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TEDGlobal 2011

Ian Ritchie: The day I turned down Tim Berners-Lee

Ian Riči (Ian Ritchie): Dan kada sam odbio Tima Berners-Lija

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Zamislite da je 1990. godina i upravo ste upoznali finog mladića zvanog Tim Berners-Li, koji kreće da vam priča o svom predlogu za sistem pod imenom World Wide Web (Svetska mreža). Ian Riči je bio tu. I... nije poverovao u tu priču. Ovo je kratka priča o informacijama, povezanosti i učenju na greškama.

- Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie Full bio

Well we all know the World Wide Web
Svi znamo da je internet
00:15
has absolutely transformed publishing, broadcasting,
apsolutno promenio izdavaštvo,
emitovanje materijala,
00:17
commerce and social connectivity,
trgovinu i društvenu umreženost,
00:21
but where did it all come from?
ali odakle je sve to došlo?
00:23
And I'll quote three people:
Citiraću trojicu ljudi:
00:25
Vannevar Bush, Doug Engelbart and Tim Berners-Lee.
Vanevara Buša, Daga Englbarta
i Tima Berners-Lija.
00:27
So let's just run through these guys.
Hajde sada, na brzinu,
da upoznamo ove ljude.
00:30
This is Vannevar Bush.
Ovo je Vanevar Buš.
00:32
Vannevar Bush was the U.S. government's chief scientific adviser during the war.
On je bio glavni naučni savetnik
za vladu SAD tokom rata.
00:34
And in 1945,
A 1945. godine,
00:37
he published an article in a magazine called Atlantic Monthly.
objavio je članak u časopisu Atlantic Monthly.
00:39
And the article was called "As We May Think."
Članak se zvao
"Kao što bismo mi mislili."
00:42
And what Vannevar Bush was saying
Ono što je Vanevar Buš tvrdio
00:45
was the way we use information is broken.
je da je način na koji
mi koristimo informacije loš.
00:47
We don't work in terms of libraries
Ne sortiramo informacije poput biblioteka,
00:50
and catalog systems and so forth.
kataloga i sličnih sistema.
00:53
The brain works by association.
Mozak radi pomoću asocijacija.
00:55
With one item in its thought, it snaps instantly to the next item.
Dok nam je jedna stvar na umu,
mozak odmah skače na sledeću.
00:57
And the way information is structured
I način na koji su informacije strukturirane
01:00
is totally incapable of keeping up with this process.
ne može da ide u korak sa ovim procesom.
01:02
And so he suggested a machine,
Buš je onda predložio jednu mašinu,
01:05
and he called it the memex.
i nazvao ju je memeks.
01:07
And the memex would link information,
Memeks bi povezivao informacije,
01:09
one piece of information to a related piece of information and so forth.
jednu informaciju sa
drugom srodnom i tako dalje.
01:11
Now this was in 1945.
Ovo je bilo 1945.
01:14
A computer in those days
U to vreme kompjuter je bio nešto
01:16
was something the secret services used to use for code breaking.
što su koristile tajne službe
kako bi razbile šifre.
01:18
And nobody knew anything about it.
I niko nije znao ništa o njemu.
01:21
So this was before the computer was invented.
Dakle ovo je bilo pre nastanka kompjutera.
01:23
And he proposed this machine called the memex.
I on je predložio da se
ova mašina zove memeks.
01:25
And he had a platform where you linked information to other information,
Imao je platformu gde su se informacije
povezivale jedna sa drugom,
01:27
and then you could call it up at will.
i onda ste mogli da ih povratite
kada vam trebaju.
01:30
So spinning forward,
Kada premotamo film unapred,
01:32
one of the guys who read this article was a guy called Doug Engelbart,
jedan od ljudi koji su pročitali članak
zvao se Dag Englbart
01:34
and he was a U.S. Air Force officer.
i bio je oficir američkog vazduhoplovstva.
01:36
And he was reading it in their library in the Far East.
Čitao je članak u biblioteci na Dalekom istoku,
01:38
And he was so inspired by this article,
i toliko ga je toliko inspirisao
01:41
it kind of directed the rest of his life.
da je izmenio ostatak njegovog života.
01:43
And by the mid-60s, he was able to put this into action
I do sredine '60-tih,
mogao je da realizuje sve ovo
01:45
when he worked at the Stanford Research Lab in California.
jer je radio u Stenfordskoj laboratoriji
za istraživanje u Kaliforniji.
01:48
He built a system.
Napravio je sistem.
01:52
The system was designed to augment human intelligence, it was called.
Sistem je bio osmišljen
da poveća čovekovu inteligenciju.
01:54
And in a premonition of today's world
I u predosećanju današnjeg
sveta računarstva
01:57
of cloud computing and softwares of service,
i uslužnih softvera,
02:00
his system was called NLS
Englbart je sistem nazvao NLS
02:02
for oN-Line System.
što je bila skraćenica za oN-Lajn Sistem.
02:04
And this is Doug Engelbart.
A ovo je Dag Englbart.
02:06
He was giving a presentation at the Fall Joint Computer Conference
Imao je prezentaciju na Jesenjoj
zajedničkoj kompjuterskoj konferenciji
02:08
in 1968.
1968. godine.
02:11
What he showed --
Ono što je pokazao je -
02:14
he sat on a stage like this, and he demonstrated this system.
sedeo je na pozornici poput ove
i demonstrirao svoj sistem.
02:16
He had his head mic like I've got.
Imao je mikrofon na glavi kao i ja.
02:19
And he works this system.
I radio je na ovom sistemu.
02:21
And you can see, he's working between documents
I kao što vidite, radi kroz dokumente
02:23
and graphics and so forth.
i grafičke datoteke i tako dalje.
02:25
And he's driving it all
I sve to pokreće
02:27
with this platform here,
ovom platformom ovde,
02:29
with a five-finger keyboard
sa tastaturom za pet prstiju
02:31
and the world's first computer mouse,
i prvim kompjuterskim mišem na svetu,
02:33
which he specially designed in order to do this system.
koji je osmislio posebno za ovaj sistem.
02:35
So this is where the mouse came from as well.
Tako da je ovde nastao i prvi miš.
02:37
So this is Doug Engelbart.
Dakle ovo je Dag Englbart.
02:39
The trouble with Doug Engelbart's system
Problem sa njegovim sistemom bio je taj
02:41
was that the computers in those days cost several million pounds.
da su u to vreme kompjuteri
koštali po par miliona funti.
02:43
So for a personal computer,
Tako da je za lični računar,
02:46
a few million pounds was like having a personal jet plane;
par miliona funti
bilo poput posedovanja ličnog aviona;
02:48
it wasn't really very practical.
zaista nije bilo veoma praktično.
02:50
But spin on to the 80s
Ali krenimo do osamdesetih godina
02:52
when personal computers did arrive,
kada su zaista došli lični računari.
02:54
then there was room for this kind of system on personal computers.
Onda je bilo prostora
za ovakav sistem na njima.
02:56
And my company, OWL
I moja kompanija OWL
02:58
built a system called Guide for the Apple Macintosh.
napravila je sistem pod imenom
Vodič za Apple Mackintosh.
03:00
And we delivered the world's first hypertext system.
Proizveli smo prvi hipertekst sistem na svetu.
03:03
And this began to get a head of steam.
I onda su stvari
počele da se zahuktavaju.
03:07
Apple introduced a thing called HyperCard,
Apple je predstavio stvarčicu
zvanu HyperCard,
03:09
and they made a bit of a fuss about it.
i malo su digli frku oko toga.
03:11
They had a 12-page supplement in the Wall Street Journal the day it launched.
Imali su prilog od 12 strana
u Dnevniku Vol Strita kada je izašao.
03:13
The magazines started to cover it.
Novine su počele da pišu o tome.
03:16
Byte magazine and Communications at the ACM
Magazin Byte i ACM komunikacije
03:18
had special issues covering hypertext.
imali su posebna izdanja za hipertekst.
03:20
We developed a PC version of this product
Razvili smo verziju proizvoda za računare,
03:22
as well as the Macintosh version.
kao i verziju za Mackintosh.
03:24
And our PC version became quite mature.
Verzija za računare se poprilično razvila.
03:26
These are some examples of this system in action in the late 80s.
Ovo su primerci sistema u radu
kasnih osamdeseth.
03:29
You were able to deliver documents, were able to do it over networks.
Mogli ste da dostavljate dokumente
i da radite to preko mreža.
03:33
We developed a system such
Napravili smo sistem
03:36
that it had a markup language based on html.
koji je imao jezik za označavanje
baziran na HTML-u.
03:38
We called it hml: hypertext markup language.
Nazvali smo ga HML -
hipertekst jezik za označavanje.
03:40
And the system was capable of doing
I mogao je da obrađuje
03:43
very, very large documentation systems over computer networks.
velike sisteme dokumentacije
preko mreža kompjutera.
03:45
So I took this system to a trade show in Versailles near Paris
Tako sam poneo ovaj sistem na sajam
u Versaju pored Pariza
03:49
in late November 1990.
u drugoj polovini novembra 1990.
03:52
And I was approached by a nice young man called Tim Berners-Lee
Tamo mi je prišao fini mladić -
Tim Berners-Li
03:55
who said, "Are you Ian Ritchie?" and I said, "Yeah."
i pitao: "Da li ste vi Ian Riči?"
"Da.", odgovorio sam.
03:57
And he said, "I need to talk to you."
"Moram da razgovaram sa vama.",
rekao mi je.
03:59
And he told me about his proposed system called the World Wide Web.
I pričao mi je o predlogu za sistem pod imenom
World Wide Web (Svetska mreža).
04:01
And I thought, well, that's got a pretentious name,
Pomislio sam da je to
prilično pretenciozno ime,
04:04
especially since the whole system ran on his computer in his office.
naročito zato što je ceo sistem
bio na kompjuteru u njegovoj kancelariji.
04:07
But he was completely convinced that his World Wide Web
Ali Berners-Li je bio skroz uveren
da će Svetska mreža
04:10
would take over the world one day.
osvojiti svet jednoga dana.
04:13
And he tried to persuade me to write the browser for it,
Pokušao je da me nagovori
da napravim pretraživač za tu mrežu,
04:15
because his system didn't have any graphics or fonts or layout or anything;
jer njegov sistem nije imao
grafiku, font, okruženje ili bilo šta;
04:17
it was just plain text.
sastojao se od jednostavnog teksta.
04:20
I thought, well, you know, interesting,
Pomislio sam, znaš, zanimljivo je to,
04:22
but a guy from CERN, he's not going to do this.
ali tip iz CERN-a, neće hteti to da uradi.
04:25
So we didn't do it.
Tako da nismo to uradili.
04:27
In the next couple of years,
U sledećih nekoliko godina,
04:29
the hypertext community didn't recognize him either.
ni hipertekst zajednica
nije prepoznala njegov rad.
04:31
In 1992, his paper was rejected for the Hypertext Conference.
1992. njegov rad je odbijen
za Hipertekst konferenciju.
04:33
In 1993,
1993. na konferenciji u Sijetlu
04:36
there was a table at the conference in Seattle,
za jednim stolom
04:39
and a guy called Marc Andreessen
momak zvani Mark Andrisen
04:41
was demonstrating his little browser for the World Wide Web.
demonstrirao je svoj mali pretraživač
za Svetsku mrežu.
04:43
And I saw it, and I thought, yep, that's it.
Video sam ga i pomislio, da, to je to.
04:46
And the very next year, in 1994, we had the conference here in Edinburgh,
I već sledeće godine, 1994.,
imali smo konferenciju ovde u Edinburgu
04:48
and I had no opposition in having Tim Berners-Lee as the keynote speaker.
i nisam imao ništa protiv da
Tim Berners-Li bude glavni govornik.
04:51
So that puts me in pretty illustrious company.
To me stavlja u društvo slavnih.
04:55
There was a guy called Dick Rowe
Dik Rou iz izdavačke kuće Decca Records
04:57
who was at Decca Records and turned down The Beatles.
odbio je Bitlse.
04:59
There was a guy called Gary Kildall
Geri Kildal
05:01
who went flying his plane
leteo je svojim avionom
05:03
when IBM came looking for an operating system
kada su iz IBM-a došli
da traže operativni sistem
05:05
for the IBM PC,
za IBM računar,
05:07
and he wasn't there, so they went back to see Bill Gates.
a on nije bio tamo,
tako da su otišli nazad do Bila Gejtsa.
05:09
And the 12 publishers
Tu je i 12 izdavača
05:11
who turned down J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter, I guess.
koji su odbili Dž.K. Rouling
i knjige o Hariju Poteru.
05:13
On the other hand, there's Marc Andreessen
Sa druge strane, tu je Mark Andrisen
05:16
who wrote the world's first browser for the World Wide Web.
koji ja napravio prvi pretraživač
za Svetsku mrežu na svetu.
05:18
And according to Fortune magazine,
I ako je verovati magazinu Fortune,
05:20
he's worth 700 million dollars.
on vredi 700 miliona dolara.
05:22
But is he happy?
Ali da li je srećan?
05:24
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
05:26
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
05:28
Translated by Mile Živković
Reviewed by Anja Saric

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About the speaker:

Ian Ritchie - Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie

Why you should listen

Ian Ritchie is chair of iomart plc. and several other computer and learning businesses, including Computer Application Services Ltd., the Interactive Design Institute and Caspian Learning Ltd. He is co-chair of the Scottish Science Advisory Council, a board member of the Edinburgh International Science Festival and the chair of Our Dynamic Earth, the Edinburgh Science Centre.

Ritchie founded and managed Office Workstations Limited (OWL) in Edinburgh in 1984 and its subsidiary OWL International Inc. in Seattle from 1985. OWL became the first and largest supplier of Hypertext/Hypermedia authoring tools (a forerunner to the World Wide Web) for personal computers based on its Guide product. OWL's customers used its systems to implement large interactive multimedia documentation systems in industry sectors such as automobile, defence, publishing, finance, and education. OWL was sold to Matsushita Electrical Industrial (Panasonic) of Japan in December 1989. He is the author of New Media Publishing: Opportunities from the digital revolution (1996).

He was awarded a CBE in the 2003 New Years Honours list for services to enterprise and education; he is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering; a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; and a Fellow and a past-President of the British Computer Society (1998-99). 

More profile about the speaker
Ian Ritchie | Speaker | TED.com