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TEDYouth 2015

Jill Heinerth: The mysterious world of underwater caves

Jill Heinerth: Dunia gua bawah air yang misterius

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Penyelam gua, Jill Heinerth, menjelajahi jalur air bawah tanah tersembunyi yang mengalir di planet kita. Bekerja sama dengan ahli biologi, klimatologi dan arkeologi, Heinert membongkar misteri makhluk hidup yang ada di beberapa tempat terpencil di bumi dan membantu ilmuwan menyingkap sejarah perubahan iklim. Di ceramah singkat ini, selami alam bawah air dan jelajahi keajaiban ruang dalam bumi.

- Cave diver
Jill Heinerth explores underwater caves deep inside the earth. Full bio

Saya seorang penjelajah bawah air,
00:13
I'm an underwater explorer,
lebih tepatnya penyelam gua.
00:17
more specifically a cave diver.
Saya ingin jadi astronot waktu kecil,
00:21
I wanted to be an astronaut
when I was a little kid,
tapi tumbuh besar di Kanada,
pilihan itu tidak tersedia untuk saya.
00:23
but growing up in Canada as a young girl,
that wasn't really available to me.
Ternyata, kita tahu lebih banyak
tentang luar angkasa
00:29
But as it turns out,
we know a lot more about space
daripada jalur air tanah yang ada
di planet kita sendiri,
00:33
than we do about the underground waterways
coursing through our planet,
sumber kehidupan planet bumi.
00:37
the very lifeblood of Mother Earth.
Jadi saya memutuskan melakukan
sesuatu yang bahkan lebih luar biasa.
00:41
So I decided to do something
that was even more remarkable.
Daripada menjelajahi luar angkasa,
00:45
Instead of exploring outer space,
saya ingin menjelajahi keajaiban isi bumi.
00:47
I wanted to explore
the wonders of inner space.
Banyak orang akan mengatakan bahwa
00:51
Now, a lot of people will tell you
penyelaman gua mungkin adalah
salah satu kegiatan yang paling berbahaya.
00:53
that cave diving is perhaps
one of the most dangerous endeavors.
Bayangkan diri Anda dalam ruangan ini,
00:58
I mean, imagine yourself
here in this room,
jika Anda tiba-tiba dicemplungkan
ke dalam kegelapan,
01:01
if you were suddenly
plunged into blackness,
dan tugas Anda hanyalah untuk
mencari jalan keluar,
01:04
with your only job to find the exit,
kadang berenang dalam ruang besar,
01:06
sometimes swimming
through these large spaces,
kadang merayap di sela-sela kursi,
01:09
and at other times
crawling beneath the seats,
mengikuti petunjuk minimal,
01:12
following a thin guideline,
menunggu bantuan untuk
mengambil napas.
01:15
just waiting for the life support
to provide your very next breath.
Itulah tempat kerja saya.
01:19
Well, that's my workplace.
Yang ingin saya ajarkan hari ini
01:22
But what I want to teach you today
adalah bahwa dunia kita
bukanlah satu batu padat besar.
01:24
is that our world
is not one big solid rock.
Bumi lebih seperti spons.
01:29
It's a whole lot more like a sponge.
Saya bisa berenang melalui pori-pori
pada spons bumi,
01:31
I can swim through a lot of the pores
in our earth's sponge,
tapi ada bagian yang tidak bisa saya akses
01:35
but where I can't,
01:37
other life-forms and other materials
can make that journey without me.
dimana makhluk hidup dan material lain
bisa melaluinya tanpa saya.
Dan suara saya akan mengajarkan Anda
01:42
And my voice is the one
that's going to teach you
tentang isi planet bumi.
01:45
about the inside of Mother Earth.
Tidak ada buku petunjuk yang tersedia
01:50
There was no guidebook available to me
saat saya memutuskan untuk menjadi
orang pertama
01:53
when I decided to be the first person
to cave dive inside Antarctic icebergs.
yang menyelami gua di dalam
gunung es Antartika.
Pada tahun 2000, ini adalah benda bergerak
paling besar di bumi.
01:59
In 2000, this was the largest
moving object on the planet.
Ia pecah menjadi Lempeng Es Ross,
02:04
It calved off the Ross Ice Shelf,
kami ke sana untuk
menjelajahi ekologi tepi es
02:06
and we went down there
to explore ice edge ecology
dan mencari makhluk hidup di bawah es.
02:09
and search for life-forms beneath the ice.
Kami menggunakan teknologi
yang disebut rebreathers.
02:12
We use a technology called rebreathers.
Alat ini seperti teknologi yang digunakan
di penjelajahan luar angkasa.
02:15
It's an awful lot like the same technology
that is used for space walks.
Memungkinkan kami menyelam lebih dalam
02:19
This technology enables us to go deeper
daripada yang bisa dibayangkan
bahkan 10 tahun yang lalu.
02:22
than we could've imagined
even 10 years ago.
Kami menggunakan gas eksotik
02:25
We use exotic gases,
dan misi kami bisa bertahan
selama 20 jam di bawah air.
02:27
and we can make missions
even up to 20 hours long underwater.
Saya bekerja dengan ahli biologi.
02:33
I work with biologists.
Ternyata gua adalah tempat makhluk hidup
yang menakjubkan,
02:35
It turns out that caves
are repositories of amazing life-forms,
yaitu spesies yang tidak pernah
kami tahu ada sebelumnya.
02:39
species that we never knew existed before.
Banyak makhluk hidup ini hidup
dengan cara yang aneh.
02:43
Many of these life-forms
live in unusual ways.
Mereka kebanyakan tidak
memiliki pigmen dan mata
02:47
They have no pigment
and no eyes in many cases,
dan juga bisa hidup sangat lama.
02:51
and these animals
are also extremely long-lived.
Bahkan, hewan yang berenang
di gua sekarang
02:55
In fact, animals swimming
in these caves today
sama seperti bukti fosil
02:59
are identical in the fossil record
yang hidup jauh sebelum
punahnya dinosaurus.
03:01
that predates the extinction
of the dinosaurs.
Bayangkan, hewan ini seperti
dinosaurus perenang kecil.
03:04
So imagine that: these are
like little swimming dinosaurs.
Apa yang mereka ajarkan tentang evolusi
dan kelangsungan hidup?
03:08
What can they teach us
about evolution and survival?
Ketika kita melihat hewan seperti
remipede yang berenang di toples ini,
03:13
When we look at an animal
like this remipede swimming in the jar,
ia punya taring besar yang beracun.
03:17
he has giant fangs with venom.
Ia bisa menyerang makhluk yang
40 kali lebih besar dan membunuhnya.
03:20
He can actually attack something
40 times his size and kill it.
Jika ia sebesar kucing,
03:24
If he were the size of a cat,
ia bisa menjadi makhluk paling
berbahaya di bumi.
03:26
he'd be the most dangerous
thing on our planet.
Hewan-hewan ini hidup
di tempat yang sangat indah,
03:29
And these animals live
in remarkably beautiful places,
dalam beberapa kasus,
gua yang sangat muda umurnya seperti ini,
03:33
and in some cases,
caves like this, that are very young,
namun hewannya sudah sangat tua.
03:37
yet the animals are ancient.
Bagaimana mereka ada di gua itu?
03:39
How did they get there?
Saya juga bekerja dengan ahli fisika
03:41
I also work with physicists,
dan mereka selalu tertarik dengan
perubahan iklim dunia.
03:44
and they're interested oftentimes
in global climate change.
Mereka mengambil batu dari gua,
03:47
They can take rocks within the caves,
lalu mengiris dan melihat
lapisan di dalamnya,
03:50
and they can slice them
and look at the layers within with rocks,
seperti cincin pohon,
03:53
much like the rings of a tree,
mereka bisa menelusuri sejarah batu itu
03:55
and they can count back in history
dan mempelajari iklim di planet kita
pada waktu lampau.
03:57
and learn about the climate on our planet
at very different times.
Batu merah yang Anda lihat di foto ini
04:00
The red that you see in this photograph
sebenarnya adalah debu dari Gurun Sahara.
04:03
is actually dust from the Sahara Desert.
Debu itu terbawa angin, diterbangkan
ke Samudera Atlantik,
04:06
So it's been picked up by wind,
blown across the Atlantic Ocean.
lalu jatuh di pulau Abaco
di Kepulauan Bahama.
04:10
It's rained down in this case
on the island of Abaco in the Bahamas.
Debu itu merembes masuk ke dalam tanah
04:15
It soaks in through the ground
04:16
and deposits itself
in the rocks within these caves.
dan mengendap menjadi batu di gua-gua ini.
Ketika kita melihat lapisan batu ini,
kita bisa tahu zaman
04:20
And when we look back in the layers
of these rocks, we can find times
di saat iklim sangat kering di bumi,
04:24
when the climate
was very, very dry on earth,
dan kita bisa menelusuri
ratusan ribu tahun yang lalu.
04:27
and we can go back
many hundreds of thousands of years.
Ahli paleoklimatologi juga tertarik
04:32
Paleoclimatologists are also interested
pada ketinggian laut
di waktu lampau di bumi.
04:34
in where the sea level stands were
at other times on earth.
Di Bermuda sini, saya dan tim
04:38
Here in Bermuda, my team and I embarked
melakukan penyelaman terdalam
di daerah itu
04:40
on the deepest manned dives
ever conducted in the region,
dan kami mencari tempat
04:43
and we were looking for places
dimana dahulu permukaan laut
bersinggungan dengan pantai,
04:45
where the sea level
used to lap up against the shoreline,
beberapa ratus kaki di bawah
ketinggian laut sekarang.
04:48
many hundreds of feet
below current levels.
Saya juga bekerja dengan
ahli paleontologi dan arkeologi.
04:52
I also get to work with paleontologists
and archaeologists.
Di tempat seperti Mexico, Bahama,
dan bahkan Kuba,
04:56
In places like Mexico,
in the Bahamas, and even in Cuba,
kami melihat peninggalan budaya
dan tulang belulang manusia di gua
05:00
we're looking at cultural remains
and also human remains in caves,
dan semua itu menunjukkan
05:05
and they tell us a lot
tentang penduduk pertama di daerah ini.
05:06
about some of the earliest
inhabitants of these regions.
Proyek terfavorit saya
adalah lebih 15 tahun yang lalu
05:10
But my very favorite project of all
was over 15 years ago,
ketika saya jadi bagian tim
yang pertama kali membuat
05:14
when I was a part of the team
that made the very first
peta akurat 3 dimensi
dari permukaan bawah tanah.
05:16
accurate, three-dimensional map
of a subterranean surface.
Alat yang saya jalankan di dalam gua ini
05:20
This device that I'm
driving through the cave
menciptakan model 3D ketika dioperasikan.
05:22
was actually creating
a three-dimensional model as we drove it.
Kami juga memakai radio
frekuensi ultra rendah
05:27
We also used ultra low frequency radio
05:29
to broadcast back to the surface
our exact position within the cave.
untuk memantulkan balik ke permukaan
posisi kami di dalam gua.
Saya berenang di bawah rumah, perkantoran,
tempat bowling dan lapangan golf,
05:34
So I swam under houses and businesses
and bowling alleys and golf courses,
bahkan di bawah Restoran Sonny's BBQ.
05:39
and even under a Sonny's BBQ Restaurant,
Luar biasa, ini mengajarkan saya
05:43
Pretty remarkable, and what that taught me
bahwa semua yang kita lakukan
di permukaan bumi
05:45
was that everything we do
on the surface of our earth
akan kembali pada kita untuk diminum.
05:48
will be returned to us to drink.
Air di planet kita bukan hanya sungai,
danau, dan laut
05:50
Our water planet is not just
rivers, lakes and oceans,
tapi juga jaringan air bawah tanah besar
yang menyatukan kita.
05:55
but it's this vast network of groundwater
that knits us all together.
Ia adalah sumber air minum kita bersama.
06:00
It's a shared resource
from which we all drink.
Dengan memahami hubungan antara
manusia dengan air bawah tanah
06:04
And when we can understand
our human connections with our groundwater
dan semua sumber daya air di bumi,
06:08
and all of our water resources
on this planet,
06:11
then we'll be working on the problem
kita akan bisa memecahkan masalah
yang mungkin merupakan isu
paling penting di abad ini.
06:12
that's probably the most important
issue of this century.
Saya tidak bisa menjadi astronot
seperti yang saya impikan,
06:17
So I never got to be that astronaut
that I always wanted to be,
namun alat pemetaan yang dirancang
oleh Dr. Bill Stone ini, bisa.
06:20
but this mapping device,
designed by Dr. Bill Stone, will be.
Alat ini telah dirubah.
06:24
It's actually morphed.
Sekarang telah menjadi
robot berenang otomatis,
06:25
It's now a self-swimming autonomous robot,
kecerdasan buatan.
06:28
artificially intelligent,
Tujuan akhirnya adalah
menuju bulan dari Jupiter, Europa
06:30
and its ultimate goal
is to go to Jupiter's moon Europa
dan menjelajahi lautan
di bawah permukaan beku di sana.
06:34
and explore oceans beneath
the frozen surface of that body.
Sungguh menakjubkan.
06:39
And that's pretty amazing.
(Tepuk tangan)
06:42
(Applause)
Translated by Dewi Barnas
Reviewed by Mardiyanto Saahi

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About the speaker:

Jill Heinerth - Cave diver
Jill Heinerth explores underwater caves deep inside the earth.

Why you should listen

More people have walked on the moon than have been to some of the places that Jill's exploration has taken her right here on the earth. From the most dangerous technical dives deep inside underwater caves, to searching for never-before-seen ecosystems inside giant Antarctic icebergs, to the lawless desert border area between Egypt and Libya while a civil war raged around her, Jill's curiosity and passion about our watery planet is the driving force in her life.

Jill’s accolades include induction into the Explorer's Club and the inaugural class of the Women Diver's Hall of Fame. She received the Wyland ICON Award, an honor she shares with several of her underwater heroes including Jacques Cousteau, Robert Ballard and Dr. Sylvia Earle. She was named a "Living Legend" by Sport Diver Magazine and selected as Scuba Diving Magazine's "Sea Hero of the Year 2012."

In recognition of her lifetime achievement, Jill was awarded the inaugural Sir Christopher Ondaatje Medal for Exploration. Established by the Royal Canadian Geographical Society in 2013, the medal recognizes singular achievements and the pursuit of excellence by an outstanding Canadian explorer.

More profile about the speaker
Jill Heinerth | Speaker | TED.com