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TEDGlobal 2011

Ian Ritchie: The day I turned down Tim Berners-Lee

Ian Ritchie: Ziua în care l-am refuzat pe Tim Berners-Lee

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Imagineaza-ţi ca eşti la sfârşitul anilor 90 şi tocmai ţi-a fost prezentat un tănar agreabil care se numeşte Tim Berners-Lee care începe să-ţi povestească detalii despre idea unui sistem numit World Wide Web. Ian Ritchie a trecut prin aşa ceva...şi nu i-a dat importanţă. O scurtă poveste despre informaţii, conexiuni şi cum să învăţam din greşeli.

- Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie Full bio

Well we all know the World Wide Web
Ştim cu toţii că World Wide Web
00:15
has absolutely transformed publishing, broadcasting,
a transformat radical mass-media,
00:17
commerce and social connectivity,
comerţul şi relațiile sociale.
00:21
but where did it all come from?
Dar de unde a pornit?
00:23
And I'll quote three people:
Voi menționa 3 personalități:
00:25
Vannevar Bush, Doug Engelbart and Tim Berners-Lee.
Vannevar Bush, Doug Engelbart şi Tim Berners-Lee.
00:27
So let's just run through these guys.
Haideţi să-i vedem.
00:30
This is Vannevar Bush.
Acesta e Vannevar Bush.
00:32
Vannevar Bush was the U.S. government's chief scientific adviser during the war.
Vannevar era consilier științific în guvernul SUA în timpul războiului.
00:34
And in 1945,
Şi în 1945
00:37
he published an article in a magazine called Atlantic Monthly.
a publicat un articol într-o revistă intitulată Atlantic Monthly.
00:39
And the article was called "As We May Think."
Articolul se numea "Cum gândim".
00:42
And what Vannevar Bush was saying
Vannevar Bush susţinea
00:45
was the way we use information is broken.
că felul în care procesăm informaţiile este fragmentat.
00:47
We don't work in terms of libraries
Noi nu funcţionăm ca bibliotecile,
00:50
and catalog systems and so forth.
sau sistemele de catalogare, ş.a.m.d.
00:53
The brain works by association.
Creierul nostru funcţionează prin asociere.
00:55
With one item in its thought, it snaps instantly to the next item.
Gândeşte la un lucru, sare imediat la altul.
00:57
And the way information is structured
Iar modul în care e structurată informaţia
01:00
is totally incapable of keeping up with this process.
îl face total incapabil să ţină pasul cu acest proces.
01:02
And so he suggested a machine,
Astfel el a sugerat un dispozitiv pe care
01:05
and he called it the memex.
l-a numit memex.
01:07
And the memex would link information,
Iar memex conecta informaţiile,
01:09
one piece of information to a related piece of information and so forth.
o informaţie de altă informaţie înrudită, ș.a.m.d.
01:11
Now this was in 1945.
Bun, asta era în 1945.
01:14
A computer in those days
Un calculator pe vremea aceea
01:16
was something the secret services used to use for code breaking.
era utilizat doar de serviciile secrete pentru a decodifica mesajele încriptate.
01:18
And nobody knew anything about it.
Nimeni nu ştia de existenţa lui.
01:21
So this was before the computer was invented.
Deci asta era înainte de-a se inventa computerul.
01:23
And he proposed this machine called the memex.
A sugerat ca numele acestui dispozitiv sa fie memex.
01:25
And he had a platform where you linked information to other information,
A creat o plataformă unde conecta o informaţie de alta
01:27
and then you could call it up at will.
și apoi o puteai accesa de câte ori doreai.
01:30
So spinning forward,
Dând timpul înainte,
01:32
one of the guys who read this article was a guy called Doug Engelbart,
unul din cei care au citit articolul a fost un anume Doug Engelbart,
01:34
and he was a U.S. Air Force officer.
ofiţer în Forţele Aeriene ale Statelor Unite.
01:36
And he was reading it in their library in the Far East.
L-a citit în biblioteca bazei militare unde se afla, în Orientul Îndepărtat.
01:38
And he was so inspired by this article,
A fost atât de inspirat de articol
01:41
it kind of directed the rest of his life.
încât i-a direcționat tot restul vieţii.
01:43
And by the mid-60s, he was able to put this into action
Prin anii '60 a reușit să pună conceptul în aplicare
01:45
when he worked at the Stanford Research Lab in California.
în laboratorul de cercetare de la Universitatea Stanford din California.
01:48
He built a system.
A construit un sistem.
01:52
The system was designed to augment human intelligence, it was called.
Acest sistem era programat să augmenteze inteligenţa umană.
01:54
And in a premonition of today's world
Şi ca o profeţie a lumii din zilele noastre,
01:57
of cloud computing and softwares of service,
tehnologiilor de cloud computing si serviciilor de software,
02:00
his system was called NLS
sistemul său se numea
02:02
for oN-Line System.
NLS: oN-Line System.
02:04
And this is Doug Engelbart.
Iar acesta e Doug Engelbart.
02:06
He was giving a presentation at the Fall Joint Computer Conference
Făcea o prezentare la Fall Joint Computer Conference
02:08
in 1968.
în 1968.
02:11
What he showed --
A prezentat --
02:14
he sat on a stage like this, and he demonstrated this system.
pe o scenă ca asta a demonstrat sistemul.
02:16
He had his head mic like I've got.
Avea o microfon ca al meu.
02:19
And he works this system.
Şi manipula acest sistem.
02:21
And you can see, he's working between documents
După cum vedeţi, lucrează cu documente
02:23
and graphics and so forth.
şi cu grafice, ș.a.m.d.
02:25
And he's driving it all
Şi operează tot sistemul
02:27
with this platform here,
cu acestă plataformă,
02:29
with a five-finger keyboard
cu o tastatură pentru 5 degete
02:31
and the world's first computer mouse,
şi cu primul mouse din lume
02:33
which he specially designed in order to do this system.
pe care l-a proiectat special pentru acest sistem.
02:35
So this is where the mouse came from as well.
Deci de aici provine şi mouse-ul.
02:37
So this is Doug Engelbart.
Acesta e Doug Engelbart.
02:39
The trouble with Doug Engelbart's system
Problema cu sistemul lui Doug Engelbart
02:41
was that the computers in those days cost several million pounds.
era că un calculator pe atunci costa câteva milioane de lire sterline.
02:43
So for a personal computer,
Deci, pentru un calculator personal,
02:46
a few million pounds was like having a personal jet plane;
căteva milioane de lire costa cât un avion personal;
02:48
it wasn't really very practical.
nu era foarte practic.
02:50
But spin on to the 80s
Dar să trecem la anii '80
02:52
when personal computers did arrive,
când calculatoarele personale într-adevăr apăruseră
02:54
then there was room for this kind of system on personal computers.
şi se putea implementa acest tip de sistem în calculator.
02:56
And my company, OWL
Compania mea, OWL,
02:58
built a system called Guide for the Apple Macintosh.
a construit un sistem numit Guide pentru Apple Macintosh.
03:00
And we delivered the world's first hypertext system.
Noi am distribuit primul sistem hypertext din lume.
03:03
And this began to get a head of steam.
Şi începuse să atragă o groază de atenţie.
03:07
Apple introduced a thing called HyperCard,
Apple a introdus HyperCard-ul
03:09
and they made a bit of a fuss about it.
creând şi mai multă agitaţie cu asta.
03:11
They had a 12-page supplement in the Wall Street Journal the day it launched.
Au avut un supliment de 12 pagini în Wall Street Journal în ziua lansării.
03:13
The magazines started to cover it.
Ziarele au început să-i dedice editoriale.
03:16
Byte magazine and Communications at the ACM
Revista Byte și Communications de la ACM
03:18
had special issues covering hypertext.
au scos ediţii speciale despre hiper-text.
03:20
We developed a PC version of this product
Noi am proiectat o versiune PC a acestui produs
03:22
as well as the Macintosh version.
și una pentru Mac.
03:24
And our PC version became quite mature.
Iar versiunea PC era chiar avansată.
03:26
These are some examples of this system in action in the late 80s.
Câteva exemple ale acestui sistem în acţiune la sfârşitul anilor '80.
03:29
You were able to deliver documents, were able to do it over networks.
Se puteau transfera documente, folosind reţeaua.
03:33
We developed a system such
Am conceput un sistem
03:36
that it had a markup language based on html.
ce folosea un limbaj de marcare text bazat pe html.
03:38
We called it hml: hypertext markup language.
L-am numit HML: hypertext markup language.
03:40
And the system was capable of doing
Sistemul era capabil sa creeze
03:43
very, very large documentation systems over computer networks.
un ansamblu complex de documente folosind reţeaua de computere.
03:45
So I took this system to a trade show in Versailles near Paris
Am prezentat sistemul la un târg de comerţ la Versailles, lângă Paris
03:49
in late November 1990.
la sfârşitul lui noiembrie 1990.
03:52
And I was approached by a nice young man called Tim Berners-Lee
Un tânar drăguț pe nume Tim Berners-Lee
03:55
who said, "Are you Ian Ritchie?" and I said, "Yeah."
m-a abordat: "Tu eşti Ian Richie?", i-am răspuns: "Da."
03:57
And he said, "I need to talk to you."
Și a zis: "Vreau sa vorbesc cu tine".
03:59
And he told me about his proposed system called the World Wide Web.
Şi îmi propune un sistem pe care îl numea World Wide Web.
04:01
And I thought, well, that's got a pretentious name,
Am gândit, are un nume cam pretenţios,
04:04
especially since the whole system ran on his computer in his office.
mai ales ca tot sistemul funcţiona pe calculatorul său din birou.
04:07
But he was completely convinced that his World Wide Web
Dar el era absolut convins ca acest World Wide Web
04:10
would take over the world one day.
va cuceri lumea într-o bună zi.
04:13
And he tried to persuade me to write the browser for it,
A încercat să mă convingă să-i programez un browser
04:15
because his system didn't have any graphics or fonts or layout or anything;
deoarece sistemul lui nu avea interfaţă, fonturi, configurație, etc;
04:17
it was just plain text.
era doar simplu text.
04:20
I thought, well, you know, interesting,
Am gândit, da, sună interesant,
04:22
but a guy from CERN, he's not going to do this.
dar un tip de la CERN nu va fi capabil de asta.
04:25
So we didn't do it.
Aşa că n-am urmat idea.
04:27
In the next couple of years,
În urmatorii doi ani,
04:29
the hypertext community didn't recognize him either.
nici comunitatea hipertext nu i-a acordat atenţie.
04:31
In 1992, his paper was rejected for the Hypertext Conference.
În 1992, i-a fost refuzat şi articolul de la conferinţa Hypertext.
04:33
In 1993,
În 1993,
04:36
there was a table at the conference in Seattle,
la un stand la conferinţa din Seattle,
04:39
and a guy called Marc Andreessen
un tip pe nume Marc Andreessen
04:41
was demonstrating his little browser for the World Wide Web.
facea o demonstraţie a micului său browser pentru World Wide Web.
04:43
And I saw it, and I thought, yep, that's it.
Şi când l-am vazut, mi-am zis: "Asta da ."
04:46
And the very next year, in 1994, we had the conference here in Edinburgh,
În anul imediat următor, 1994, am ținut conferinţa aici în Edinburgh,
04:48
and I had no opposition in having Tim Berners-Lee as the keynote speaker.
şi nu s-a opus nimeni să-l avem pe Tim Berners-Lee prezentator principal.
04:51
So that puts me in pretty illustrious company.
Deci asta mă poziţionează într-o companie ilustră.
04:55
There was a guy called Dick Rowe
În rând cu un anume Dick Rowe
04:57
who was at Decca Records and turned down The Beatles.
de la Decca Records care i-a refuzat pe Beatles.
04:59
There was a guy called Gary Kildall
Şi lângă alt tip, Garz Kildall
05:01
who went flying his plane
care s-a dus să-și piloteze avionul
05:03
when IBM came looking for an operating system
când IBM căuta un sistem de operare
05:05
for the IBM PC,
pentru IBM PC,
05:07
and he wasn't there, so they went back to see Bill Gates.
şi cum nu l-au găsit s-au adresat lui Bill Gates.
05:09
And the 12 publishers
Și mă aşează în rând cu cele 12 case editoriale
05:11
who turned down J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter, I guess.
care au refuzat-o pe J.K.Rowling cu Harry Potter.
05:13
On the other hand, there's Marc Andreessen
Pe de altă parte, iată-l pe Marc Andreessen
05:16
who wrote the world's first browser for the World Wide Web.
care a creat primul browser din lume pentru World Wide Web.
05:18
And according to Fortune magazine,
Şi după cum declară revista Fortune
05:20
he's worth 700 million dollars.
tipul valorează 700 de milioane de dolari.
05:22
But is he happy?
Dar...este oare fericit?
05:24
(Laughter)
(Râsete)
05:26
(Applause)
(Aplauze)
05:28
Translated by Denise R Quivu
Reviewed by Ariana Bleau Lugo

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About the speaker:

Ian Ritchie - Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie

Why you should listen

Ian Ritchie is chair of iomart plc. and several other computer and learning businesses, including Computer Application Services Ltd., the Interactive Design Institute and Caspian Learning Ltd. He is co-chair of the Scottish Science Advisory Council, a board member of the Edinburgh International Science Festival and the chair of Our Dynamic Earth, the Edinburgh Science Centre.

Ritchie founded and managed Office Workstations Limited (OWL) in Edinburgh in 1984 and its subsidiary OWL International Inc. in Seattle from 1985. OWL became the first and largest supplier of Hypertext/Hypermedia authoring tools (a forerunner to the World Wide Web) for personal computers based on its Guide product. OWL's customers used its systems to implement large interactive multimedia documentation systems in industry sectors such as automobile, defence, publishing, finance, and education. OWL was sold to Matsushita Electrical Industrial (Panasonic) of Japan in December 1989. He is the author of New Media Publishing: Opportunities from the digital revolution (1996).

He was awarded a CBE in the 2003 New Years Honours list for services to enterprise and education; he is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering; a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; and a Fellow and a past-President of the British Computer Society (1998-99). 

More profile about the speaker
Ian Ritchie | Speaker | TED.com