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TEDYouth 2015

Jill Heinerth: The mysterious world of underwater caves

吉尔.韩纳斯: 神秘的水下洞穴世界

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洞穴潜水员吉尔.韩纳斯探索了隐藏的、和我们地球相依相存的地下水源。她和生物学家,气象学家和考古学家一起工作,揭开了栖息在地球上一些最偏远地方的生命形式的奥秘,并帮助研究人员揭秘了气候变化的历史。这个短短的谈话中,让我们一起随波潜水,探索的地内的奇观。

- Cave diver
Jill Heinerth explores underwater caves deep inside the earth. Full bio

I'm an underwater水下 explorer探险者,
我是一名水下勘探者。
00:13
more specifically特别 a cave洞穴 diver潜水员.
更确切的说是一名水下洞穴潜水员。
00:17
I wanted to be an astronaut宇航员
when I was a little kid孩子,
我小时候的梦想是成为一个宇航员,
00:21
but growing生长 up in Canada加拿大 as a young年轻 girl女孩,
that wasn't really available可得到 to me.
但是作为一个生长在加拿大的小女孩,
这个梦想是不大可能实现的。
00:23
But as it turns out,
we know a lot more about space空间
但目前的情况是,
我们对于宇宙的了解
00:29
than we do about the underground地下 waterways水路
coursing窃喜 through通过 our planet行星,
远远超过了
我们对于地球上地下水的了解,
00:33
the very lifeblood命脉 of Mother母亲 Earth地球.
而这些水域和我们的星球相依相伴,
是地球母亲的命脉。
00:37
So I decided决定 to do something
that was even more remarkable卓越.
所以我决定做一些更有意义的事情。
00:41
Instead代替 of exploring探索 outer space空间,
相比探索太空,
00:45
I wanted to explore探索
the wonders奇迹 of inner space空间.
我更想要探索我们星球内部的奇迹。
00:47
Now, a lot of people will tell you
现在,许多人会告诉你
00:51
that cave洞穴 diving潜水 is perhaps也许
one of the most dangerous危险 endeavors努力.
水下洞穴潜水可能是最危险的尝试之一。
00:53
I mean, imagine想像 yourself你自己
here in this room房间,
想象一下你独自一人在这个空间,
00:58
if you were suddenly突然
plunged暴跌 into blackness,
如果一下子让你陷入黑暗,
01:01
with your only job工作 to find the exit出口,
你唯一要做的事情就是寻找出口,
01:04
sometimes有时 swimming游泳的
through通过 these large spaces空间,
有时要在这些巨大的空间里穿梭,
01:06
and at other times
crawling爬行 beneath下面 the seats,
而有时却要在座位底下匍匐,
01:09
following以下 a thin guideline指南,
跟随着一条细细的指引线,
01:12
just waiting等候 for the life support支持
to provide提供 your very next下一个 breath呼吸.
等待着氧气瓶给你提供下一次呼吸。
01:15
Well, that's my workplace职场.
这就是我的工作环境。
01:19
But what I want to teach you today今天
但是今天我想告诉你们的是,
01:22
is that our world世界
is not one big solid固体 rock.
我们的世界不是一块巨大的实心岩。
01:24
It's a whole整个 lot more like a sponge海绵.
它更像是一块海绵。
01:29
I can swim游泳 through通过 a lot of the pores毛孔
in our earth's地球 sponge海绵,
我可以在地球海绵的许多细孔中穿梭,
01:31
but where I can't,
但是在我触及不到的地方,
01:35
other life-forms生命形式 and other materials物料
can make that journey旅程 without me.
其他生物形态和物质
可以在没有我的情况下完成这次旅行。
01:37
And my voice语音 is the one
that's going to teach you
我的声音将会告诉你们
01:42
about the inside of Mother母亲 Earth地球.
关于我们地球母亲内部世界的情况。
01:45
There was no guidebook指南 available可得到 to me
当我决定成为第一个南极冰川的
01:50
when I decided决定 to be the first person
to cave洞穴 dive潜水 inside Antarctic南极洲 icebergs冰山.
洞穴潜水员的时候,
并没有什么参考资料可用。
01:53
In 2000, this was the largest最大
moving移动 object目的 on the planet行星.
在2000年,这是
这个星球上最大的移动物体。
01:59
It calved产犊 off the Ross罗斯 Ice Shelf,
它是由罗斯冰架崩裂而成,
02:04
and we went down there
to explore探索 ice edge边缘 ecology生态
我们为了探索冰缘生态而下潜,
02:06
and search搜索 for life-forms生命形式 beneath下面 the ice.
并且在冰川底下寻找生命体。
02:09
We use a technology技术 called rebreathers水下呼吸器.
我们使用了一种叫做呼吸换气器的技术。
02:12
It's an awful可怕 lot like the same相同 technology技术
that is used for space空间 walks散步.
这种科技与太空行走使用的
供氧技术十分相似。
02:15
This technology技术 enables使 us to go deeper更深
这种技术使我们可以走的更远更深,
02:19
than we could've可能已经 imagined想象
even 10 years年份 ago.
在十年前还是不可想象的。
02:22
We use exotic异国情调 gases气体,
我们运用特殊气体,
02:25
and we can make missions任务
even up to 20 hours小时 long underwater水下.
可以使我们在水下作业时间
高达20小时。
02:27
I work with biologists生物学家.
我和生物学家们一起工作。
02:33
It turns out that caves洞穴
are repositories资料库 of amazing惊人 life-forms生命形式,
我们发现洞穴里储藏着神奇的生命体,
02:35
species种类 that we never knew知道 existed存在 before.
我们从来不知道它们的存在。
02:39
Many许多 of these life-forms生命形式
live生活 in unusual异常 ways方法.
许多生物用奇特的方式生存着。
02:43
They have no pigment颜料
and no eyes眼睛 in many许多 cases,
它们中的许多没有颜色,也没有眼睛,
02:47
and these animals动物
are also extremely非常 long-lived长寿命.
而且这些动物的寿命极长。
02:51
In fact事实, animals动物 swimming游泳的
in these caves洞穴 today今天
实际上,现在在
这些洞穴里游来游去的动物
02:55
are identical相同 in the fossil化石 record记录
都能在化石标本中找到,
02:59
that predates the extinction灭绝
of the dinosaurs恐龙.
它们甚至出现在恐龙灭绝之前。
03:01
So imagine想像 that: these are
like little swimming游泳的 dinosaurs恐龙.
所以请你们想象一下:
它们就像是会游泳的恐龙。
03:04
What can they teach us
about evolution演化 and survival生存?
它们可以教会我们
关于进化和生存论的什么呢?
03:08
When we look at an animal动物
like this remipederemipede swimming游泳的 in the jar,
当我们看见这种在罐子里游动的桨足虫,
03:13
he has giant巨人 fangs獠牙 with venom毒液.
他有着巨大的毒牙。
03:17
He can actually其实 attack攻击 something
40 times his size尺寸 and kill it.
他可以攻击比他大40倍的动物并致其死亡。
03:20
If he were the size尺寸 of a cat,
如果他和一只猫一样大,
03:24
he'd他会 be the most dangerous危险
thing on our planet行星.
就会是这个星球上最危险的东西了。
03:26
And these animals动物 live生活
in remarkably异常 beautiful美丽 places地方,
再看看居住在这些
鬼斧神工的地方的生物,
03:29
and in some cases,
caves洞穴 like this, that are very young年轻,
类似这样的洞穴都是新形成的,
03:33
yet然而 the animals动物 are ancient.
但是在里面的动物都是十分古老的。
03:37
How did they get there?
它们是怎么到达那里的?
03:39
I also work with physicists物理学家,
我也和一些物理学家一起工作,
03:41
and they're interested有兴趣 oftentimes通常情况下
in global全球 climate气候 change更改.
他们通常对于全球气候变化
十分感兴趣。
03:44
They can take rocks岩石 within the caves洞穴,
他们可以采集洞穴里的石头,
03:47
and they can slice them
and look at the layers within with rocks岩石,
把石头切割开,逐层研究,
03:50
much like the rings戒指 of a tree,
就像在读树的年轮,
03:53
and they can count计数 back in history历史
他们能够知道石头的历史
03:55
and learn学习 about the climate气候 on our planet行星
at very different不同 times.
和地球气候变化的不同时期。
03:57
The red that you see in this photograph照片
在这张照片里红色的部分
04:00
is actually其实 dust灰尘 from the Sahara撒哈拉 Desert沙漠.
其实是撒哈拉大沙漠的沙。
04:03
So it's been picked采摘的 up by wind,
blown across横过 the Atlantic大西洋 Ocean海洋.
它随风飘荡,横跨大西洋。
04:06
It's rained下雨 down in this case案件
on the island of Abaco阿巴科 in the Bahamas巴哈马.
伴随着蒙蒙细雨落在了
巴哈马的阿巴科岛。
04:10
It soaks浸泡 in through通过 the ground地面
它渗透进土地,
04:15
and deposits存款 itself本身
in the rocks岩石 within these caves洞穴.
把自己封存在这些洞穴的岩石中。
04:16
And when we look back in the layers
of these rocks岩石, we can find times
当我们回头观察这些石层,
我们会发现
04:20
when the climate气候
was very, very dry on earth地球,
地球气候极其干燥的时期,
04:24
and we can go back
many许多 hundreds数以百计 of thousands数千 of years年份.
可以追溯到几十万年前。
04:27
Paleoclimatologists古气候学家 are also interested有兴趣
远古气象学家
04:32
in where the sea level水平 stands站立 were
at other times on earth地球.
对地球不同时期的海平面十分感兴趣。
04:34
Here in Bermuda百慕大, my team球队 and I embarked开始
在百慕大,我和我的团队着手于
04:38
on the deepest最深 manned载人 dives潜水
ever conducted进行 in the region地区,
那些达到潜水艇下潜极限的区域,
04:40
and we were looking for places地方
我们在寻找那些
04:43
where the sea level水平
used to lap膝部 up against反对 the shoreline海岸线,
以前比现在低几百英尺的
04:45
many许多 hundreds数以百计 of feet
below下面 current当前 levels水平.
与海岸线齐平的海平面。
04:48
I also get to work with paleontologists古生物学家
and archaeologists考古学家.
我也与古生物学家和考古学家一起工作。
04:52
In places地方 like Mexico墨西哥,
in the Bahamas巴哈马, and even in Cuba古巴,
在像墨西哥,巴哈马,以及古巴这样的地方,
04:56
we're looking at cultural文化 remains遗迹
and also human人的 remains遗迹 in caves洞穴,
我们在寻找洞穴中遗留的
文化和人类生存的痕迹,
05:00
and they tell us a lot
它们告诉了我们很多
05:05
about some of the earliest最早
inhabitants居民 of these regions地区.
关于居住在这些区域的
最早期居民的情况。
05:06
But my very favorite喜爱 project项目 of all
was over 15 years年份 ago,
但是我最喜欢的一个项目是在
十五年前,
05:10
when I was a part部分 of the team球队
that made制作 the very first
我作为团队的一个成员
05:14
accurate准确, three-dimensional三维 map地图
of a subterranean地下 surface表面.
绘制了第一张准确的3D下表层地图。
05:16
This device设备 that I'm
driving主动 through通过 the cave洞穴
我用于水下洞穴勘探的这个设备
05:20
was actually其实 creating创建
a three-dimensional三维 model模型 as we drove开车 it.
能够在我们勘探的过程中建立3D模型。
05:22
We also used ultra low frequency频率 radio无线电
我们也用超低频声波
05:27
to broadcast广播 back to the surface表面
our exact精确 position位置 within the cave洞穴.
向地面发出信号,通过
反馈得到我们地下的具体位置。
05:29
So I swam under houses房屋 and businesses企业
and bowling保龄球 alleys小巷 and golf高尔夫球 courses培训班,
我在民居,公司,
保龄球道和高尔夫球场,
05:34
and even under a Sonny's索尼的 BBQBBQ Restaurant餐厅,
甚至Sonny烤肉店底下穿梭。
05:39
Pretty漂亮 remarkable卓越, and what that taught me
挺不可思议的吧!这让我知道,
05:43
was that everything we do
on the surface表面 of our earth地球
所有我们在地球表面做的事,
05:45
will be returned to us to drink.
都会影响我们的生活用水。
05:48
Our water planet行星 is not just
rivers河流, lakes湖泊 and oceans海洋,
我们的水资源不仅仅只有川河湖海,
05:50
but it's this vast广大 network网络 of groundwater地下水
that knits针织物 us all together一起.
地下水资源也将我们联系起来。
05:55
It's a shared共享 resource资源
from which哪一个 we all drink.
这是我们共享的饮用水源。
06:00
And when we can understand理解
our human人的 connections连接 with our groundwater地下水
如果我们能够了解人类与地下水,
06:04
and all of our water resources资源
on this planet行星,
以及这个星球上其他水资源的联系,
06:08
then we'll be working加工 on the problem问题
我们就会一起解决这个
06:11
that's probably大概 the most important重要
issue问题 of this century世纪.
可能是这个世纪最重要的问题。
06:12
So I never got to be that astronaut宇航员
that I always wanted to be,
我终究没有成为我想做的宇航员,
06:17
but this mapping制图 device设备,
designed设计 by Dr博士. Bill法案 Stone, will be.
但是这个由比利.斯通博士
设计的绘图机器能够做到。
06:20
It's actually其实 morphed演变.
它是改良过的。
06:24
It's now a self-swimming自游泳 autonomous自主性 robot机器人,
现在是自动巡航的宇航机器人,
06:25
artificially人为 intelligent智能,
拥有人工智能,
06:28
and its ultimate最终 goal目标
is to go to Jupiter's木星 moon月亮 Europa欧罗巴
它的终极目标是到达木星的卫星欧罗帕,
06:30
and explore探索 oceans海洋 beneath下面
the frozen冻结的 surface表面 of that body身体.
探索在冰冻地面下的海洋。
06:34
And that's pretty漂亮 amazing惊人.
这真的很神奇。
06:39
(Applause掌声)
(鼓掌)
06:42
Translated by Yinchun Rui
Reviewed by Yuanqing Edberg

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About the speaker:

Jill Heinerth - Cave diver
Jill Heinerth explores underwater caves deep inside the earth.

Why you should listen

More people have walked on the moon than have been to some of the places that Jill's exploration has taken her right here on the earth. From the most dangerous technical dives deep inside underwater caves, to searching for never-before-seen ecosystems inside giant Antarctic icebergs, to the lawless desert border area between Egypt and Libya while a civil war raged around her, Jill's curiosity and passion about our watery planet is the driving force in her life.

Jill’s accolades include induction into the Explorer's Club and the inaugural class of the Women Diver's Hall of Fame. She received the Wyland ICON Award, an honor she shares with several of her underwater heroes including Jacques Cousteau, Robert Ballard and Dr. Sylvia Earle. She was named a "Living Legend" by Sport Diver Magazine and selected as Scuba Diving Magazine's "Sea Hero of the Year 2012."

In recognition of her lifetime achievement, Jill was awarded the inaugural Sir Christopher Ondaatje Medal for Exploration. Established by the Royal Canadian Geographical Society in 2013, the medal recognizes singular achievements and the pursuit of excellence by an outstanding Canadian explorer.

More profile about the speaker
Jill Heinerth | Speaker | TED.com