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TEDMED 2014

Rosie King: How autism freed me to be myself

Rosie King: Ako môžem vďaka autizmu byť sama sebou

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„Ľudia sa tak boja rôznorodosti, že sa snažia všetko zaradiť do malých škatuliek s konkrétnym označením,“ tvrdí 16-ročná Rosie King, ktorá je odvážna, výstredná a autistka. „Prečo sa každý tak snaží byť normálny? “ pýta sa a v energickej výpovedi o potenciáli ľudskej rozmanitosti vyzýva každé dieťa, rodiča, učiteľa a vôbec všetkých ľudí oslavovať jedinečnosť.

- Storytelling activist
Rosie King challenges stereotypes of people with autism and contextualizes the issue by asking us, “Why be normal?” Full bio

Pred mnohými to nepriznávam,
00:12
I haven't told many people this,
ale v mysli
00:14
but in my head, I've got
mi naraz fungujú tisícky
00:16
thousands of secret worlds all going on
rôznych tajných svetov.
00:18
all at the same time.
Navyše som autistka.
00:21
I am also autistic.
Ľudia často diagnostikujú autizmus
00:23
People tend to diagnose autism
na základe konkrétneho popisu „symptómov“,
00:25
with really specific
check-box descriptions,
ale v skutočnosti je každý z nás
veľmi rozdielny.
00:28
but in reality, it's a whole
variation as to what we're like.
Napríklad môj mladší brat
00:31
For instance, my little brother,
ma ťažkú formu autizmu.
00:33
he's very severely autistic.
Vôbec nerozpráva,
00:35
He's nonverbal. He can't talk at all.
00:37
But I love to talk.
zato ja rozprávam veľmi rada.
Ľudia si často spájajú autizmus
00:40
People often associate autism
s láskou k matematike a vede
a k ničomu inému,
00:43
with liking maths and
science and nothing else,
ale poznám mnoho ľudí,
00:46
but I know so many autistic people
ktorí sú autisti a zároveň sú kreatívni.
00:47
who love being creative.
Ide však o stereotyp
00:50
But that is a stereotype,
a ako to už býva,
00:52
and the stereotypes of things
tie často, ak nie vždy, nie sú pravdivé.
00:54
are often, if not always, wrong.
Keď sa spomenie autizmus,
00:57
For instance, a lot of people
veľa ľudí si hneď pomyslí
na film Rain Man.
01:00
think autism and think
"Rain Man" immediately.
Mnohí veria tomu,
01:04
That's the common belief,
že každý autista je Dustin Hoffman,
01:06
that every single autistic
person is Dustin Hoffman,
ale nie je to tak.
01:09
and that's not true.
(smiech)
Ale to neplatí len pre ľudí s autizmom.
01:12
But that's not just with
autistic people, either.
S rovnakým problémom sa stretávajú
aj ľudia z komunity LGBTQ,
01:15
I've seen it with LGBTQ people,
01:17
with women, with POC people.
ženy, ľudia s rôznou farbou pleti.
Ľudia sa tak boja rôznorodosti,
01:19
People are so afraid of variety
že sa snažia všetko zaradiť
do malých škatuliek
01:22
that they try to fit everything
into a tiny little box
s konkrétnym označením.
01:25
with really specific labels.
Raz sa mi v realite
01:27
This is something that actually
stalo toto:
01:29
happened to me in real life:
googlila som „autisti sú...“
01:31
I googled "autistic people are ..."
a potom sa zobrazili návrhy,
01:34
and it comes up with suggestions
ktoré vyhľadávač vygeneruje, ako píšete.
01:36
as to what you're going to type.
Googlila som teda „autisti sú...“
01:38
I googled "autistic people are ..."
a prvá ponuka bola „démoni“.
01:40
and the top result was "demons."
To je prvá vec, ktorá ľuďom napadne,
01:43
That is the first thing that people think
keď premýšľajú o autizme.
01:45
when they think autism.
Prišli na to.
01:47
They know.
(smiech)
01:49
(Laughter)
Vďaka autizmu
01:56
One of the things I can do
because I'm autistic —
– a toto je skôr výhoda ako hendikep –
01:59
it's an ability rather than a disability —
mám veľmi živú predstavivosť.
02:01
is I've got a very, very vivid imagination.
Skúsim vám to priblížiť.
02:05
Let me explain it to you a bit.
Je to akoby som súčasne žila
v dvoch svetoch.
02:06
It's like I'm walking in two
worlds most of the time.
Prvý je reálny – v ktorom žijete aj vy –
02:09
There's the real world,
the world that we all share,
a druhý je v mojej mysli
02:11
and there's the world in my mind,
a ten je často omnoho reálnejší
02:13
and the world in my mind
is often so much more real
ako skutočný svet.
02:16
than the real world.
Je pre mňa oveľa jednoduchšie
popustiť uzdu mojej mysle,
02:19
Like, it's very easy for
me to let my mind loose
lebo sa nesnažím zapadnúť
do jednej z tých malých škatuliek.
02:22
because I don't try and fit
myself into a tiny little box.
To je jedna z najväčších výhod autizmu.
02:25
That's one of the best
things about being autistic.
Necítite potrebu škatuľkovať sa.
02:27
You don't have the urge to do that.
Zistíte, čo chcete robiť,
02:29
You find what you want to do,
nájdete spôsob, ako to urobiť,
a dáte sa do toho.
02:32
you find a way to do it,
and you get on with it.
Keby som sa snažila zaškatuľkovať,
02:35
If I was trying to fit myself into a box,
nebola by som tu
a nedosiahla by som ani polovicu vecí,
02:37
I wouldn't be here, I
wouldn't have achieved
02:39
half the things that I have now.
ktoré som dosiahla.
Nájde sa však aj veľa problémov.
02:41
There are problems, though.
Mnoho problémov sa spája s autizmom
02:43
There are problems with being autistic,
a ďalšie aj
s príliš živou predstavivosťou.
02:45
and there are problems with
having too much imagination.
Škola je problematická už sama osebe,
02:48
School can be a problem in general,
ale keď musíte každý deň vysvetľovať
02:50
but having also to explain to a teacher
svojim učiteľom,
02:54
on a daily basis
že ich hodiny sú nesmierne nudné,
02:56
that their lesson is inexplicably dull
a tak sa tajne skrývate
03:00
and you are secretly taking refuge
vo svete vo vašej mysli,
v ktorom na tejto hodine nie ste,
03:02
in a world inside your head in
which you are not in that lesson,
to je ďalší problém navyše.
03:06
that adds to your list of problems.
(smiech)
03:10
(Laughter)
Navyše, keď ma opantá predstavivosť,
03:12
Also, when my imagination takes hold,
moje telo si začne robiť, čo chce.
03:16
my body takes on a life of its own.
Keď sa v mojom vnútornom svete
deje čosi vzrušujúce,
03:18
When something very exciting
happens in my inner world,
musím utekať.
03:21
I've just got to run.
Musím sa kolísať dopredu a dozadu,
03:22
I've got to rock backwards and forwards,
niekedy aj kričať.
03:24
or sometimes scream.
Dobíja ma to toľkou energiou,
03:26
This gives me so much energy,
že ju musím nejako vypustiť.
03:28
and I've got to have an
outlet for all that energy.
Robím to tak už od detstva,
03:31
But I've done that ever
since I was a child,
odkedy som bola malá.
03:33
ever since I was a tiny little girl.
A rodičia si mysleli, že je to milé,
takže to neriešili,
03:35
And my parents thought it was
cute, so they didn't bring it up,
ale keď som začala chodiť do školy,
03:38
but when I got into school,
ľudia nesúhlasili s tým, že je to milé.
03:39
they didn't really agree that it was cute.
A veľa ľudí sa nechce kamarátiť
03:42
It can be that people
don't want to be friends
s dievčaťom, ktoré na hodine
matiky len tak začne kričať.
03:44
with the girl that starts
screaming in an algebra lesson.
V súčasnosti sa to často nedeje,
03:47
And this doesn't normally
happen in this day and age,
ale môže byť, že ľudia sa nechcú kamarátiť
s dievčaťom, ktoré má autizmus.
03:51
but it can be that people don't want
to be friends with the autistic girl.
Možno nechcú, aby ich spájali
03:55
It can be that people
don't want to associate
s niekým, kto sa nechce alebo nemôže
03:58
with anyone who won't
or can't fit themselves
zmestiť do škatuľky
s označením „normálna“.
04:01
into a box that's labeled normal.
Ale mne to nevadí,
04:04
But that's fine with me,
lebo sa tým oddelí kúkoľ od pšenice
04:06
because it sorts the wheat from the chaff,
a pomôže mi to nájsť ľudí,
ktorí sa nepretvarujú,
04:08
and I can find which people
are genuine and true
a tých si môžem vybrať za priateľov.
04:11
and I can pick these people as my friends.
Ale keď sa nad tým zamyslíte –
čo je normálne?
04:13
But if you think about it, what is normal?
Čo to znamená?
04:17
What does it mean?
Predstavte si, že by to bol
najlepší kompliment, aký ste dostali.
04:19
Imagine if that was the best
compliment you ever received.
04:21
"Wow, you are really normal."
„Vau, si fakt normálna!“
(smiech)
04:24
(Laughter)
Komplimenty však sú
04:25
But compliments are,
„si neobyčajná“
04:29
"you are extraordinary"
alebo „si iná ako ostatní“.
04:30
or "you step outside the box."
„Si úžasná.“
04:32
It's "you're amazing."
Takže ak práve toto chceme dosiahnuť,
04:33
So if people want to be these things,
prečo sa toľkí z nás snažia
byť normálnymi?
04:35
why are so many people
striving to be normal?
Prečo ľudia lejú svoje úžasné
individuálne svetlo do formy?
04:38
Why are people pouring their
brilliant individual light into a mold?
Ľudia sa tak boja rôznorodosti,
že sa snažia donútiť každého,
04:43
People are so afraid of variety
that they try and force everyone,
aj tých, ktorí nechcú alebo nemôžu,
aby bol normálny.
04:48
even people who don't want
to or can't, to become normal.
Existujú tábory pre ľudí z komunity LGBTQ
04:51
There are camps for LGBTQ people
a ľudí s autizmom, na ktorých sa ich
snažia zmeniť na „normálnych“
04:54
or autistic people to try and
make them this "normal,"
a je desivé, že v dnešnej dobe
sa ľudia o čosi také snažia.
04:58
and that's terrifying that people
would do that in this day and age.
Ja by som svoj autizmus a predstavivosť
nemenila za nič na svete.
05:02
All in all, I wouldn't trade my autism
and my imagination for the world.
Vďaka autizmu
05:07
Because I am autistic,
som uvádzala dokumenty na BBC,
05:09
I've presented documentaries to the BBC,
píšem knihu,
05:12
I'm in the midst of writing a book,
stojím tu pred vami – a je to úžasné –
05:14
I'm doing this — this is fantastic —
a jeden z najväčších mojich úspechov,
05:16
and one of the best
things that I've achieved,
aspoň ja to považujem za úspech,
05:19
that I consider to have achieved,
je, že som našla spôsob, ako komunikovať
05:22
is I've found ways of communicating
s mladším bratom a sestrou.
05:24
with my little brother and sister,
Ani jeden z nich totiž nerozpráva.
05:26
who as I've said are nonverbal.
They can't speak.
Takýchto ľudí často odsudzujú,
05:29
And people would often write
off someone who's nonverbal,
ale je to hlúpe, lebo môj brat a sestra
05:32
but that's silly, because
my little brother and sister
sú najlepšími súrodencami,
akých by som si mohla priať.
05:35
are the best siblings that
you could ever hope for.
Sú fantastickí a veľmi ich ľúbim
05:37
They're just the best,
and I love them so much
a záleží mi na nich viac než na čomkoľvek.
05:40
and I care about them
more than anything else.
Skončím jednou otázkou:
05:43
I'm going to leave you with one question:
Ak sa nevieme niekomu dostať do hlavy,
05:46
If we can't get inside the person's minds,
či už je autista, alebo nie,
05:49
no matter if they're autistic or not,
čo keby sme namiesto trestania všetkého,
čo prekračuje rámec normálnosti,
05:51
instead of punishing anything
that strays from normal,
05:54
why not celebrate uniqueness
oslavovali jedinečnosť
05:56
and cheer every time someone
unleashes their imagination?
a tešili sa vždy, keď niekto
popustí uzdu svojej fantázii?
Ďakujem.
06:00
Thank you.
(potlesk)
06:02
(Applause)
Translated by Ivana Kopisova
Reviewed by Martina Salyova

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About the speaker:

Rosie King - Storytelling activist
Rosie King challenges stereotypes of people with autism and contextualizes the issue by asking us, “Why be normal?”

Why you should listen
When she was nine years old, doctors confirmed Rosie King’s self-diagnosis of Asperger’s Syndrome. With two younger siblings severely affected by autism, Rosie had a burning desire to help make the world a more tolerant place for people with autism ever since she was a young girl. She found the opportunity to do so when her family was invited to do a local news segment on her mother’s children’s books, which featured Rosie’s illustrations. Her lack of inhibition made her a natural presenter, and she was asked to host BBC Newsround’s special program “My Autism and Me,” bringing her a much wider audience and an Emmy Kid’s Award. Rosie continues to raise awareness about autism, and is working towards her goal of becoming a professional actress and storyteller.
More profile about the speaker
Rosie King | Speaker | TED.com