gave this small ruling裁決 elite原種
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中國給這些統治精英階層
02:03
loads負載 of military軍事 weapons武器 and sophisticated複雜的 technology技術
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大量的軍事武器和尖端科技,
02:06
in order訂購 to ensure確保 that people like me
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以保證像我這樣的普通民眾
02:09
would not speak說話 out against反對 this relationship關係.
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不至於表達對於這種關係的反對意見。
02:13
Does this sound聲音 familiar?
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這個故事是不是聽著很熟悉?
02:16
And they did things like train培養 Americans美國人
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然後他們做了一些事,比如訓練美國人
02:18
to help protect保護 the coal煤炭.
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幫忙保護煤礦。
02:20
And everywhere到處, were symbols符號 of the Chinese中文 --
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到處都是中國的印記——
02:23
everywhere到處, a constant不變 reminder提醒.
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任何地方,不斷地提醒我們中國的存在。
02:26
And back in China中國,
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我們再回到中國,
02:28
what do they say in China中國?
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中國人都在談論什麼?
02:30
Nothing. They don't talk about us. They don't talk about the coal煤炭.
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他們對此隻字不談。他們不談論美國。不談論煤礦。
02:33
If you ask them,
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如果你問中國人,
02:35
they'll他們會 say, "Well, you know the coal煤炭, we need the coal煤炭.
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他們會說:「好吧,你知道煤礦的重要性,我們需要煤礦。
02:37
I mean, come on, I'm not going to turn down my thermostat恆溫器.
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我說,你別指望我調低我家暖氣的溫度。
02:40
You can't expect期望 that."
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別指望這會發生。」
02:43
And so I get angry憤怒, and I get pissed生氣,
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於是我生氣了,我非常惱火,
02:46
as do lots of average平均 people.
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就像大多數普通人那樣。
02:48
And we fight鬥爭 back, and it gets得到 really ugly醜陋.
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然後我們開始抗議,情況變得很難堪。
02:51
And the Chinese中文 respond響應 in a very ugly醜陋 way.
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中國也以一種非常不友好的方式回應我們。
02:55
And before we know it, they send發送 in the tanks坦克
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我們還沒反應過來,他們就已經派來坦克,
02:58
and then send發送 in the troops軍隊,
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之後由派進來軍隊,
03:00
and lots of people are dying垂死,
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很多人因此死去,
03:02
and it's a very, very difficult situation情況.
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情況變得很難處理
03:07
Can you imagine想像 what you would feel
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如果你是我,你能想象
03:10
if you were in my shoes?
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你會怎麼想嗎?
03:12
Can you imagine想像 walking步行 out of this building建造
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你能想象,當你走出這裡,
03:15
and seeing眼看 a tank坦克 sitting坐在 out there
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看到一個坦克停在那兒
03:17
or a truck卡車 full充分 of soldiers士兵?
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或者一大卡車士兵。
03:20
And just imagine想像 what you would feel.
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想象一下你會有甚麼感覺。
03:22
Because you know why they're here, and you know what they're doing here.
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因為你知道這些士兵為甚麼來這兒,你也知道他們在這兒做甚麼。
03:25
And you just feel the anger憤怒 and you feel the fear恐懼.
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然後你就感到憤怒和恐懼。
03:29
If you can, that's empathy同情 -- that's empathy同情.
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如果你能感覺到,這就說明你有同理心——這就是同理心。
03:32
You've left your shoes, and you've stood站在 in mine.
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你從自己的世界裡走出來,來以我的角度來看問題。
03:35
And you've got to feel that.
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你已經感覺到了tonglixin。
03:37
Okay, so that's the warm up.
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好的,這是熱身。
03:39
That's the warm up.
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這只是熱身。
03:41
Now we're going to have
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現在我們將開始
03:43
the real真實 radical激進 experiment實驗.
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真正激進的實驗。
03:45
And so for the remainder of my talk, what I want you to do
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在下面的時間裡,我希望你們
03:48
is put yourselves你自己 in the shoes
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從一個
03:50
of an ordinary普通 Arab阿拉伯 Muslim穆斯林
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居住在中東的普通阿拉伯穆斯林
03:53
living活的 in the Middle中間 East --
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的角度出發——
03:55
in particular特定, in Iraq伊拉克.
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具體點說就是伊拉克
03:59
And so to help you,
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為了幫助你進入狀態,
04:01
perhaps也許 you're a member會員 of this middle中間 class family家庭 in Baghdad巴格達 --
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假設你是巴格達一個中產階級家庭的一員,
04:05
and what you want is the best最好 for your kids孩子.
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你希望給你的孩子們創造最好的環境。
04:08
You want your kids孩子 to have a better life.
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你希望你的孩子過更好的生活。
04:10
And you watch the news新聞, you pay工資 attention注意,
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平時你看新聞,關心大事。
04:12
you read the newspaper報紙, you go down to the coffee咖啡 shop with your friends朋友,
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你看報紙,你和朋友們去咖啡館,
04:15
and you read the newspapers報紙 from around the world世界.
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讀世界各地的報紙。
04:17
And sometimes有時 you even watch satellite衛星,
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有時候你甚至看衛星電視,
04:19
CNNCNN, from the United聯合的 States狀態.
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美國的CNN。
04:21
So you have a sense of what the Americans美國人 are thinking思維.
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你大致知道美國人在想什麼。
04:23
But really, you just want a better life for yourself你自己.
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但是,說到底,你只是希望自己過得更好,
04:26
That's what you want.
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那才是你想要的。
04:28
You're Arab阿拉伯 Muslim穆斯林 living活的 in Iraq伊拉克.
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你是住在伊拉克的阿拉伯穆斯林,
04:30
You want a better life for yourself你自己.
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你想過得更好。
04:32
So here, let me help you.
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在這兒,我來幫你,
04:34
Let me help you with some things
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我來幫你梳理一下
04:36
that you might威力 be thinking思維.
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你也許正在思考的問題。
04:38
Number one: this incursion侵入 into your land土地
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一:過去20年間,
04:41
these past過去 20 years年份, and before,
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甚至更早,你的國土被入侵,
04:43
the reason原因 anyone任何人 is interested有興趣 in your land土地, and particularly尤其 the United聯合的 States狀態,
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所有人,特別是美國,都對你的國土感興趣,
04:46
it's oil.
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其原因就是石油。
04:48
It's all about oil; you know that, everybody每個人 knows知道 that.
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都是因為石油;這是事實你知我知天下人都知道。
04:51
People here back in the United聯合的 States狀態 know it's about oil.
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美國人也知道這是為了石油。
04:54
It's because somebody else其他
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因為別人
04:56
has a design設計 for your resource資源.
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在盤算你的資源
04:59
It's your resource資源; it's not somebody else's別人的.
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這是你的資源,不是別人的。
05:02
It's your land土地; it's your resource資源.
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這是你的國土,你的資源。
05:05
Somebody else其他 has a design設計 for it.
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有人盤算着你的資源
05:07
And you know why they have a design設計?
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你知道他們是為什麼盤算你的石油?
05:09
You know why they have their eyes眼睛 set on it?
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你知道他們為甚麼對此這麼感興趣?
05:11
Because they have an entire整個 economic經濟 system系統
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因為他們的這個經濟
05:13
that's dependent依賴的 on that oil --
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依賴石油而存在——
05:15
foreign國外 oil,
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並且是進口石油,
05:17
oil from other parts部分 of the world世界 that they don't own擁有.
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來自他們的國土之外的石油。
05:20
And what else其他 do you think about these people?
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關於這些人,你還想到甚麼?
05:22
The Americans美國人, they're rich豐富.
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這些美國人,他們很富有。
05:24
Come on, they live生活 in big houses房屋, they have big cars汽車,
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拜託,他們住在大房子裡,他們有大汽車,
05:26
they all have blond金發 hair頭髮, blue藍色 eyes眼睛, they're happy快樂.
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他們都是金髮碧眼,他們很幸福。
05:28
You think that. It's not true真正, of course課程,
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你會這麼想。當然這不是真的,
05:30
but that's the media媒體 impression印象, and that's like what you get.
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但這是媒體給人的印象,這是他們所得到的信息。
05:33
And they have big cities城市,
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美國有大城市,
05:35
and the cities城市 are all dependent依賴的 on oil.
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這些大城市都依賴石油。
05:39
And back home, what do you see?
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回到家裡,你看到甚麼?
05:41
Poverty貧窮, despair絕望, struggle鬥爭.
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貧窮,絕望,掙扎。
05:43
Look, you don't live生活 in a wealthy富裕 country國家.
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看,你不住在一個富裕的國家。
05:46
This is Iraq伊拉克.
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這是伊拉克,
05:50
This is what you see.
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這是你看到,
05:52
You see people struggling奮鬥的 to get by.
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你看到人們掙扎求生。
05:54
I mean, it's not easy簡單; you see a lot of poverty貧窮.
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沒錯,世事艱難,你也看到很多貧困現象,
05:56
And you feel something about this.
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並且你對此有一些感觸。
05:58
These people have designs設計 for your resource資源,
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這些人在盤算你的資源,
06:00
and this is what you see?
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而你看到這些現狀。
06:02
Something else其他 you see that you talk about --
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你還看到一些其他你們在討論的東西——
06:04
Americans美國人 don't talk about this, but you do.
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美國人不討論這些,但是你們會。
06:06
There's this thing, this militarization軍國主義化 of the world世界,
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比如說,世界的軍國主義化,
06:09
and it's centered中心 right in the United聯合的 States狀態.
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並且美國現在有保守化傾向。
06:11
And the United聯合的 States狀態
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並且美國
06:13
is responsible主管 for almost幾乎 one half
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的軍費佔世界各國總軍費開支的
06:16
of the world's世界 military軍事 spending開支 --
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二分之一——
06:18
four percent百分 of the world's世界 population人口.
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他們僅有世界上百分之四的人口。
06:20
And you feel it; you see it every一切 day.
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你每天都能感覺到、看到這些情況,
06:23
It's part部分 of your life.
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這是你生活的一部分。
06:25
And you talk about it with your friends朋友.
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你和朋友們談論這些,
06:27
You read about it.
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你閱讀相關的內容。
06:30
And back when Saddam薩達姆 Hussein侯賽因 was in power功率,
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當薩達姆.侯賽因當權的時候,
06:33
the Americans美國人 didn't care關心 about his crimes犯罪.
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美國不關心他的罪行。
06:36
When he was gassing毒氣 the Kurds庫爾德人 and gassing毒氣 Iran伊朗,
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當他用毒氣攻擊庫爾德人和伊朗時,
06:38
they didn't care關心 about it.
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美國沒不關心這些。
06:40
When oil was at stake賭注,
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當石油成為一個問題的時候,
06:42
somehow不知何故, suddenly突然, things mattered要緊.
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不知道為什麼,突然間事情變得對美國重要了。
06:47
And what you see, something else其他,
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你看到了甚麼,別的一些東西,
06:49
the United聯合的 States狀態,
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美國,
06:51
the hub樞紐 of democracy民主 around the world世界,
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作為世界民主的中心,
06:53
they don't seem似乎 to really be
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他們似乎並不真的
06:55
supporting支持 democratic民主的 countries國家 all around the world世界.
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支持世界上的民主國家。
06:59
There are a lot of countries國家, oil-producing石油生產 countries國家,
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有好多這樣的國家,產油國,
07:02
that aren't very democratic民主的, but supported支持的 by the United聯合的 States狀態.
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他们不是非常民主,但美国支持他们。
07:05
That's odd.
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这很奇怪。
07:07
Oh, these incursions入侵, these two wars戰爭,
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哦,这些侵略,两次战争,
07:10
the 10 years年份 of sanctions制裁,
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十年的制裁,
07:12
the eight years年份 of occupation佔用,
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八年的佔領,
07:16
the insurgency暴動 that's been unleashed如虎添翼 on your people,
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由你自己的人民發動的叛亂,
07:19
the tens of thousands數千, the hundreds數以百計 of thousands數千
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成百上千的
07:22
of civilian平民 deaths死亡,
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平民死亡,
07:27
all because of oil.
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都是因為石油。
07:30
You can't help but think that.
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你忍不住思考,
07:32
You talk about it.
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和談論這些。
07:34
It's in the forefront第一線 of your mind心神 always.
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它總是在你頭腦中佔據首要位置。
07:37
You say, "How is that possible可能?"
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你說:“這怎麼可能?”
07:40
And this man, he's every一切 man --
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然後這個人,他可以是任何人——
07:43
your grandfather祖父, your uncle叔叔,
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你祖父,你叔叔,
07:45
your father父親, your son兒子,
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你父親,你兒子,
07:47
your neighbor鄰居, your professor教授, your student學生.
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你的鄰居,你的教授,你的學生。
07:50
Once一旦 a life of happiness幸福 and joy喜悅
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曾經幸福快樂的生活,
07:53
and suddenly突然, pain疼痛 and sorrow悲哀.
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突然變成痛苦和悲傷。
07:56
Everyone大家 in your country國家
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你國家的每一個人
07:59
has been touched感動 by the violence暴力,
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都被動亂所影響,
08:02
the bloodshed流血, the pain疼痛,
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流血,痛苦,
08:04
the horror恐怖, everybody每個人.
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恐懼,每個人都被影響。
08:06
Not a single person in your country國家
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在你的國家裡,
08:09
has not been touched感動.
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沒有一個人不被影響。
08:11
But there's something else其他.
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還有
08:13
There's something else其他 about these people,
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在伊拉克的這些美國人
08:15
these Americans美國人 who are there.
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還有別的一些問題
08:17
There's something else其他 about them that you see -- they don't see themselves他們自己.
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有一些你看到的而他們自己沒有意識到的問題。
08:20
And what do you see? They're Christians基督徒.
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你看到了什麼問題?問題就是,他們是基督徒,
08:23
They're Christians基督徒.
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他們是基督徒。
08:25
They worship崇拜 the Christian基督教 God, they have crosses十字架, they carry攜帶 Bibles聖經.
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他們崇拜耶穌,他們有十字架,他們帶著聖經。
08:28
Their Bibles聖經 have a little insignia徽章
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他們的聖經上有一個
08:30
that says "U.S. Army軍隊" on them.
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寫著「美國陸軍」的小徽章。
08:34
And their leaders領導者, their leaders領導者:
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他們的領導者,他們的領導者,
08:37
before they send發送 their sons兒子 and daughters女兒
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在他們送他們的兒子女兒們
08:39
off to war戰爭 in your country國家 --
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上你們國家的戰場之前,
08:41
and you know the reason原因 --
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你知道其中的原由——
08:43
before they send發送 them off,
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在送他們出發前,
08:45
they go to a Christian基督教 church教會, and they pray祈禱 to their Christian基督教 God,
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他們去基督教堂,他們向耶穌祈禱,
08:47
and they ask for protection保護 and guidance指導 from that god.
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他們祈求上帝的保護和指引。
08:50
Why?
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為甚麼?
08:52
Well, obviously明顯, when people die in the war戰爭,
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很顯然,當人們在戰爭中死去時,
08:56
they are Muslims穆斯林, they are Iraqis伊拉克人 --
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他們是穆斯林,他們是伊拉克人——
08:58
they're not Americans美國人.
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他們不是美國人。
09:00
You don't want Americans美國人 to die. Protect保護 our troops軍隊.
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你不希望美國人死。希望上帝保護我們的軍隊,
09:03
And you feel something about that --
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你感覺到這些了——
09:05
of course課程 you do.
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裡所應當的。
09:07
And they do wonderful精彩 things.
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美國軍隊做了一些好事,
09:09
You read about it, you hear about it.
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你讀到了、聽到了關於這些事情的內容。
09:11
They're there to build建立 schools學校 and help people, and that's what they want to do.
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他們建造學校,並幫助那兒的人,這是他們想做的。
09:13
They do wonderful精彩 things, but they also do the bad things,
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他們做了好事,但他們也做壞事,
09:15
and you can't tell the difference區別.
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你看不出區別。
09:17
And this guy, you get a guy like LtLT. Gen. William威廉 Boykin博伊金.
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當你看到一個像威廉姆.博伊金中將那樣的人,
09:21
I mean, here's這裡的 a guy who says that your God is a false God.
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一個說你的神是虛假的神。
09:24
Your God's an idol偶像; his God is the true真正 God.
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你的上帝是一個偶像,他的上帝才是真的。
09:26
The solution to the problem問題 in the Middle中間 East, according根據 to him,
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對他來說,解決中東問題的辦法,
09:29
is to convert兌換 you all to Christianity基督教 --
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就是把大家都變成基督徒——
09:31
just get rid擺脫 of your religion宗教.
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去處你的宗教。
09:33
And you know that. Americans美國人 don't read about this guy.
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你知道這些。美國人不關心這個人。
09:35
They don't know anything about him, but you do.
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他們對他一無所知,但是你知道。
09:38
You pass通過 it around. You pass通過 his words around.
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你把它傳播給別人,你把他的話傳給周圍的人。
09:40
I mean this is serious嚴重. You're afraid害怕.
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我是說真的。
09:43
He was one of the leading領導 commanders指揮官 in the second第二 invasion侵入 of Iraq伊拉克.
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這個人是第二次入侵伊拉克時的其中一個指揮官。
09:46
And you're thinking思維, "God, if this guy is saying that,
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你在想:「上帝啊,如果這個人這麼想,
09:49
then all the soldiers士兵 must必須 be saying that."
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那他手下全體士兵都會這麼想的。」
09:51
And this word here,
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還有一個詞,
09:53
George喬治 Bush襯套 called this war戰爭 a crusade運動.
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喬治.布什稱這個戰爭為聖戰。
09:55
Man, the Americans美國人, they're just like, "Ah, crusade運動.
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美國人們只會說,「哦,聖戰。
09:57
Whatever隨你. I don't know."
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管它呢,愛怎樣怎樣。」
09:59
You know what it means手段.
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但你知道聖戰意味著什麼。
10:01
It's a holy war戰爭 against反對 Muslims穆斯林.
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這是針對穆斯林的聖戰。
10:03
Look, invade入侵, subdue征服 them, take their resources資源.
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看,入侵,征服他們,拿走他們的資源,
10:06
If they won't慣於 submit提交, kill them.
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如果他們不服從,就殺了他們。
10:08
That's what this is about.
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就是這麼回事。
10:10
And you're thinking思維, "My God, these Christians基督徒 are coming未來 to kill us."
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你在想,「我的天,這些基督徒將會殺了我們。」
10:13
This is frightening可怕的.
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這很恐怖,
10:15
You feel frightened受驚. Of course課程 you feel frightened受驚.
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你被嚇到了。當然你會被嚇到。
10:18
And this man, Terry特里 Jones瓊斯:
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這個人,泰瑞.瓊斯,
10:21
I mean here's這裡的 a guy who wants to burn燒傷 Korans可蘭經, right?
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他想要燒了所有古蘭經。
10:23
And the Americans美國人: "Ah, he's a knucklehead博傻.
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美國人只是說:「哦,他是個傻瓜,
10:25
He's a former前任的 hotel旅館 manager經理;
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他以前是個酒店經理;
10:27
he's got three-dozen三打 members會員 of his church教會."
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他有大概三打的他們教會的成員支持他。」
10:29
They laugh him off. You don't laugh him off.
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他們對他一笑置之。你沒有把他當兒戲,
10:31
Because in the context上下文 of everything else其他,
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因為,在整個大背景下,
10:33
all the pieces fit適合.
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一切說法都有意義。
10:35
I mean, of course課程, this is how Americans美國人 take it,
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我的意思是,當然,這是美國人對待它的態度,
10:37
so people all over the Middle中間 East, not just in your country國家,
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但中東所有的人,不僅僅在你的國家,
10:39
are protesting抗議.
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都在抗議。
10:41
"He wants to burn燒傷 Korans可蘭經, our holy book.
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「他想要燒了古蘭經,我們的聖書。
10:43
These Christians基督徒, who are these Christians基督徒?
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這些基督徒,他們是誰?
10:45
They're so evil邪惡, they're so mean --
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他們如此邪惡,他們如此卑劣——
10:47
this is what they're about."
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他們就是這樣的。」
10:49
This is what you're thinking思維 as an Arab阿拉伯 Muslim穆斯林,
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這是你作為一個阿拉伯穆斯林,
10:51
as an Iraqi伊拉克人.
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或一個伊拉克人在想的事,
10:53
Of course課程 you're going to think this.
256
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你當然會這麼想。
10:55
And then your cousin表姐
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然後,你的堂姐
10:57
says, "Hey cuz的Cuz, check out this website網站.
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說:「嘿,堂弟,看看這個網站。
10:59
You've got to see this -- Bible聖經 Boot Camp.
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你得看看這個——聖經訓練營,
11:01
These Christians基督徒 are nuts堅果.
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這些基督徒瘋了,
11:03
They're training訓練 their little kids孩子 to be soldiers士兵 for Jesus耶穌.
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他們在訓練自己的小孩成為上帝的士兵,
11:06
And they take these little kids孩子 and they run them through通過 these things
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他們帶走這些孩子,把這些事情灌輸到他們的腦袋裡
11:08
till直到 they teach them how to say, "Sir先生, yes, sir先生,"
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直到他們學會說:『長官,是,長官』,
11:10
and things like grenade手榴彈 toss折騰 and weapons武器 care關心 and maintenance保養.
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然後是投擲手榴彈和保養維修武器之類的事情。
11:13
And go to the website網站.
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繼續看網站,
11:15
It says "U.S. Army軍隊" right on it.
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上面寫著『美國陸軍』。
11:17
I mean, these Christians基督徒, they're nuts堅果. How would they do this to their little kids孩子?"
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我是說,這些基督徒,他們瘋了,他們怎麼能對他們的小孩做這些?」
11:20
And you're reading this website網站.
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然後你繼續瀏覽這個網站。
11:22
And of course課程, Christians基督徒 back in the United聯合的 States狀態, or anybody任何人,
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當然,在美國的基督徒們,或者任何人,
11:25
says, "Ah, this is some little, tiny church教會 in the middle中間 of nowhere無處."
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只會說:「哦,這只是一個偏僻地區的小教堂。」
11:27
You don't know that.
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但你不知道這個。
11:29
For you, this is like all Christians基督徒.
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對你來說,這代表了所有的基督徒,
11:32
It's all over the Web捲筒紙, Bible聖經 Boot Camp.
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網絡上鋪天蓋地的都是它,聖經訓練營。
11:34
And look at this:
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再看看這個
11:36
they even teach their kids孩子 --
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他們甚至教他們的孩子——
11:38
they train培養 them in the same相同 way the U.S. Marines海軍陸戰隊員 train培養.
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他們在用美國海軍陸戰隊的訓練方法來訓練他們。
11:40
Isn't that interesting有趣.
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這不是很有趣嗎?
11:42
And it scares恐慌 you, and it frightens驚嚇 you.
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它把你嚇著了。
11:44
So these guys, you see them.
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這些人,你看他們。
11:46
You see, I, Sam山姆 Richards理查茲, I know who these guys are.
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你看,我,山姆.理查茲,我知道這些人是誰。
11:49
They're my students學生們, my friends朋友.
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他們是我的學生,我的朋友,
11:51
I know what they're thinking思維: "You don't know."
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我知道他們在想甚麼:「你不知道。」
11:53
When you see them,
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你看到他們時,
11:55
they're something else其他, they're something else其他.
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他們意味着別的東西。
11:58
That's what they are to you.
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他們對你來說是這樣。
12:01
We don't see it that way in the United聯合的 States狀態,
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在美國我們不這麼看,
12:04
but you see it that way.
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但是你們這麼看。
12:09
So here.
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所以這裡,
12:11
Of course課程, you got it wrong錯誤.
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當然,你錯了。
12:13
You're generalizing泛化. It's wrong錯誤.
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你在不合理的退而廣之。這是不對的。
12:16
You don't understand理解 the Americans美國人.
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你不了解美國人。
12:18
It's not a Christian基督教 invasion侵入.
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這不是基督教入侵。
12:20
We're not just there for oil; we're there for lots of reasons原因.
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我們去那兒不僅僅為了石油,我們去那還有別的很多原因。
12:22
You have it wrong錯誤. You've missed錯過 it.
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你錯了,你誤解了。
12:24
And of course課程, most of you don't support支持 the insurgency暴動;
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當然了,你們中的大多數不支持武裝動亂;
12:27
you don't support支持 killing謀殺 Americans美國人;
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你們不贊成殺美國人,
12:29
you don't support支持 the terrorists恐怖分子.
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你們不支持恐怖分子。
12:31
Of course課程 you don't. Very few少數 people do.
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你們當然不。只有很少人這樣,
12:33
But some of you do.
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但是你們中的一些人支持,
12:36
And this is a perspective透視.
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這是一種看法。
12:39
Okay, so now, here's這裡的 what we're going to do.
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好的,現在,我們將要
12:41
Step outside of your shoes
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走出
12:43
that you're in right now
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你現在的角度
12:45
and step back into your normal正常 shoes.
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回到正常的狀態
12:47
So everyone's大家的 back in the room房間, okay.
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大家都回到這個房間了,好的
12:49
Now here comes the radical激進 experiment實驗.
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激進的實驗來了。
12:51
So we're all back home.
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於是我們都回家了。
12:53
This photo照片: this woman女人,
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這張照片,這個女人,
12:55
man, I feel her.
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天啊,我能感受到她的感受。
12:57
I feel her.
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我理解她。
12:59
She's my sister妹妹,
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她是我的姐妹
13:01
my wife妻子, my cousin表姐, my neighbor鄰居.
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我的妻子,我的堂姐,我的鄰居。
13:04
She's anybody任何人 to me.
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她對我來說是很親近。
13:06
These guys standing常設 there, everybody每個人 in the photo照片,
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這些人站在那兒,照片裡的每個人。
13:08
I feel this photo照片, man.
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我看到這張照片有身處其境的感覺。
13:11
So here's這裡的 what I want you to do.
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接下來是我要你們做的。
13:13
Let's go back to my first example of the Chinese中文.
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讓我們回到第一個關於中國的例子。
13:17
So I want you to go there.
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我希望你想像那個情況/
13:19
So it's all about coal煤炭, and the Chinese中文 are here in the United聯合的 States狀態.
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都是為了煤礦,中國人在美國。
13:22
And what I want you to do is picture圖片 her as a Chinese中文 woman女人
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我要你們把她想像成一位中國婦女,
13:24
receiving接收 a Chinese中文 flag
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她正在接收中國國旗,
13:27
because her loved喜愛 one has died死亡 in America美國
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因為她愛的人
13:30
in the coal煤炭 uprising起義.
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在美國在煤礦起義中被殺死了。
13:32
And the soldiers士兵 are Chinese中文,
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現在士兵是中國人,
13:34
and everybody每個人 else其他 is Chinese中文.
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其他人也是中國人。
13:36
As an American美國, how do you feel about this picture圖片?
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作為一個美國人,你對這張照片有甚麼感覺?
13:41
What do you think about that scene現場?
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你對這樣的場景怎麼想?
13:46
Okay, try this. Bring帶來 it back.
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好的,試試看。再回到開始。
13:48
This is the scene現場 here.
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這是這兒的景象,
13:50
It's an American美國, American美國 soldiers士兵,
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這是一個美國人,美國士兵,
13:52
American美國 woman女人 who lost丟失 her loved喜愛 one
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在中東——伊拉克或阿富汗——
13:54
in the Middle中間 East -- in Iraq伊拉克 or Afghanistan阿富汗.
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失去所愛的人的美國婦女。
13:57
Now, put yourself你自己 in the shoes,
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現在,把你自己放在這樣的處境中,
13:59
go back to the shoes
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從一個
14:01
of an Arab阿拉伯 Muslim穆斯林 living活的 in Iraq伊拉克.
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伊拉克的阿拉伯穆斯林的角度去看。
14:05
What are you feeling感覺 and thinking思維
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你感覺到、想到了甚麼?
14:08
about this photo照片,
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當你看到這張照片
14:10
about this woman女人?
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這個婦女時
14:20
Okay,
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好的,
14:22
now follow跟隨 me on this,
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現在,跟著我,
14:24
because I'm taking服用 a big risk風險 here.
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因為我在冒很大的風險。
14:26
And so I'm going to invite邀請 you to take a risk風險 with me.
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我也邀請你和我一起冒這個險,
14:29
These gentlemen紳士 here, they're insurgents叛亂分子.
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这几位男士,他們是叛亂分子。
14:31
They were caught抓住 by the American美國 soldiers士兵,
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他們因為想要殺美國士兵
14:33
trying to kill Americans美國人.
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被抓住,
14:35
And maybe they succeeded成功. Maybe they succeeded成功.
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也許他們成功了,也許他們成功了。
14:38
Put yourself你自己 in the shoes
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把你自己想像成
14:40
of the Americans美國人 who caught抓住 them.
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抓他們的美國士兵。
14:44
Can you feel the rage憤怒?
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你感到憤怒嗎?
14:46
Can you feel that you just want to take these guys
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你能感覺到你想抓住這些人
14:48
and wring their necks脖子?
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扭他們的脖子嗎?
14:50
Can you go there?
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能想象嗎?
14:52
It shouldn't不能 be that difficult.
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這不會太難。
14:54
You just -- oh, man.
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你就是想——天啊。
14:59
Now, put yourself你自己 in their shoes.
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現在,把你自己放到這些叛亂者的處境中,
15:05
Are they brutal野蠻 killers殺手
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他們是野蠻的殺手
15:07
or patriotic愛國 defenders捍衛者?
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還是愛國的保衛者?
15:10
Which哪一個 one?
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是哪一個?
15:13
Can you feel their anger憤怒,
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你能感到他們的憤怒、
15:16
their fear恐懼,
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恐惧、
15:18
their rage憤怒
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和暴怒嗎?
15:20
at what has happened發生 in their country國家?
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當他們的國家發生了這些。
15:22
Can you imagine想像
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你能否想象,
15:24
that maybe one of them in the morning早上
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也許他們中的一個,
15:27
bent彎曲 down to their child兒童 and hugged擁抱 their child兒童
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早上還彎下腰擁抱他的孩子
15:30
and said, "Dear, I'll be back later後來.
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說:「寶貝兒,我一會就回來。
15:34
I'm going out to defend保衛 your freedom自由, your lives生活.
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我是出去保衛你的自由,你的生命。
15:37
I'm going out to look out for us,
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我是出去保衛
15:41
the future未來 of our country國家."
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我們國家的未來。」
15:43
Can you imagine想像 that?
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你能想象嗎?
15:45
Can you imagine想像 saying that?
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你能想象他正在說這些嗎?
15:48
Can you go there?
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能嗎?
15:52
What do you think they're feeling感覺?
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你覺得他們是甚麼感覺?
16:02
You see, that's empathy同情.
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你看,這就是同理心,
16:04
It's also understanding理解.
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這也是理解。
16:07
Now, you might威力 ask,
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現在,你也許會問:
16:09
"Okay, Sam山姆, so why do you do this sort分類 of thing?
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「好的,山姆,你為甚麼做這些事情?
16:12
Why would you use this example of all examples例子?"
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你為甚麼選了這個例子?”
16:14
And I say, because ... because.
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我說,因為…因為,
16:17
You're allowed允許 to hate討厭 these people.
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你可以憎恨這些人,
16:19
You're allowed允許 to just hate討厭 them
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你可以用盡所有力量來
16:22
with every一切 fiber纖維 of your being存在.
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憎恨他們。
16:24
And if I can get you
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如果我可以讓你們
16:26
to step into their shoes
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置身於他們的處境
16:28
and walk步行 an inch英寸,
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進行一些思考
16:30
one tiny inch英寸,
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很簡單的思考,
16:32
then imagine想像 the kind of sociological社會學的 analysis分析
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然後設想一下你將這種社會學分析方法
16:35
that you can do in all other aspects方面 of your life.
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運用到生活各方面。
16:39
You can walk步行 a mile英里
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你能走得更遠。
16:41
when it comes to understanding理解
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如果你開始理解
16:43
why that person's人的 driving主動 40 miles英里 per hour小時
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為甚麼那個人在超車道上
16:46
in the passing通過 lane車道,
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以四十邁的速度開車,
16:49
or your teenage青少年 son兒子,
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或者你十幾歲兒子,
16:51
or your neighbor鄰居 who annoys惹惱 you
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或者你的鄰居
16:53
by cutting切割 his lawn草坪 on Sunday星期日 mornings早晨.
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因為在星期天的早晨割草吵到了你。
16:55
Whatever隨你 it is, you can go so far.
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不管是甚麼,你可以走得那麼遠。
16:58
And this is what I tell my students學生們:
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這就是我告訴學生的:
17:00
step outside of your tiny, little world世界.
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走出你的小世界,
17:04
Step inside of the tiny, little world世界
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走進別人的
17:06
of somebody else其他.
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小世界。
17:08
And then do it again and do it again and do it again.
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一次又一次地這麼做,
17:12
And suddenly突然 all these tiny, little worlds世界,
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然後,所有這些小世界
17:14
they come together一起 in this complex複雜 web捲筒紙.
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突然匯聚成一張複雜的網。
17:16
And they build建立 a big, complex複雜 world世界.
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他們構成了巨大的複雜的世界。
17:19
And suddenly突然, without realizing實現 it,
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突然間,不知不覺
17:21
you're seeing眼看 the world世界 differently不同.
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你看世界的角度就變了,
17:24
Everything has changed.
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一切都變了。
17:26
Everything in your life has changed.
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你生命中的每件事都變了。
17:28
And that's, of course課程, what this is about.
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這,當然,就是我想實現的目的。
17:31
Attend出席 to other lives生活,
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關心別人的生命,
17:34
other visions願景.
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別人的視角。
17:36
Listen to other people,
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傾聽別人,
17:38
enlighten開導 ourselves我們自己.
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啓迪自己。
17:41
I'm not saying
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我不是說
17:43
that I support支持 the terrorists恐怖分子 in Iraq伊拉克,
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我支持伊拉克的恐怖份子,
17:45
but as a sociologist社會學家,
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但是作為一個社會學家,
17:47
what I am saying
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我是說
17:49
is I understand理解.
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我理解了
17:53
And now perhaps也許 -- perhaps也許 -- you do too.
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現在,也許——也許——你也理解了。
17:57
Thank you.
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謝謝
17:59
(Applause掌聲)
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(鼓掌)
Translated by fang yangyang
Reviewed by Yakun Li

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ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Sam Richards - Sociologist
Sam Richards is a sociologist and teacher of the largest race relations course in the US. He argues that empathy is the core of sociology.

Why you should listen

Identifying himself as "an iconoclast from Toledo, Ohio," and identified by David Horowitz as one of the "101 Most Dangerous Academics in America," Sam Richards is one of the most provocative, and popular, sociology teachers in the country. Every year 725 students at Penn State University take his course on race and ethnic relations, where he attacks, with humor and courage, questions most would choose to avoid.

He is also the founder of the World in Conversation project. Every year, more than 7,000 students participate in its mission is to create a conscious dialogue around the politically incorrect thoughts of the participants, bringing them out in the open for inspection.

More profile about the speaker
Sam Richards | Speaker | TED.com