ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Lucianne Walkowicz - Stellar astronomer
Lucianne Walkowicz works on NASA's Kepler mission, studying starspots and "the tempestuous tantrums of stellar flares."

Why you should listen

Lucianne Walkowicz is an Astronomer at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago. She studies stellar magnetic activity and how stars influence a planet's suitability as a host for alien life. She is also an artist and works in a variety of media, from oil paint to sound. She got her taste for astronomy as an undergrad at Johns Hopkins, testing detectors for the Hubble Space Telescope’s new camera (installed in 2002). She also learned to love the dark stellar denizens of our galaxy, the red dwarfs, which became the topic of her PhD dissertation at University of Washington. Nowadays, she works on NASA’s Kepler mission, studying starspots and the tempestuous tantrums of stellar flares to understand stellar magnetic fields. She is particularly interested in how the high energy radiation from stars influences the habitability of planets around alien suns. Lucianne is also a leader in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, a new project that will scan the sky every night for 10 years to create a huge cosmic movie of our Universe.

More profile about the speaker
Lucianne Walkowicz | Speaker | TED.com
TED2015

Lucianne Walkowicz: Let's not use Mars as a backup planet

露西安娜·沃克薇姿: 我们不要把火星当作备胎

Filmed:
2,197,212 views

作为一名恒星天文学家和TED高级研究员,露西安娜·沃克薇姿任职于美国国家航空航天局的开普勒任务,寻找宇宙中适合生命生存的环境。所以当她让我们仔细考虑火星问题时我们应该认真关注。在这个简短的演讲中,她建议我们要断绝破坏完地球最后还可以去火星的念想,而要想一想如何把星球探索和保护地球这两件事视为同一个目标。正如她所说:“你越想找到和地球相像的行星,你就会越珍惜我们现在的家园。”
- Stellar astronomer
Lucianne Walkowicz works on NASA's Kepler mission, studying starspots and "the tempestuous tantrums of stellar flares." Full bio

Double-click the English transcript below to play the video.

00:12
We're at a tipping小费 point in human人的 history历史,
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我们身处人类历史的转折点上,
00:15
a species种类 poised准备 between之间 gaining取得 the stars明星
and losing失去 the planet行星 we call home.
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人类处在想获得其他星球,
同时也在失去地球家园的尴尬境地。
00:21
Even in just the past过去 few少数 years年份,
we've我们已经 greatly非常 expanded扩大
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即使是在过去短短几年的时间里,
我们对地球
00:24
our knowledge知识 of how Earth地球 fits适合
within the context上下文 of our universe宇宙.
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是如何在宇宙中存在的认识
已经有了大幅度的提升。
00:28
NASA's美国航空航天局 Kepler开普勒 mission任务 has discovered发现
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美国国家航空航天局的
开普勒任务已经发现了
00:31
thousands数千 of potential潜在 planets行星
around other stars明星,
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围绕着其他恒星的数千颗
潜在的行星,
00:34
indicating说明 that Earth地球 is but one
of billions数十亿 of planets行星 in our galaxy星系.
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这也表明了地球只是银河系中
数十亿行星中的一颗。
00:38
Kepler开普勒 is a space空间 telescope望远镜
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开普勒是个太空望远镜,
00:40
that measures措施 the subtle微妙 dimming调光 of stars明星
as planets行星 pass通过 in front面前 of them,
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它可以发现行星在经过恒星前方
发生“凌日现象”,
00:44
blocking闭塞 just a little bit
of that light from reaching到达 us.
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挡住到达我们这里的光时,
光线发生的细微变化。
00:47
Kepler's开普勒 data数据 reveals揭示 planets'行星 sizes大小
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开普勒望远镜的数据
揭示了行星的大小,
00:50
as well as their distance距离
from their parent star.
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以及它们与其母恒星之间的距离。
00:53
Together一起, this helps帮助 us understand理解
whether是否 these planets行星 are small and rocky岩石,
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把这些综合起来就可以帮助我们理解
这些行星是否像太阳系中
00:57
like the terrestrial陆生 planets行星
in our own拥有 Solar太阳能 System系统,
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那些类地行星一样,
体积小,而且岩石密布,
00:59
and also how much light they receive接收
from their parent sun太阳.
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以及我们从它们的母恒星那里
得到了多少光。
01:03
In turn, this provides提供 clues线索 as to whether是否
these planets行星 that we discover发现
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同时,这也能为我们判断
已找到的那些行星是否适宜居住
01:06
might威力 be habitable可居住 or not.
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提供了一些线索。
01:09
Unfortunately不幸, at the same相同 time
as we're discovering发现 this treasure宝藏 trove宝库
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但不幸的是,在我们极力去探索
潜在的宜居星球,
01:13
of potentially可能 habitable可居住 worlds世界,
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这些“无主宝藏”的同时,
01:15
our own拥有 planet行星 is sagging下垂
under the weight重量 of humanity人性.
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我们自己的星球却正遭受着
人类的破坏。
01:19
2014 was the hottest最热 year on record记录.
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2014年是有记录以来最热的一年。
01:23
Glaciers冰川 and sea ice that have
been with us for millennia千年
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冰川和海上的浮冰
跟我们一起相处了几千年,
01:26
are now disappearing消失
in a matter of decades几十年.
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但在过去几十年的时间里却
正在逐渐消失。
01:29
These planetary-scale行星尺度 environmental环境的
changes变化 that we have set in motion运动
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这些我们所造成的
全球性环境变化的速度,
01:35
are rapidly急速 outpacing超越 our ability能力
to alter改变 their course课程.
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远远超过了我们拯救环境的速度。
01:39
But I'm not a climate气候 scientist科学家,
I'm an astronomer天文学家.
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但我不是气候学家,
我是个天文学家。
01:43
I study研究 planetary行星 habitability可居住
as influenced影响 by stars明星
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我研究在恒星影响下
行星的宜居性,
01:46
with the hopes希望 of finding发现
the places地方 in the universe宇宙
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希望可以在宇宙中找到
01:48
where we might威力 discover发现
life beyond our own拥有 planet行星.
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除地球以外,有生命存在的地方。
01:51
You could say that I look for
choice选择 alien外侨 real真实 estate房地产.
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也可以说我是在寻找外星的房地产。
01:55
Now, as somebody who is deeply embedded嵌入式
in the search搜索 for life in the universe宇宙,
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现在,作为一个刻苦钻研,想要
找寻宇宙中的生命体的人,
02:00
I can tell you that the more
you look for planets行星 like Earth地球,
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我可以告诉大家,你越想找到
像地球一样的行星,
02:03
the more you appreciate欣赏
our own拥有 planet行星 itself本身.
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你就会越珍惜我们自己的星球。
02:07
Each one of these new worlds世界
invites邀请 a comparison对照
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我们每发现一处“新大陆”,
就会对这些新发现的星球
02:09
between之间 the newly discovered发现 planet行星
and the planets行星 we know best最好:
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和那些太阳系中我们最熟悉的行星
02:13
those of our own拥有 Solar太阳能 System系统.
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做一个比较。
02:15
Consider考虑 our neighbor邻居, Mars火星.
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想想我们的邻居,火星。
02:17
Mars火星 is small and rocky岩石,
and though虽然 it's a bit far from the Sun太阳,
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火星很小,表面布满岩石,
虽然它离太阳有点远,
02:21
it might威力 be considered考虑
a potentially可能 habitable可居住 world世界
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但如果从类似
开普勒任务的角度来看,
02:23
if found发现 by a mission任务 like Kepler开普勒.
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可能会认为它是个宜居的世界。
02:25
Indeed确实, it's possible可能 that Mars火星
was habitable可居住 in the past过去,
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事实上,火星在过去
的确有可能是适宜居住的,
02:29
and in part部分, this is why
we study研究 Mars火星 so much.
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这也是我们为什么对火星
投入这么多研究精力的一部分原因。
02:32
Our rovers流浪者, like Curiosity好奇心,
crawl爬行 across横过 its surface表面,
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我们的那些火星车,比如好奇者号,
爬过火星的表面,
02:36
scratching搔抓 for clues线索 as to the origins起源
of life as we know it.
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寻找我们所知的生命起源的迹象。
02:39
Orbiters人造卫星 like the MAVENMAVEN mission任务
sample样品 the Martian火星 atmosphere大气层,
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进行“火星大气与挥发物演化任务”(MAVEN)
的人造卫星采集了火星的大气样本,
02:42
trying to understand理解 how Mars火星
might威力 have lost丢失 its past过去 habitability可居住.
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试着了解火星是如何
失去曾经的可居住性的。
02:46
Private私人的 spaceflight航天 companies公司 now offer提供
not just a short trip to near space空间
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私人太空旅行公司现在不仅仅
提供近太空的短程旅行,
02:51
but the tantalizing诱人 possibility可能性
of living活的 our lives生活 on Mars火星.
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还提供了可以在火星上
居住的诱人的可能性。
02:54
But though虽然 these Martian火星 vistas景观
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尽管火星上的这些远景看起来
02:56
resemble类似 the deserts沙漠
of our own拥有 home world世界,
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很像我们地球上的沙漠,
02:59
places地方 that are tied in our imagination想像力
to ideas思路 about pioneering创举 and frontiers前沿,
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那些一提到就会联想起
拓荒者、边境等等的地方,
03:04
compared相比 to Earth地球
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但与地球相比,
03:06
Mars火星 is a pretty漂亮 terrible可怕 place地点 to live生活.
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火星上的环境对于生命体来说
简直太恶劣了。
03:09
Consider考虑 the extent程度 to which哪一个
we have not colonized拓殖
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想想那些我们还没有征服的
03:13
the deserts沙漠 of our own拥有 planet行星,
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地球上的沙漠,
03:15
places地方 that are lush青葱的
by comparison对照 with Mars火星.
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相较于火星来说,
沙漠可都算是“枝繁叶茂”了,
03:17
Even in the driest干旱,
highest最高 places地方 on Earth地球,
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即使在地球上最干燥
海拔最高的地方,
03:20
the air空气 is sweet and thick with oxygen
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我们仍然能呼吸到数千英里外
03:23
exhaled呼出 from thousands数千 of miles英里 away
by our rainforests热带雨林.
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那些热带雨林生产出的新鲜的、
富含氧气的空气。
03:27
I worry担心 -- I worry担心 that this excitement激动
about colonizing殖民 Mars火星 and other planets行星
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我担心——我担心殖民于
火星和其他行星的激动之情
03:33
carries携带 with it a long, dark黑暗 shadow阴影:
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会带来深远的负面影响:
03:36
the implication意义 and belief信仰 by some
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源于一些人的心理暗示和信仰——
03:38
that Mars火星 will be there to save保存 us
from the self-inflicted自作自受 destruction毁坏
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认为火星将会是我们自己把
唯一真正宜居的行星,地球
03:42
of the only truly habitable可居住 planet行星
we know of, the Earth地球.
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毁灭之后的“诺亚方舟”。
03:46
As much as I love
interplanetary星际 exploration勘探,
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这么说吧,我有多爱星际探索,
03:48
I deeply disagree不同意 with this idea理念.
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我就有多反对这种想法。
03:50
There are many许多 excellent优秀 reasons原因
to go to Mars火星,
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去火星有很多天花乱坠的理由,
03:53
but for anyone任何人 to tell you that Mars火星
will be there to back up humanity人性
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但如果有人跟你说火星
是个人类生存地的备胎的话,
03:57
is like the captain队长 of the Titanic泰坦尼克号
telling告诉 you that the real真实 party派对
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那就像泰坦尼克号的船长
告诉你,“一会儿真正的派对
04:00
is happening事件 later后来 on the lifeboats救生艇.
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将在救生船上展开”一样的胡扯。
04:02
(Laughter笑声)
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(笑声)
04:05
(Applause掌声)
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(掌声)
04:08
Thank you.
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谢谢。
04:11
But the goals目标 of interplanetary星际
exploration勘探 and planetary行星 preservation保存
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然而,事实上星际探索和
保护星球这两个目标
04:14
are not opposed反对 to one another另一个.
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并不互相矛盾。
04:17
No, they're in fact事实 two sides双方
of the same相同 goal目标:
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实际上,它们是同一个
目标的两个方面:
04:19
to understand理解, preserve保留
and improve提高 life into the future未来.
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那就是了解、保护和改善生命,
使生命延续。
04:23
The extreme极端 environments环境
of our own拥有 world世界 are alien外侨 vistas景观.
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我们星球上的极端环境就是
外星的景象。
04:28
They're just closer接近 to home.
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只是它们离我们比较近而已。
04:29
If we can understand理解 how to create创建
and maintain保持 habitable可居住 spaces空间
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如果我们能知道如何在地球上
十分恶劣,不宜居住的环境中
04:34
out of hostile敌对, inhospitable荒凉
spaces空间 here on Earth地球,
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创造并维持可居住的空间,
04:37
perhaps也许 we can meet遇到 the needs需求
of both preserving our own拥有 environment环境
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也许我们就能满足既保护我们的环境,
又“走出去”的
04:40
and moving移动 beyond it.
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双重需求了。
04:43
I leave离开 you with a final最后
thought experiment实验:
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最后我想给大家出一个思考题:
04:45
Fermi's费米 paradox悖论.
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“费米悖论”。
04:47
Many许多 years年份 ago, the physicist物理学家 Enrico恩里科 Fermi费米
asked that, given特定 the fact事实
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许多年前,物理学家恩里科·费米
提出了一个问题:那就是,
04:52
that our universe宇宙 has been around
for a very long time
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我们的宇宙存在了
很长很长的时间是个事实,
04:54
and we expect期望 that there
are many许多 planets行星 within it,
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我们也知道宇宙中有无数的行星,
04:57
we should have found发现 evidence证据
for alien外侨 life by now.
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那我们现在应该已经找到
外星生命存在的迹象了。
05:00
So where are they?
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可是它们在哪呢?
05:02
Well, one possible可能 solution
to Fermi's费米 paradox悖论
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“费米悖论”的一种可能的解释是这样的:
05:06
is that, as civilizations文明 become成为
technologically技术 advanced高级 enough足够
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随着文明的进步,科技变得足够先进,
05:09
to consider考虑 living活的 amongst其中包括 the stars明星,
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能够开始考虑如何在宇宙中生存时,
05:11
they lose失去 sight视力 of how important重要 it is
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人们也就会忽视
05:14
to safeguard保障 the home worlds世界 that fostered培育
that advancement进步 to begin开始 with.
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保护自己的家园,这个孕育了高科技的
地方的重要性。
05:18
It is hubris傲慢 to believe
that interplanetary星际 colonization定植 alone单独
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简单地迷信殖民于其他星球就可以
拯救我们自己
05:23
will save保存 us from ourselves我们自己,
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恐怕是自不量力,
05:25
but planetary行星 preservation保存
and interplanetary星际 exploration勘探
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其实环境保护和星际探索
这两项工作
05:28
can work together一起.
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是可以结合着进行的。
05:30
If we truly believe in our ability能力
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如果我们对为了人类居住
05:32
to bend弯曲 the hostile敌对 environments环境 of Mars火星
for human人的 habitation住所,
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而改变火星恶劣环境的
能力足够自信的话,
05:36
then we should be able能够 to surmount超越
the far easier更轻松 task任务 of preserving
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那我们更应该可以完成保护
地球宜居性
05:39
the habitability可居住 of the Earth地球.
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这个超级简单的任务。
谢谢。
05:41
Thank you.
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(掌声)
05:42
(Applause掌声)
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Translated by Huazhe Xie
Reviewed by Zhiting Chen

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ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Lucianne Walkowicz - Stellar astronomer
Lucianne Walkowicz works on NASA's Kepler mission, studying starspots and "the tempestuous tantrums of stellar flares."

Why you should listen

Lucianne Walkowicz is an Astronomer at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago. She studies stellar magnetic activity and how stars influence a planet's suitability as a host for alien life. She is also an artist and works in a variety of media, from oil paint to sound. She got her taste for astronomy as an undergrad at Johns Hopkins, testing detectors for the Hubble Space Telescope’s new camera (installed in 2002). She also learned to love the dark stellar denizens of our galaxy, the red dwarfs, which became the topic of her PhD dissertation at University of Washington. Nowadays, she works on NASA’s Kepler mission, studying starspots and the tempestuous tantrums of stellar flares to understand stellar magnetic fields. She is particularly interested in how the high energy radiation from stars influences the habitability of planets around alien suns. Lucianne is also a leader in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, a new project that will scan the sky every night for 10 years to create a huge cosmic movie of our Universe.

More profile about the speaker
Lucianne Walkowicz | Speaker | TED.com