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TEDGlobal 2011

Ian Ritchie: The day I turned down Tim Berners-Lee

伊恩•瑞彻:我拒绝蒂姆•伯纳斯李的那一天

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想象一下现在是1990年,你刚刚认识了一位名叫蒂姆•伯纳斯李的不错的年轻人,他开始和你谈论他称之为万维网的系统。伊恩•瑞彻当时就在那儿。并且...他没有买帐。一个关于信息、联通性和从错误中学习的短小故事。

- Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie Full bio

Well we all know the World世界 Wide Web卷筒纸
我们都知道万维网
00:15
has absolutely绝对 transformed改造 publishing出版, broadcasting广播,
已经绝对地改变了出版、广播、
00:17
commerce商业 and social社会 connectivity连接,
商业和社交的联通性,
00:21
but where did it all come from?
但是它是从哪儿来的?
00:23
And I'll quote引用 three people:
在此我要引用三个人:
00:25
Vannevar万尼瓦尔 Bush衬套, Doug道格 Engelbart恩格尔巴特 and Tim蒂姆 Berners-Lee伯纳斯 - 李.
范尼瓦尔•布什,道格•英格尔巴特和蒂姆•伯纳斯李。
00:27
So let's just run through通过 these guys.
那么我们一个一个地说说这些人。
00:30
This is Vannevar万尼瓦尔 Bush衬套.
这是范尼瓦尔•布什,
00:32
Vannevar万尼瓦尔 Bush衬套 was the U.S. government's政府的 chief首席 scientific科学 adviser顾问 during the war战争.
范尼瓦尔•布什曾经是美国政府在战争时期的首席科学顾问。
00:34
And in 1945,
在1945年的时候,
00:37
he published发表 an article文章 in a magazine杂志 called Atlantic大西洋 Monthly每月一次.
他在一本名为”大西洋月刊“的杂志上公开发表了一篇文章。
00:39
And the article文章 was called "As We May可能 Think."
这个文章就叫做”像你可以想的那样“。
00:42
And what Vannevar万尼瓦尔 Bush衬套 was saying
范尼瓦尔•布什想表达的
00:45
was the way we use information信息 is broken破碎.
是我们使用信息的方式是破碎的。
00:47
We don't work in terms条款 of libraries图书馆
我们没有根据图书馆
00:50
and catalog目录 systems系统 and so forth向前.
和目录系统等等那样做。
00:53
The brain works作品 by association协会.
大脑是通过联合协作来工作的。
00:55
With one item项目 in its thought, it snaps按扣 instantly即刻 to the next下一个 item项目.
当它在想一个主体的时候,它就立即会去连接下一个主体。
00:57
And the way information信息 is structured结构化的
并且,信息构造的方式
01:00
is totally完全 incapable无法 of keeping保持 up with this process处理.
是完全无法把我们限制在这个过程中的。
01:02
And so he suggested建议 a machine,
所以,他提议了一种机器,
01:05
and he called it the memex记忆扩展.
他把它叫做麦麦克斯。
01:07
And the memex记忆扩展 would link链接 information信息,
麦麦克斯可以连接信息,
01:09
one piece of information信息 to a related有关 piece of information信息 and so forth向前.
一条信息连到一条与之有关的信息,并以此延续。
01:11
Now this was in 1945.
现在这是1945年。
01:14
A computer电脑 in those days
一台电脑在那个时候
01:16
was something the secret秘密 services服务 used to use for code breaking破坏.
是机密服务部门用来破解密码的东西。
01:18
And nobody没有人 knew知道 anything about it.
并且没有人知道关于它的任何事。
01:21
So this was before the computer电脑 was invented发明.
所以这是电脑被发明之前。
01:23
And he proposed建议 this machine called the memex记忆扩展.
他提议把这个机器命名为麦麦克斯。
01:25
And he had a platform平台 where you linked关联 information信息 to other information信息,
并且他有一个可以让你把信息与其他信息连接起来的平台,
01:27
and then you could call it up at will.
然后你就可以随意调用它。
01:30
So spinning纺织 forward前锋,
所以向前旋转一点,
01:32
one of the guys who read this article文章 was a guy called Doug道格 Engelbart恩格尔巴特,
在这些读过这篇文章的人中,有一个人叫道格•英格尔巴特,
01:34
and he was a U.S. Air空气 Force officer.
他曾是美国空军的军官。
01:36
And he was reading it in their library图书馆 in the Far East.
他当时正在他们在远东的图书馆里阅读这篇文章。
01:38
And he was so inspired启发 by this article文章,
并且这篇文章曾让他很受鼓舞,
01:41
it kind of directed针对 the rest休息 of his life.
一定程度上指示了他的余生。
01:43
And by the mid-中-60s, he was able能够 to put this into action行动
在60年代中期的时候,他得以把想法付诸于实践,
01:45
when he worked工作 at the Stanford斯坦福 Research研究 Lab实验室 in California加州.
当他在加州斯坦福研究实验室工作的时候。
01:48
He built内置 a system系统.
他建立了一种系统。
01:52
The system系统 was designed设计 to augment增加 human人的 intelligence情报, it was called.
这种系统是设计来增强人类智力的,据说。
01:54
And in a premonition征兆 of today's今天的 world世界
在对今日世界上
01:57
of cloud computing计算 and softwares软件 of service服务,
云计算和服务软件的预感里,
02:00
his system系统 was called NLSNLS
他的系统被称作
02:02
for oN-Line线上 System系统.
为oN-Line系统设计的NLS。
02:04
And this is Doug道格 Engelbart恩格尔巴特.
这是道格•英格尔巴特。
02:06
He was giving a presentation介绍 at the Fall秋季 Joint联合 Computer电脑 Conference会议
他当时正在秋季联合电脑会议上做一个演讲,
02:08
in 1968.
那是1968年。
02:11
What he showed显示 --
他展示的是——
02:14
he satSAT on a stage阶段 like this, and he demonstrated证明 this system系统.
他坐在一个像这样的舞台上,演示这个系统。
02:16
He had his head micMIC like I've got.
他有他的头戴式话筒,就像我得到的这个。
02:19
And he works作品 this system系统.
他操作了这个系统。
02:21
And you can see, he's working加工 between之间 documents文件
如你所见,他当时正在文件
02:23
and graphics图像 and so forth向前.
和图解计算等等之间操作。
02:25
And he's driving主动 it all
他完全掌控它
02:27
with this platform平台 here,
用这里的这个平台,
02:29
with a five-finger五指 keyboard键盘
一个五指的键盘,
02:31
and the world's世界 first computer电脑 mouse老鼠,
和这个世界上第一个电脑鼠标,
02:33
which哪一个 he specially特别 designed设计 in order订购 to do this system系统.
这个他特别为了这个系统设计的鼠标。
02:35
So this is where the mouse老鼠 came来了 from as well.
所以这也是鼠标的来源。
02:37
So this is Doug道格 Engelbart恩格尔巴特.
这是道格•英格尔巴特。
02:39
The trouble麻烦 with Doug道格 Engelbart'sEngelbart的 system系统
道格•英格尔巴特的系统的问题在于
02:41
was that the computers电脑 in those days cost成本 several一些 million百万 pounds英镑.
那个时代的电脑都有几百万磅重。
02:43
So for a personal个人 computer电脑,
所以对一个个人电脑来说,
02:46
a few少数 million百万 pounds英镑 was like having a personal个人 jet喷射 plane平面;
几百万磅就像是拥有一架私人飞机;
02:48
it wasn't really very practical实际的.
它不是非常实际。
02:50
But spin on to the 80s
但是转到80年代,
02:52
when personal个人 computers电脑 did arrive到达,
当个人电脑确实到来的时候,
02:54
then there was room房间 for this kind of system系统 on personal个人 computers电脑.
这种在个人电脑上的系统就有了空间。
02:56
And my company公司, OWL猫头鹰
我的公司,OWL
02:58
built内置 a system系统 called Guide指南 for the Apple苹果 Macintosh苹果.
建立了一种名为”苹果麦金塔电脑指南“的系统。
03:00
And we delivered交付 the world's世界 first hypertext超文本 system系统.
并且我们发表了世界上第一个超文本系统。
03:03
And this began开始 to get a head of steam蒸汽.
这个为潮流开了个头。
03:07
Apple苹果 introduced介绍 a thing called HyperCardHyperCard的,
苹果介绍了一种叫”超卡“的东西,
03:09
and they made制作 a bit of a fuss小题大作 about it.
并且他们对此有点小题大做。
03:11
They had a 12-page-页 supplement补充 in the Wall Street Journal日志 the day it launched推出.
在它发布的当天,他们做了12页的华尔街日报增刊。
03:13
The magazines杂志 started开始 to cover it.
杂志们开始涉及它。
03:16
Byte字节 magazine杂志 and Communications通讯 at the ACMACM
字节杂志和在ACM的通讯杂志
03:18
had special特别 issues问题 covering覆盖 hypertext超文本.
有涉及超文本的特殊期刊。
03:20
We developed发达 a PC个人计算机 version of this product产品
我们开发了这种产品的个人电脑版本
03:22
as well as the Macintosh苹果 version.
和麦金塔版本。
03:24
And our PC个人计算机 version became成为 quite相当 mature成熟.
并且,我们的个人电脑版本变得十分成熟。
03:26
These are some examples例子 of this system系统 in action行动 in the late晚了 80s.
80年代后期,有一些这个系统工作的例子。
03:29
You were able能够 to deliver交付 documents文件, were able能够 to do it over networks网络.
你可以传输文件,可以通过网络来做。
03:33
We developed发达 a system系统 such这样
我们开发了这样一个系统,
03:36
that it had a markup标记 language语言 based基于 on htmlHTML.
它拥有一个基于html的标记语言。
03:38
We called it hmlHML: hypertext超文本 markup标记 language语言.
我们称之为hml:超文本设置语言。
03:40
And the system系统 was capable of doing
这个系统能够通过计算机网络,
03:43
very, very large documentation文件 systems系统 over computer电脑 networks网络.
做非常,非常大的文件系统。
03:45
So I took this system系统 to a trade贸易 show显示 in Versailles凡尔赛 near Paris巴黎
所以我带着这个系统去了一个在巴黎附近凡尔赛的贸易展览,
03:49
in late晚了 November十一月 1990.
在1990年11月下旬。
03:52
And I was approached接近 by a nice不错 young年轻 man called Tim蒂姆 Berners-Lee伯纳斯 - 李
我接触了一位友好的叫蒂姆•伯纳斯李的年轻人,
03:55
who said, "Are you Ian伊恩 Ritchie里奇?" and I said, "Yeah."
那个说“你是伊恩•瑞彻吗?“ 的人,我说“是。”
03:57
And he said, "I need to talk to you."
他说,”我需要和你聊一聊。“
03:59
And he told me about his proposed建议 system系统 called the World世界 Wide Web卷筒纸.
于是他告诉了我关于他提议的万维网系统。
04:01
And I thought, well, that's got a pretentious自命不凡 name名称,
然后我就想,好吧,那是一个自命不凡的名字,
04:04
especially特别 since以来 the whole整个 system系统 ran on his computer电脑 in his office办公室.
特别是整个系统不过只是在他办公室里的电脑上运行。
04:07
But he was completely全然 convinced相信 that his World世界 Wide Web卷筒纸
但是他完全确信他的万维网
04:10
would take over the world世界 one day.
总有一天会占领这个世界。
04:13
And he tried试着 to persuade说服 me to write the browser浏览器 for it,
并且他试图说服我去为它写一个浏览器,
04:15
because his system系统 didn't have any graphics图像 or fonts字体 or layout布局 or anything;
因为他的系统没有任何图解或者字体或者布局或者其他事情;
04:17
it was just plain text文本.
它只是简单的文本。
04:20
I thought, well, you know, interesting有趣,
我觉得,好吧,你知道的,挺有趣,
04:22
but a guy from CERNCERN, he's not going to do this.
但是一个从CERN来的人,他不会做的。
04:25
So we didn't do it.
所以我们没有做。
04:27
In the next下一个 couple一对 of years年份,
在之后的几年中,
04:29
the hypertext超文本 community社区 didn't recognize认识 him either.
超文本团体也没有承认他。
04:31
In 1992, his paper was rejected拒绝 for the Hypertext超文本 Conference会议.
在1992年,他的论文被”超文本会议“否定了。
04:33
In 1993,
在1993年,
04:36
there was a table at the conference会议 in Seattle西雅图,
西雅图的会议上有一个展台,
04:39
and a guy called Marc渣子 Andreessen安德里森
和一个叫马克•安德森的人
04:41
was demonstrating示范 his little browser浏览器 for the World世界 Wide Web卷筒纸.
来展示他那关于万维网的小浏览器。
04:43
And I saw it, and I thought, yep是的, that's it.
我看到了,我认为,就这样了。
04:46
And the very next下一个 year, in 1994, we had the conference会议 here in Edinburgh爱丁堡,
就在下一年,1994年,我们在爱丁堡这里开了个会议,
04:48
and I had no opposition反对 in having Tim蒂姆 Berners-Lee伯纳斯 - 李 as the keynote基调 speaker扬声器.
我对让蒂姆•伯纳斯李做主讲人没有任何意见。
04:51
So that puts看跌期权 me in pretty漂亮 illustrious杰出 company公司.
因此我进了非常著名的公司。
04:55
There was a guy called Dick迪克 Rowe罗维
曾经有个人叫迪克•罗,
04:57
who was at Decca德卡 Records记录 and turned转身 down The Beatles披头士乐队.
这个人曾经在迪卡唱片工作并且拒绝了甲壳虫乐队。
04:59
There was a guy called Gary加里 KildallKildall
曾经也有个人叫加里•希达尔,
05:01
who went flying飞行 his plane平面
这个人去驾驶他的飞机,
05:03
when IBMIBM came来了 looking for an operating操作 system系统
当IBM为了IBM个人电脑
05:05
for the IBMIBM PC个人计算机,
寻找一个操作系统的时候,
05:07
and he wasn't there, so they went back to see Bill法案 Gates盖茨.
他当时不在那里,所以他们回去见了比尔•盖茨。
05:09
And the 12 publishers出版商
还有12家出版商,
05:11
who turned转身 down J.K. Rowling's罗琳的 Harry掠夺 Potter制陶工人, I guess猜测.
那些拒绝了J.K 罗琳的哈利波特的人,我想。
05:13
On the other hand, there's Marc渣子 Andreessen安德里森
从另一方面来说,还有马克•安德森,
05:16
who wrote the world's世界 first browser浏览器 for the World世界 Wide Web卷筒纸.
这个写出了世界上第一个万维网浏览器的人。
05:18
And according根据 to Fortune幸运 magazine杂志,
根据财富杂志,
05:20
he's worth价值 700 million百万 dollars美元.
他现在身价7亿美元。
05:22
But is he happy快乐?
但他快乐吗?
05:24
(Laughter笑声)
(笑声)
05:26
(Applause掌声)
(掌声)
05:28
Translated by Fan Xu
Reviewed by Felix Chen

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About the speaker:

Ian Ritchie - Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie

Why you should listen

Ian Ritchie is chair of iomart plc. and several other computer and learning businesses, including Computer Application Services Ltd., the Interactive Design Institute and Caspian Learning Ltd. He is co-chair of the Scottish Science Advisory Council, a board member of the Edinburgh International Science Festival and the chair of Our Dynamic Earth, the Edinburgh Science Centre.

Ritchie founded and managed Office Workstations Limited (OWL) in Edinburgh in 1984 and its subsidiary OWL International Inc. in Seattle from 1985. OWL became the first and largest supplier of Hypertext/Hypermedia authoring tools (a forerunner to the World Wide Web) for personal computers based on its Guide product. OWL's customers used its systems to implement large interactive multimedia documentation systems in industry sectors such as automobile, defence, publishing, finance, and education. OWL was sold to Matsushita Electrical Industrial (Panasonic) of Japan in December 1989. He is the author of New Media Publishing: Opportunities from the digital revolution (1996).

He was awarded a CBE in the 2003 New Years Honours list for services to enterprise and education; he is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering; a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; and a Fellow and a past-President of the British Computer Society (1998-99). 

More profile about the speaker
Ian Ritchie | Speaker | TED.com